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2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162007

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) enables whole-brain imaging to rapidly obtain T1 and T2* relaxation time maps. Reconstructing parametric maps from the MRF scanned baselines by the inner-product method is computationally expensive. We aimed to accelerate the reconstruction of parametric maps for MRF-EPI by using a deep learning model. The proposed approach uses a two-stage model that first eliminates noise and then regresses the parametric maps. Parametric maps obtained by dictionary matching were used as a reference and compared with the prediction results of the two-stage model. MRF-EPI scans were collected from 32 subjects. The signal-to-noise ratio increased significantly after the noise removal by the denoising model. For prediction with scans in the testing dataset, the mean absolute percentage errors between the standard and the final two-stage model were 3.1%, 3.2%, and 1.9% for T1, and 2.6%, 2.3%, and 2.8% for T2* in gray matter, white matter, and lesion locations, respectively. Our proposed two-stage deep learning model can effectively remove noise and accurately reconstruct MRF-EPI parametric maps, increasing the speed of reconstruction and reducing the storage space required by dictionaries.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Aceleração , Atenção , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Imagens de Fantasmas
3.
Mater Horiz ; 8(8): 2286-2292, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846432

RESUMO

The thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters based on donor-acceptor (D-A) configuration were continuously developed in the past few years, whereas an unsymmetrical TADF emitter with A-D-A' configuration has never been reported. Herein, an A-D-A' type TADF emitter of TRZ-SBA-NAI was firstly developed by simultaneously integrating 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine acceptors into a spirobiacridine donor core. Due to the coexistence of double charge-transfer excited states, TRZ-SBA-NAI displayed dual emission containing a dominant orange-red emission and an anti-Kasha's rule sky-blue emission shoulder in solution. As doped into the host matrix, TRZ-SBA-NAI only exhibited an orange-red emission, together with a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 87%. The linear molecular shape imparted TRZ-SBA-NAI with a high horizontal dipole ratio of 88%. As a result, the TRZ-SBA-NAI based devices achieved a record-high external quantum efficiency of 31.7% with an electroluminescence peak at 593 nm. This finding not only enriches the diversity in TADF molecular design, but also unlocks the huge potential of A-D-A' type TADF emitters for excellent device performance.

4.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 547-555, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821270

RESUMO

By integrating high molecular rigidity and stable chirality, two pairs of D*-A type circularly polarized thermally activated delayed fluorescence (CP-TADF) emitters with an almost absolute quasi-equatorial conformer geometry and excellent photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQYs) are developed, achieving state-of-the-art electroluminescence performance among blue and orange circularly polarized organic light-emitting diodes (CP-OLEDs).

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(11): 13478-13486, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689279

RESUMO

How to develop efficient red-emitting organometallics of earth-abundant copper(I) is a formidable challenge in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) because Cu(I) complexes have weak spin-orbit coupling and a serious excited-state reorganization effect. Here, a red Cu(I) complex, MAC*-Cu-DPAC, was developed using a rigid 9,9-diphenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine donor ligand in a carbene-metal-amide motif. The Cu(I) complex achieved satisfactory red emission, a high photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 70%, and a sub-microsecond lifetime. Thanks to a linear geometry and the acceptor and donor ligands in a coplanar conformation, the complex exhibited a high horizontal dipole ratio of 77% in the host matrix, first demonstrated for coinage metal(I) complexes. The resulting OLEDs delivered high external quantum efficiencies of 21.1% at a maximum and 20.1% at 1000 nits, together with a red emission peak at ∼630 nm. These values represent the state-of-the-art performance for red-emitting OLEDs based on coinage metal complexes.

