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1.
Mol Cell ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473946

RESUMO

Mammalian cells use diverse pathways to prevent deleterious consequences during DNA replication, yet the mechanism by which cells survey individual replisomes to detect spontaneous replication impediments at the basal level, and their accumulation during replication stress, remain undefined. Here, we used single-molecule localization microscopy coupled with high-order-correlation image-mining algorithms to quantify the composition of individual replisomes in single cells during unperturbed replication and under replicative stress. We identified a basal-level activity of ATR that monitors and regulates the amounts of RPA at forks during normal replication. Replication-stress amplifies the basal activity through the increased volume of ATR-RPA interaction and diffusion-driven enrichment of ATR at forks. This localized crowding of ATR enhances its collision probability, stimulating the activation of its replication-stress response. Finally, we provide a computational model describing how the basal activity of ATR is amplified to produce its canonical replication stress response.

3.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211043683, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558341

RESUMO

Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) caused by a high-riding dehiscence jugular bulb (HDJB) is a rare but treatable otology disease. There are several managements include transcatheter endovascular coil embolization, transvenous stent-assisted coil embolization, or resurfacing the dehiscent bony wall of high jugular bulb under the use of microscope. Among those options, surgical resurfacing of HDJB might be an effective and safe choice with less destruction. However, previous studies approached middle ear cavity via microscope can only provide a lateral, indirect view, while resurfacing the vessel through a transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) approach may give surgeon a direct and easy way to manage HDJB. In this report, we presented a case of 40-year-old woman with HDJB and shared our clinical consideration and reasoning of the surgical management of PT via a transtympanic approach by TEES rather than a transmastoid approach.

5.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3128-3144.e7, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216544

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) is synthetic lethal with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). Lethality is thought to derive from DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) necessitating BRCA function in homologous recombination (HR) and/or fork protection (FP). Here, we report instead that toxicity derives from replication gaps. BRCA1- or FANCJ-deficient cells, with common repair defects but distinct PARPi responses, reveal gaps as a distinguishing factor. We further uncouple HR, FP, and fork speed from PARPi response. Instead, gaps characterize BRCA-deficient cells, are diminished upon resistance, restored upon resensitization, and, when exposed, augment PARPi toxicity. Unchallenged BRCA1-deficient cells have elevated poly(ADP-ribose) and chromatin-associated PARP1, but aberrantly low XRCC1 consistent with defects in backup Okazaki fragment processing (OFP). 53BP1 loss resuscitates OFP by restoring XRCC1-LIG3 that suppresses the sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient cells to drugs targeting OFP or generating gaps. We highlight gaps as a determinant of PARPi toxicity changing the paradigm for synthetic lethal interactions.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , RNA Helicases/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteína de Replicação A/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
6.
J Int Adv Otol ; 17(4): 376-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309562

RESUMO

To study congenitally deaf children with inner ear malformations that usually have comorbid anomalous facial nerves and middle ear deformities. To determine the feasibility of endoscopy-assisted transmeatal cochlear implantation with the purpose of reducing the risks of iatrogenic facial nerve injury. This report presents a unique technique in a pediatric case with multiple ear anomalies: microtia, cochlear hypoplasia with an aberrant facial nerve, a sigmoid sinus deformity leading to a narrow mastoid cavity, and a flat promontory wall without round window. A cochlear implant electrode array was successfully inserted endoscopically using the transmeatal approach in the present case. It caused no postoperative surgical complications, and the patient was then able to hear binaurally and functionally. For patients with comorbid multiple ear deformities, using endoscopy for cochlear implantation transmeatally is an alternative method providing a better visualization of the middle ear anatomy, an avoidance of injury of facial nerve, and an assurance of precise insertion of the electrode when the posterior tympanotomy approach is not applicable.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Criança , Cóclea , Endoscopia , Humanos , Janela da Cóclea/cirurgia
7.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 95, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex that couples the presence of growth factors and nutrients in the environment with cellular proliferation. TORC1 is primarily implicated in linking amino acid levels with cellular growth in yeast and mammals. Although glucose deprivation has been shown to cause TORC1 inactivation in yeast, the precise role of TORC1 in glucose signaling and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the presence of glucose in the growth medium is both necessary and sufficient for TORC1 activation. TORC1 activity increases upon addition of glucose to yeast cells growing in a non-fermentable carbon source. Conversely, shifting yeast cells from glucose to a non-fermentable carbon source reduces TORC1 activity. Analysis of transcriptomic data revealed that glucose and TORC1 co-regulate about 27% (1668/6004) of yeast genes. We demonstrate that TORC1 orchestrates the expression of glucose-responsive genes mainly via the Tap42-Sit4-Rrd1/2 pathway. To confirm TORC1's function in glucose signaling, we tested its role in spore germination, a glucose-dependent developmental state transition in yeast. TORC1 regulates the glucose-responsive genes during spore germination and inhibition of TORC1 blocks spore germination. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies indicate that a regulatory loop that involves activation of TORC1 by glucose and regulation of glucose-responsive genes by TORC1, mediates nutritional control of growth and development in yeast.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2525, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953191

