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2.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the in vitro activities of novel and comparator antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Taiwan. METHODS: Isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 335), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 316; 144 isolates with hyperviscosity characteristics), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 271), Acinetobacter baumannii complex (n = 187), and non-typhoidal Salmonella species (n = 226), Shigella species (n = 13) from miscellaneous culture sources were collected in 2020 in Taiwan. The MICs of the isolates to test antibiotics were determined using the broth microdilution method. GeneXpert was used to detect genes encoding carbapenemases among the carbapenem-non-susceptible (NS) Enterobacterales isolates. RESULTS: The MIC values of the cefepime-enmetazobactam combination against extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates (MIC90 ≤ 0.5 mg/L), blaKPC-harboring E. coli isolates (0.25 mg/L; n = 2), and 80% of blaOXA-48-like gene-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates (≤2 mg/L) were low. The MIC ranges of the cefepime-zidebactam against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales isolates (irrespective of the carbapenemase type [MIC90 ≤ 4 mg/L]) and carbapenem-NS or ceftolozane-tazobactam-NS P. aeruginosa isolates (MIC90 value, 8 mg/L) were significantly lower than those of the cefepime-enmetazobactam. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of novel antibiotics against important drug-resistant GNB must be monitored and validated during the clinical treatment of patients.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829537

RESUMO

To identify the core structure of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) responsible for the anti-oxidative and protective effect on the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced heart injury, various 2-APB analogues were analyzed, and several antioxidant assays were performed. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Myocardial infarct size was quantified using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cleaved-caspase-3 protein were evaluated as an indicator for the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect, respectively. Our data show that 2-APB, diphenylborinic anhydride (DPBA) and 3-(diphenylphosphino)-1-propylamine (DP3A) all exerted the anti-oxidative activity, but only 2-APB and DPBA can scavenge H2O2. 2-APB and DPBA can potently inhibit hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (HX/XOD)-induced increases in intracellular H2O2 and H9c2 cell death. 2-APB and DPBA were able to decrease the I/R-induced adult rat cardiomyocytes death, myocardial infarct size, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Our results suggest that the two benzene rings with a boron atom comprise the core structure of 2-APB responsible for the anti-oxidative effect mediated through the reaction with H2O2 and generation of phenolic compounds, which in turn reduced the I/R-induced oxidative stress and injury in the rat heart.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764027

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. CMV is a ubiquitous Herpesviridae virus with a wide spectrum of pathologies in humans. Immunocompetent patients generally develop a benign, self-limited mononucleosis-like syndrome, whereas gastrointestinal tissue-invasive disease is more frequently seen in immunocompromised. The clinical manifestations of CMV colitis or proctitis are demarcated by bloody diarrhea, ulcerations, ulcero-infiltrative changes, and pseudomembranous formation on colonoscopy. Gastrointestinal CMV infections complicated with deep rectal ulcer and fistula formation are rare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ganciclovir is also the gold standard therapy for CMV colitis or proctitis.