6.
Opt Express ; 29(5): 7654-7665, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726262

RESUMO

Sunlight/UV (ultraviolet)-induced degradation is still a critical issue for outdoor applications of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. Therefore, effective UV-blocking structures that can prevent OLED displays from sunlight/UV degradation and still keep the OLED panels' display performance is necessary. In this report, modified distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structures having UV-absorbing dielectric materials and adjusted layer/pair thicknesses were developed to realize effective UV blocking properties (nearly 0% transmittance below 400 nm), constantly high transmittance like glass in the visible range (∼92%) required for display applications, and sharp transition in transmission between the UV and the visible ranges. Furthermore, under the rigorous IEC 60068-2-5 solar test condition, it was verified that the developed modified, UV-blocking DBR can effectively enhance the OLED panel's resistance against UV/solar-induced degradation, effectively reducing voltage shifts of OLED devices after repeated solar test cycles.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3106, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542422

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied with considerable success in the fields of radiology, pathology, and neurosurgery. It is expected that AI will soon be used to optimize strategies for the clinical management of patients based on intensive imaging follow-up. Our objective in this study was to establish an algorithm by which to automate the volumetric measurement of vestibular schwannoma (VS) using a series of parametric MR images following radiosurgery. Based on a sample of 861 consecutive patients who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) between 1993 and 2008, the proposed end-to-end deep-learning scheme with automated pre-processing pipeline was applied to a series of 1290 MR examinations (T1W+C, and T2W parametric MR images). All of which were performed under consistent imaging acquisition protocols. The relative volume difference (RVD) between AI-based volumetric measurements and clinical measurements performed by expert radiologists were + 1.74%, - 0.31%, - 0.44%, - 0.19%, - 0.01%, and + 0.26% at each follow-up time point, regardless of the state of the tumor (progressed, pseudo-progressed, or regressed). This study outlines an approach to the evaluation of treatment responses via novel volumetric measurement algorithm, and can be used longitudinally following GKRS for VS. The proposed deep learning AI scheme is applicable to longitudinal follow-up assessments following a variety of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Nervo Vestibulococlear/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma Acústico/patologia , Radiometria , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Nervo Vestibulococlear/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Vestibulococlear/patologia
8.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(1): 471-486, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an accelerated postprocessing pipeline for reproducible and efficient assessment of white matter lesions using quantitative magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and deep learning. METHODS: MRF using echo-planar imaging (EPI) scans with varying repetition and echo times were acquired for whole brain quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ in 50 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy volunteers along 2 centers. MRF T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps were distortion corrected and denoised. A CNN was trained to reconstruct the T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps, and the WM and GM probability maps. RESULTS: Deep learning-based postprocessing reduced reconstruction and image processing times from hours to a few seconds while maintaining high accuracy, reliability, and precision. Mean absolute error performed the best for T 1 (deviations 5.6%) and the logarithmic hyperbolic cosinus loss the best for T 2 ∗ (deviations 6.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MRF is a fast and robust tool for quantitative T 1 and T 2 ∗ mapping. Its long reconstruction and several postprocessing steps can be facilitated and accelerated using deep learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 123-130, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a safe and effective treatment modality with a long-term tumor control rate over 90% for vestibular schwannoma (VS). However, numerous tumors may undergo a transient pseudoprogression during 6-18 months after GKRS followed by a long-term volume reduction. The aim of this study is to determine whether the radiomics analysis based on preradiosurgical MRI data could predict the pseudoprogression and long-term outcome of VS after GKRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal dataset of patients with VS treated by single GKRS were retrospectively collected. Overall 336 patients with no previous craniotomy for tumor removal and a median of 65-month follow-up period after radiosurgery were finally included in this study. In total 1763 radiomic features were extracted from the multiparameteric MRI data before GKRS followed by the machine-learning classification. RESULTS: We constructed a two-level machine-learning model to predict the long-term outcome and the occurrence of transient pseudoprogression after GKRS separately. The prediction of long-term outcome achieved an accuracy of 88.4% based on five radiomic features describing the variation of T2-weighted intensity and inhomogeneity of contrast enhancement in tumor. The prediction of transient pseudoprogression achieved an accuracy of 85.0% based on another five radiomic features associated with the inhomogeneous hypointensity pattern of contrast enhancement and the variation of T2-weighted intensity. CONCLUSION: The proposed machine-learning model based on the preradiosurgical MR radiomics provides a potential to predict the pseudoprogression and long-term outcome of VS after GKRS, which can benefit the treatment strategy in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Radiocirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma Acústico/radioterapia , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Sci Adv ; 6(41)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036963