RESUMO

Guanine-rich DNA sequences occur throughout the human genome and can transiently form G-quadruplex (G4) structures that may obstruct DNA replication, leading to genomic instability. Here, we apply multi-color single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) coupled with robust data-mining algorithms to quantitatively visualize replication fork (RF)-coupled formation and spatial-association of endogenous G4s. Using this data, we investigate the effects of G4s on replisome dynamics and organization. We show that a small fraction of active replication forks spontaneously form G4s at newly unwound DNA immediately behind the MCM helicase and before nascent DNA synthesis. These G4s locally perturb replisome dynamics and organization by reducing DNA synthesis and limiting the binding of the single-strand DNA-binding protein RPA. We find that the resolution of RF-coupled G4s is mediated by an interplay between RPA and the FANCJ helicase. FANCJ deficiency leads to G4 accumulation, DNA damage at G4-associated replication forks, and silencing of the RPA-mediated replication stress response. Our study provides first-hand evidence of the intrinsic, RF-coupled formation of G4 structures, offering unique mechanistic insights into the interference and regulation of stable G4s at replication forks and their effect on RPA-associated fork signaling and genomic instability.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , DNA/química , Quadruplex G , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Animais , Biofísica , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Células Sf9
9.
Cancer Med ; 10(12): 4075-4086, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949155

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Western countries. Less is known regarding its contribution to the OPC occurring in Asia. The current study aimed to investigate the association between antibody responses to HPV16 E7 and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Taiwan with 693 HNC cases and 1,035 controls. A positive association was observed between seropositivity to HPV16 E7 and OPC risk, whereas no significant association was found in the non-OPC cases. The increased OPC risk associated with seropositivity to HPV16 E7 was more significant among nonbetel quid or noncigarette users. Seropositivity to HPV16 E7 showed moderate agreement with P16 expression in OPC. OPC patients that were seropositive to HPV16 E7 or p16 positive were more highly educated and less likely to use alcohol, betel quids, and cigarettes compared to HPV16 E7 seronegative or p16 negative OPC patients. Furthermore, patients with p16 positive OPC were more likely to be women compared to patients with p16 negative OPC, likely owing to the low prevalence of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette users among women. Overall, this study suggested that similar to Western countries, HPV may also be an important risk factor of OPC in Taiwan. With the declining consumption of betel quids and cigarettes in Taiwan, a higher percentage of OPC cases in Taiwan will be attributed to HPV in the future. Public health measures, including HPV vaccination, need to be implemented to prevent the occurrence of HPV-positive OPC.

10.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0157320, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846134

RESUMO

Discordant results between genotypic drug susceptibility testing (gDST) and phenotypic DST (pDST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with disputed (discordance between gDST and pDST results) mutations affect rifampin (RIF)-resistant (RR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) treatments due to a lack of practical clinical guidelines. To investigate the role of disputed rpoB mutations in M. tuberculosis and TB treatment outcomes, initial isolates of 837 clinical RR- or MDR-TB cases confirmed during 2014 to 2018 were retested using agar-based RIF pDST and rpoB gene sequencing. MICs were determined for isolates with disputed rpoB mutations. Disputed rpoB mutations were identified in 77 (9.2%) M. tuberculosis isolates, including 50 (64.9%) and 14 (18.2%) phenotypically RIF- and rifabutin (RFB)-resistant isolates, respectively. The predominant single mutations were those encoding L533P (a change of L to P at position 533) (44.2%) and L511P (20.8%). Most of the isolates harboring mutations encoding L511P (87.5%), H526N (100%), D516Y (70.0%), and L533P (63.6%) had MICs of ≤1 mg/liter, whereas isolates harboring the mutation encoding H526L (75%) had a MIC of >1 mg/liter. Of the 63 cases with treatment outcomes available, 11 (17.5%) cases died, 1 (1.6%) case transferred out, and 51 (81%) cases had favorable outcomes, including 8 and 20 cases treated with standard-dose RIF- and RFB-containing regimens, respectively. Excluding cases that transferred out or received no or 1-day treatment, we observed statistically significant differences between the outcomes using active and inactive fluoroquinolones (FQs) (P = 0.008, odds ratio = 0.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.38]) in 57 cases (where active means a case susceptible to the drug and inactive means a case resistant to the drug or drug not used). We concluded that disputed rpoB mutations are not rare. Depending on the resources available, sequencing and/or MIC testing is recommended for better management of RR- and MDR-TB cases.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561321995009, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587675

RESUMO

This article presents 2 cases of extremely intractable patulous Eustachian tube following multiple transnasal shim insertion. These cases highlight the disadvantages of repeat transnasal shim operations, including enlargement of the Eustachian tube lumen, frequent dislocation, repeat surgery, recurrent middle ear infection, and shim misswallowing. The patients in these cases were successfully treated with Eustachian tube cartilage chip insertion through a postauricular approach. We describe the surgical technique and advantages of this promising management method.