6.
Tzu Chi Med J ; 33(4): 323-331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760626

RESUMO

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), a rare autosomal dominant or recessive disease, usually results in syncope or sudden cardiac death. Most CPVT patients do not show abnormal cardiac structure and electrocardiogram features and symptoms, usually onset during adrenergically mediated physiological conditions. CPVT tends to occur at a younger age and is not easy to be diagnosed and managed. The main cause of CPVT is associated with mishandling Ca2+ in cardiomyocytes. Intracellular Ca2+ is strictly controlled by a protein located in the sarcoplasm reticulum (SR), such as ryanodine receptor, histidine-rich Ca2+-binding protein, triadin, and junctin. Mutation in these proteins results in misfolding or malfunction of these proteins, thereby affecting their Ca2+-binding affinity, and subsequently disturbs Ca2+ homeostasis during excitation-contraction coupling (E-C coupling). Furthermore, transient disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis increases membrane potential and causes Ca2+ store overload-induced Ca2+ release, which in turn leads to delayed after depolarization and arrhythmia. Previous studies have focused on the interaction between ryanodine receptors and protein kinase or phosphatase in the cytosol. However, recent studies showed the regulation signaling for ryanodine receptor not only from the cytosol but also within the SR. The changing of Ca2+ concentration is critical for protein interaction inside the SR which changes protein conformation to regulate the open probability of ryanodine receptors. Thus, it influences the threshold of Ca2+ released from the SR, making it easier to release Ca2+ during E-C coupling. In this review, we briefly discuss how Ca2+ handling protein variations affect the Ca2+ handling in CPVT.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1396-1406, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20-49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Individuals aged 20 years or older who were generally healthy or had stable pre-existing medical conditions were eligible for enrolment. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) travel overseas within 14 days of screening, intention to travel overseas within 6 months of the screening visit, and the absence of prespecified medical conditions, including immunosuppressive illness, a history of autoimmune disease, malignancy with risk to recur, a bleeding disorder, uncontrolled HIV infection, uncontrolled hepatitis B and C virus infections, SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 infections, an allergy to any vaccine, or a serious medical condition that could interfere with the study. Study participants were randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered via intramuscular injection on day 1 and day 29. MVC-COV1901 contained 15 µg of S-2P protein adjuvanted with 750 µg CpG 1018 and 375 µg aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous solution, and the placebo contained the same volume of saline. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by age (≥20 to <65 years and ≥65 years). Participants and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from day 1 (the day of the first dose) to day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific IgG in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04695652. FINDINGS: Of 4173 individuals screened between Dec 30, 2020, and April 2, 2021, 3854 were enrolled and randomly assigned: 3304 to the MVC-COV1901 group and 550 to the placebo group. A total of 3844 participants (3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 549 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis set, and 1053 participants (903 and 150) had received both doses and were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis set. From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events in all study participants were pain at the injection site (2346 [71·2%] of 3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 128 [23·3%] of 549 in the placebo group), and malaise or fatigue (1186 [36·0%] and 163 [29·7%]). Fever was rarely reported (23 [0·7%] and two [0·4%]). At 28 days after the second dose of MVC-COV1901, the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody GMT was 662·3 (95% CI 628·7-697·8; 408·5 IU/mL), the GMT ratio (geometric mean fold increase in titres at day 57 vs baseline) was 163·2 (155·0-171·9), and the seroconversion rate was 99·8% (95% CI 99·2-100·0). INTERPRETATION: MVC-COV1901 has a good safety profile and elicits promising immunogenicity responses. These data support MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.

8.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 9938649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650609

RESUMO

Adipogenic differentiation from stem cells has become a research target due to the increasing interest in obesity. It has been indicated that adipocytes can secrete palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME), which is able to regulate stem cell proliferation. However, the effects of PAME on adipogenic differentiation in stem cell remain unclear. Here, we present that the adipogenic differentiation medium supplemented with PAME induced the differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rAD-MSCs) into adipocyte. rAD-MSCs were treated with PAME for 12 days and then subjected to various analyses. The results from the present study show that PAME significantly increased the levels of adipogenic differentiation markers, PPARγ and Gpd1, and enhanced adipogenic differentiation in rAD-MSCs. Furthermore, the level of GPR40/120 protein increased during induction of adipocyte differentiation in rAD-MSCs. Cotreatment with PAME and a GPR40/120 antagonist together inhibited the PAME-enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Moreover, PAME significantly increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), but not AKT and mTOR. Cotreatment with PAME and a GPR40/120 antagonist together inhibited the PAME-enhanced ERK phosphorylation and adipogenic differentiation. PAME also increased the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Cotreatment with PAME and a Ca2+ chelator or a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor prevented the PAME-enhanced ERK phosphorylation and adipogenic differentiation. Our data suggest that PAME activated the GPR40/120/PLC-mediated pathway, which in turn increased the intracellular Ca2+ levels, thereby activating the ERK, and eventually enhanced adipogenic differentiation in rAD-MSCs. The findings from the present study might help get insight into the physiological roles and molecular mechanism of PAME in regulating stem cell differentiation.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNSPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CNSAB) isolates to cefiderocol, novel ß-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations, new tetracycline analogues, and other comparative antibiotics. METHODS: In total, 405 non-duplicate bacteremic CNSPA (n = 150) and CNSAB (n = 255) isolates were collected from 16 hospitals in Taiwan between 2018 and 2020. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method, and susceptibilities were interpreted according to the relevant guidelines or in accordance with results of previous studies and non-species-related pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data. RESULTS: Among the isolates tested, cefiderocol demonstrated potent in vitro activity against CNSPA (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 mg/L; 100% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) and CNSAB (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 mg/L; 94.9% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) isolates. More than 80% of CNSPA isolates were susceptible to cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and amikacin, based on breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Activities of new BLI combinations varied significantly. Tetracycline analogues, including tigecycline (MIC50/90, 1/2 mg/L; 92.5% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) and eravacycline (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 mg/L; 99.6% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) exhibited more potent in vitro activity against CNSAB than omadacycline (MIC50/90, 4/8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The spread of CNSPA and CNSAB poses a major challenge to global health. Significant resistance be developed even before a novel agent becomes commercially available. The development of on-site antimicrobial susceptibility tests for these novel agents is of great clinical importance.