RESUMO

Manipulating orientation of organic emitters remains a formidable challenge in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, expansion of the acceptor plane of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters was demonstrated to selectively modulate emitting dipole orientation. Two proof-of-the-concept molecules, PXZPyPM and PXZTAZPM, were prepared by introducing a planar 2-phenylpyridine or 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine substituent into a prototypical molecule (PXZPM) bearing a pyrimidine core and two phenoxazine donors. This design approach suppressed the influence of substituents on electronic structures and associated optoelectronic properties. Accordingly, PXZPyPM and PXZTAZPM preserved almost the same excited states and similar emission characteristics as PXZPM. The expanded acceptor plane of PXZPyPM and PXZTAZPM resulted in a 15 to 18% increase in horizontal ratios of emitting dipole orientation. PXZPyPM supported its green device exhibiting an external quantum efficiency of 33.9% and a power efficiency of 118.9 lumen per watt, competitive with the most efficient green TADF OLEDs reported so far.

11.
Artif Intell Med ; 107: 101911, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828450

RESUMO

Manual delineation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is required for diagnosis, radiosurgery dose planning, and follow-up tumor volume measurement. A rapid and objective automatic segmentation method is required, but problems have been encountered due to the low through-plane resolution of standard VS MR scan protocols and because some patients have non-homogeneous cystic areas within their tumors. In this study, we retrospectively collected multi-parametric MR images from 516 patients with VS; these were extracted from the Gamma Knife radiosurgery planning system and consisted of T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), and T1W with contrast (T1W + C) images. We developed an end-to-end deep-learning-based method via an automatic preprocessing pipeline. A two-pathway U-Net model involving two sizes of convolution kernel (i.e., 3 × 3 × 1 and 1 × 1 × 3) was used to extract the in-plane and through-plane features of the anisotropic MR images. A single-pathway model that adopted the same architecture as the two-pathway model, but used a kernel size of 3 × 3 × 3, was also developed for comparison purposes. In addition, we used multi-parametric MR images with different image contrasts as the model training input in order to effectively segment tumors with solid as well as cystic parts. The results of the automatic segmentation demonstrated that (1) the two-pathway model outperformed single-pathway model in terms of dice scores (0.90 ± 0.05 versus 0.87 ± 0.07); both of them having been trained using the T1W, T1W + C and T2W anisotropic MR images, (2) the optimal single-parametric two-pathway model (dice score: 0.88 ± 0.06) was then trained using the T1W + C images, and (3) the two-pathway models trained using bi-parametric (T1W + C and T2W) and tri-parametric (T1W, T2W, and T1W + C) images outperformed the model trained using the single-parametric (T1W + C) images (dice scores: 0.89 ± 0.05 and 0.90 ± 0.05, respectively, larger than 0.88 ± 0.06) because it showed improved segmentation of the non-homogeneous parts of the tumors. The proposed two-pathway U-Net model outperformed the single-pathway U-Net model when segmenting VS using anisotropic MR images. The multi-parametric models effectively improved on the defective segmentation obtained using the single-parametric models by separating the non-homogeneous tumors into their solid and cystic parts.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(10): 1800467, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356985

RESUMO

Despite stringent power consumption requirements in many applications, over years organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays still suffer unsatisfactory energy efficiency due to poor light extraction. Approaches have been reported for OLED light out-coupling, but they in general are not applicable for OLED displays due to difficulties in display image quality and fabrication complexity and compatibility. Thus to date, an effective and feasible light extraction technique that can boost efficiencies and yet keep image quality is still lacking and remains a great challenge. Here, a highly effective and scalable extraction-enhancing OLED display pixel structure is proposed based on embedding the OLED inside a three-dimensional reflective concave structure covered with a patterned high-index filler. It can couple as much internal emission as possible into the filler region and then redirect otherwise confined light for out-coupling. Comprehensive multi-scale optical simulation validates that ultimately high light extraction efficiency approaching ≈80% and excellent viewing characteristics are simultaneously achievable with optimized structures using highly transparent top electrodes. This scheme is scalable and wavelength insensitive, and generally applicable to all red, green, and blue pixels in high-resolution full-color displays. Results of this work are believed to shed light on the development of future generations of advanced OLED displays.