12.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 40(3): 763-770, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604897

RESUMO

AIMS: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic pain syndrome that is characterized by suprapubic pain upon bladder filling. Bletilla striata, a well-known traditional Chinese herb with established efficacy in wound healing and anti-inflammation, was hypothesized to improve the symptoms of IC possibly though forming a physical barrier that could isolate the bladder tissue from irritants. This study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of intravesical treatment with B. striata extract solution (BSES) on visceral pain and bladder function of rats with zymosan-induced IC. METHODS: Thirty female rats were randomly divided into control group, zymosan-induced cystitis rats treated with normal saline (Z + NS), and zymosan-induced cystitis rats treated with BSES (Z + BSES). All rats underwent evaluation for abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores to assess visceral hypersensitivity, cystometrography, and electromyogram (EMG) of both external urethral sphincter and bladder detrusor. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The Z + NS group had an increased visceral hypersensitivity as compared to control group. Rats treated with BSES (Z + BSES group) had decreased AWR scores and amplitude of bladder detrusor-EMG. Besides, BSES treatment improved overactive bladder with significant effects on the extend of micturition interval and increase of storage of urine. CONCLUSIONS: Intravesical instillation of BSES can significantly alleviate zymosan-induced visceral hypersensitivity and bladder overactivity associated with IC. This study suggested that intravesical instillation with BSES might be a promising treatment for IC.


Assuntos
Cistite Intersticial/induzido quimicamente , Cistite Intersticial/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Zimosan/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561320977469, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263414

RESUMO

Osteomas are rare benign bony tumors located in the tongue area. In most cases, patients presenting with a lingual osteoma are asymptomatic but may complain of the sensation of having a foreign body. Fewer than 100 cases of lingual osteoma have been reported worldwide. Here, we present 2 cases of tongue base osteoma that were treated with excision under a laryngoscope.

14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009256, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370257

RESUMO

Endogenous genotoxic stress occurs in healthy cells due to competition between DNA replication machinery, and transcription and topographic relaxation processes. This causes replication fork stalling and regression, which can further collapse to form single-ended double strand breaks (seDSBs). Super-resolution microscopy has made it possible to directly observe replication stress and DNA damage inside cells, however new approaches to sample preparation and analysis are required. Here we develop and apply multicolor single molecule microscopy to visualize individual replication forks under mild stress from the trapping of Topoisomerase I cleavage complexes, a damage induction which closely mimics endogenous replicative stress. We observe RAD51 and RAD52, alongside RECQ1, as the first responder proteins to stalled but unbroken forks, whereas Ku and MRE11 are initially recruited to seDSBs. By implementing novel super-resolution imaging assays, we are thus able to discern closely related replication fork stress motifs and their repair pathways.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Replicação do DNA , DNA/química , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/genética , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo
16.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 583194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193223

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Treating TB is challenging; successful treatment requires a long course of multiple antibiotics. Rifampicin (RIF) is a first-line drug for treating TB, and the development of RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis makes treatment even more difficult. To determine the mechanism of RIF resistance in these strains, we searched for novel mutations by sequencing. Four isolates, CDC-1, CDC-2, CDC-3, and CDC-4, had high-level RIF resistance and unique mutations encoding RpoB G158R, RpoB V168A, RpoB S188P, and RpoB Q432insQ, respectively. To evaluate their correlation with RIF resistance, plasmids carrying rpoB genes encoding these mutant proteins were transfected into the H37Rv reference strain. The plasmid complementation of RpoB indicated that G158R, V168A, and S188P did not affect the MIC of RIF. However, the MIC of RIF was increased in H37Rv carrying RpoB Q432insQ. To confirm the correlation between RIF resistance and Q432insQ, we cloned an rpoB fragment carrying the insertion (encoding RpoB Q432insQ) into H37Rv by homologous recombination using a suicide vector. All replacement mutants expressing RpoB Q432insQ were resistant to RIF (MIC > 1 mg/L). These results indicate that RpoB Q432insQ causes RIF resistance in M. tuberculosis.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5059-5069, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally, of which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 85-90% of total primary liver cancer. A drug shortage for HCC therapy triggered us to screen the small-molecule database with a high-throughput cellular screening system. Herein, we examined whether cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of Mahlavu HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of CTAB on cell viability were assessed using WST-1 assay, cell-cycle distribution using flow cytometric analysis, migration/invasion using woundhealing and transwell assays, and associated protein levels using western blotting. RESULTS: Treatment of Mahlavu cells with CTAB transformed its mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. In addition, CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells dose-dependently. CTAB also reduced the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, RAC family small GTPase 1, SNAIL family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1), SNAI2, TWIST family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1), vimentin, N-cadherin, phospho-fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor, phospho-phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospho-v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 but increased the protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1/2 and E-cadherin. Rescue experiments proved that CTAB induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in Mahlavu cells and this was significantly dose-dependently mitigated by basic FGF. CONCLUSION: CTAB suppressed the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells through inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway. CTAB seems to be a potential agent for preventing metastasis of hepatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760384