11.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Lipoglicopeptídeos , Oxazolidinonas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sorogrupo , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Teicoplanina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas , Tetrazóis
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.

13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(3): 106377, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166777

RESUMO

This study examined the susceptibility of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacterales (CNSE) to cefiderocol, cefepime/zidebactam, cefepime/enmetazobactam, omadacycline, eravacycline and other comparative agents. Non-duplicate Enterobacterales isolates from 16 Taiwanese hospitals were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method, and susceptibility results were interpreted based on relevant guidelines. In total, 201 CNSE isolates were investigated, including 26 Escherichia coli isolates and 175 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected in 15.4% (n=4) of E. coli isolates and 47.4% (n=83) of K. pneumoniae isolates, with the most common being blaKPC (79.3%, 69/87), followed by blaOXA-48-like (13.8%, 12/87). Cefiderocol was the most active agent against CNSE; only 3.8% (n=1) of E. coli isolates and 4.6% (n=8) of K. pneumoniae isolates were not susceptible to cefiderocol. Among the carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, 88.5% (n=23) and 93.7% (n=164), respectively, were susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam. For cefepime/zidebactam, 23 (88.5%) E. coli isolates and 155 (88.6%) K. pneumoniae isolates had MICs ≤2/2 mg/L. For cefepime/enmetazobactam, 22 (84.6%) E. coli isolates and 85 (48.6%) K. pneumoniae isolates had MICs ≤2/8 mg/L. The higher MICs of K. pneumoniae against cefepime/enmetazobactam were due to only one (1.5%) of the 67 blaKPC-carrying isolates being susceptible. MICs of omadacycline were significantly higher than those of eravacycline and tigecycline. In summary, cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam and cefepime/zidebactam were more effective against carbapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae than other drugs, highlighting their potential as valuable therapeutics.

14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(1): 106353, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961991

RESUMO

Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed for 235 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates from 18 Taiwanese hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eravacycline, omadacycline, lipoglycopeptides, and other comparator antibiotics were determined using the broth microdilution method. Nearly all isolates of VREfm were not susceptible to teicoplanin, dalbavancin, and telavancin, with susceptibility rates of 0.5%, 1.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Tigecycline and eravacycline were active against 93.2% and 89.7% of the VREfm isolates, respectively. Moreover, the susceptibility rates of quinupristin/dalfopristin, tedizolid, and linezolid were 59.1%, 84.2%, and 77.4%, respectively. Additionally, 94% of the VREfm isolates were classified as susceptible to daptomycin, and the MICs of omadacycline required to inhibit VREfm growth by 50% and 90% were 0.12 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Susceptibility rates of VREfm isolates to synthetic tetracyclines and daptomycin were slightly lower and to oxazolidinone-class antibiotics were much lower in Taiwan than those in other parts of the world. Continuous monitoring of VREfm resistance to novel antibiotics, including synthetic tetracyclines, oxazolidinone-class antibiotics, and daptomycin, is needed in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Daptomicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Linezolida/farmacologia , Lipoglicopeptídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Virginiamicina/farmacologia
15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 905: 174183, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015318