13.
Adv Mater ; 30(5)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218854

RESUMO

The combination of rigid acridine donor and 1,8-naphthalimide acceptor has afforded two orange-red emitters of NAI-DMAC and NAI-DPAC with high rigidity in molecular structure and strongly pretwisted charge transfer state. Endowed with high photoluminescence quantum yields (ΦPL ), distinct thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) characteristics, and preferentially horizontal emitting dipole orientations, these emitters afford record-high orange-red TADF organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with external quantum efficiencies of up to 21-29.2%, significantly surpassing all previously reported orange-to-red TADF OLEDs. Notably, the influence of microcavity effect is verified to support the record-high efficiency. This finding relaxes the usually stringent material requirements for effective TADF emitters by comprising smaller radiative transition rates and less than ideal ΦPL s.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(49): 33888-33898, 2016 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960361

RESUMO

We report the utilization of both pyrid-2-yl-imidazolylidene and dianionic bipz chelates as constituents in syntheses of a new series of charge-neutral Pt(II) complexes 1-4, among which complex 4 revealed remarkable triboluminescence, i.e., generation of photoemission upon grinding or cracking of the solid sample. The triboluminescence is found to be sensitive to the subtle changes of the associated substituents of pyrid-2-yl-imidazolylidene chelate, as verified by the disappearance of the triboluminescence for complexes 1-3. Alternatively, the well-ordered solid packing of 3, as indicated by the grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiment, serves as an ideal emitter for the fabrication of highly efficient OLEDs, rendering high external quantum efficienciy (25.9%) and luminesce efficiency (90 cd A-1) at the practical brightness of 100 cd m-2. The rather low roll-off in efficiency (24.4%, 85 cd A-1 at high brightness of 1000 cd m-2) is attributed to the short excited-state lifetime of 3 (∼800 ns) in the solid state, which in turn is associated with the MMLCT transition character.

15.
Opt Express ; 24(10): A810-22, 2016 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409954

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: We report the characterization and analyses of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using microstructured composite transparent electrodes consisting of the high-index ITO (indium tin oxide) micromesh and the low-index conducting polymer PEDOT: PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)], that are fabricated by the facile and convenient microsphere lithography and are useful for enhancing light extraction. The rigorous electromagnetic simulation based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was conducted to study optical properties and mechanisms in such devices. It provides a different but consistent viewpoint/insight of how this microstructured electrode enhances optical out-coupling of OLEDs, compared to that provided by ray optics simulation in previous works. Both experimental and simulation studies indicate such a microstructured electrode effectively enhances coupling of internal radiation into the substrate, compared to devices with the typical planar ITO electrode. By combining this internal extraction structure and the external extraction scheme (e.g. by attaching extraction lens) to further extract radiation into the substrate, a rather high external quantum efficiency of 46.8% was achieved with green phosphorescent OLEDs, clearly manifesting its high potential.

16.
Adv Mater ; 28(32): 6976-83, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271917

RESUMO

Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%).

17.
Adv Mater ; 28(14): 2795-800, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26894982

RESUMO

A new class of neutral bis-tridentate Ir(III) metal complexes that show nearly unitary red, green, and blue emissions in solution is prepared and employed for the fabrication of both monochrome and white-emitting organic light-emitting diodes, among which a green device gives external quantum efficiency exceeding 31%.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(71): 13662-5, 2015 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26226072

RESUMO

A thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter (DMAC-TRZ) was reported either as the emitting dopant in a host or as the non-doped (neat) emitting layer to achieve high EL EQEs of up to 26.5% and 20% in OLEDs, respectively.

19.
Adv Mater ; 27(33): 4883-8, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173732

RESUMO

A nanostructured composite electrode consisting of a high-index indium-tin-oxide nanomesh and low-index high-conductivity conducting polymer effectively enhances coupling of internal radiation of organic light-emitting devices into their substrates. When combining this internal extraction structure and the external extraction scheme, a very high external quantum efficiency of nearly 62% is achieved with a green phosphorescent device.

20.
Adv Mater ; 27(5): 929-34, 2015 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25504674

RESUMO

By carefully tuning the thicknesses of low-optical index PEDOT:PSS and high-index ITO layers in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), very high optical coupling efficiencies can be obtained through the generation of appropriate microcavity effects. These experiments result in an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 33.7% for green phosphorescent OLEDs and even higher EQEs of 54.3% can be obtained by adopting an external out-coupling lens.

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