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is among the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide. The treatment course for TB is challenging; it requires antibiotic administration for at least 6 months, and bacterial drug resistance makes treatment even more difficult. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance is important for improving treatment. To investigate new mechanisms of isoniazid (INH) resistance, we obtained three INH-resistant (INH-R) M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) and sequenced genes known to harbor INH resistance-conferring mutations. Then, the relationship between the mutations and INH resistance of these three INH-R isolates was investigated. Sequencing of the INH-R isolates identified three novel katG mutations resulting in R146P, W341R, and L398P KatG proteins, respectively. To investigate the correlation between the observed INH-R phenotypes of the clinical isolates and these katG mutations, wild-type katG from H37Rv was expressed on a plasmid (pMN437-katG) in the isolates, and their susceptibilities to INH were determined. The plasmid expressing H37Rv katG restored INH susceptibility in the two INH-R isolates encoding the W341R KatG and L398P KatG proteins. In contrast, no phenotypic change was observed in the KatG R146P isolate harboring pMN437-katG. H37Rv isogenic mutant with W341R KatG or L398P KatG was further generated. Both showed resistant to INH. In conclusion, W341R KatG and L398P KatG conferred resistance to INH in M. tuberculosis, whereas R146P KatG did not affect the INH susceptibility of M. tuberculosis.

19.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4513-4522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises from hepatocytes, and is the most frequently occurring malignancy of primary liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of the quaternary ammonium compound, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on HA22T/VGH HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to our preliminary data, the effect of CTAB on cell cycle distribution, migration, invasion and the associated protein levels was examined using flow cytometry, wound-healing migration, Matrigel transwell invasion assay and western blotting under sub-lethal concentrations. RESULTS: CTAB treatment of HA22T/VGH cells casued dose-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)-like changes and impaired migration and invasion capabilities. In addition, CTAB reduced the levels of metastasis-related proteins including c-Met, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), Twist, N-cadherin, and Vimentin. Moreover, pretreatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) rescued CTAB-mediated effects. CONCLUSION: CTAB exhibited potent anti-EMT and anti-metastatic activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion of HA22T/VGH cells. CTAB interrupted the mesenchymal characteristics of HA22T/VGH cells, which were significantly alleviated by HGF in a dose-dependent manner. CTAB has the potential to evolve as a therapeutic agent for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Sci ; 111(8): 2974-2986, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539207

RESUMO

Many studies have reported a positive association between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and higher head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. Fewer studies have examined the impact of SES on the association between alcohol or cigarette use and HNC risk. The current case-control study (1104 HNC cases and 1363 controls) investigated the influence of education, a SES indicator, on the association between HNC and the use of alcohol, cigarettes, or betel quids in Taiwan, a country with universal health care. Our results showed a larger increase in HNC risk associated with alcohol among those with lower educational level (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.80) than those with higher educational level (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85) (heterogeneity-P = .03). Educational level had an influence on the association between alcohol use and HNC risk among those with genetic susceptibility (ALDH2-deficient) to the carcinogenic effect of alcohol. The association between cigarette or betel quid use and HNC risk was similar between the high and low educational groups. National policies and social interventions have led to the decline in the prevalence of cigarette and betel quid users in Taiwan. In contrast, due to the lack of adequate alcohol control policies, alcohol consumption in Taiwan has continued to rise. A higher impact of alcohol on HNC risk among lower SES individuals even with universal health care could be the result of insufficient alcohol control policies in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/deficiência , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Compostos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Escolaridade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos/administração & dosagem , Óxidos/efeitos adversos , Piper/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Assistência de Saúde Universal
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