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether methyl palmitate (MP) exerts cardioprotective effect against the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its mechanisms underlying. The cultured adult cardiomyocytes were treated with vehicle or lactic acid ischemic buffer (pH 6.8) during hypoxia/reoxygenation. In addition, the cardioprotective effect of MP was evaluated using the ex vivo heart model of I/R injury. Here, we found that MP significantly reduced the I/R-induced cardiomyocyte death. Treatment with GW1100 (a GPR40-antagonist) or wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K, specific inhibitor) significantly attenuated the level of phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and abolished the MP-induced cardioprotection against the I/R-induced injury. Using the ex vivo I/R model, we also demonstrated that pretreatment with MP significantly reduced the size of myocardial infarction and the levels of cleaved-caspase 3 and MDA, and increased the protein levels of GPR40 and p-AKT induced by I/R. The cardioprotective effect of MP was evaluated also using the in vivo heart model of I/R injury. We demonstrated that post-ischemic treatment with MP significantly attenuated the size of myocardial infarction and the serum level of CK-MB induced by in vivo I/R model. Taken together, our data suggest that MP could provide significant cardioprotection against the I/R injury, and the underlying mechanisms by which MP prevented the cardiomyocyte death might be mediated through the GPR40-activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These findings suggest the potential applications of MP in the treatment of I/R-induced heart injury.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Palmitatos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Palmitatos/uso terapêutico , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808906

RESUMO

The heterogeneity of immune response to COVID-19 has been reported to correlate with disease severity and prognosis. While so, how the immune response progress along the period of viral RNA-shedding (VRS), which determines the infectiousness of disease, is yet to be elucidated. We aim to exhaustively evaluate the peripheral immune cells to expose the interplay of the immune system in uncomplicated COVID-19 cases with different VRS periods and dynamic changes of the immune cell profile in the prolonged cases. We prospectively recruited four uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and four healthy controls (HCs) and evaluated the immune cell profile throughout the disease course. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and submitted to a multi-panel flowcytometric assay. CD19+-B cells were upregulated, while CD4, CD8, and NK cells were downregulated in prolonged VRS patients. Additionally, the pro-inflammatory-Th1 population showed downregulation, followed by improvement along the disease course, while the immunoregulatory cells showed upregulation with subsequent decline. COVID-19 patients with longer VRS expressed an immune profile comparable to those with severe disease, although they remained clinically stable. Further studies of immune signature in a larger cohort are warranted.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(3): 349-358, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863652

RESUMO

The radiology department was categorized as a "high risk area" during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and is similarly considered a "high risk area" during the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of infection control is to isolate patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 from uninfected people by utilizing separate equipment, spaces, and healthcare workers. Infection control measures should be prioritized to prevent the nosocomial spread of infection. We established a COVID-19 infection control team in our radiology department. The team's responsibilities include triaging patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19, performing imaging and reporting, using dedicated equipment, disinfecting the equipment and the immediate environment, and staff scheduling.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tigecycline is an antibiotic that well tolerated for treating complicated infections. It has received attention as an anti-cancer agent and expected to solve two major obstacles, sides effects that accompany chemotherapy and drug resistance, in the breast cancer treatment. However, previous studies reported that the levels in the blood are typically low of tigecycline, so higher doses are needed to treat cancer, that may increase the risk of side effects. To achieve better anti-cancer effects for tigecycline, we need to find a novel adjunct agent. METHODS: In this study, we used different concentration of pyrvinium pamoate combined with tigecycline to treat cell. And assess the effect of two drugs in inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell autophagy, or increase cell apoptosis to evaluate the consequent of combined therapy. RESULTS: We observed that after the combined therapy, the cell cycle arrest at G1/s phase, the level of p21 increased, but decreased the levels of CDK2. Others, two drugs via different mechanisms to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and with selective cytotoxic to different cell lines. That could enhance the effect of breast cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: Combining low dose of tigecycline use with pyrvinium pamoate is a novel approach for breast cancer treatment. Appropriate combined therapy in breast cancer is recommended to improve outcomes. Other problems like drug resistance occur in patients or the microbes surrounding breast tissues would confer susceptibility to cancers then influence the effectiveness of treatment, which could be improved through combined therapy.

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