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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066541

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer, especially in women. The crucial barrier for breast cancer treatment is resistance to radiation therapy, one of the important local regional therapies. We previously established and characterized radio-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells) that harbor a high expression of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the EMT phenotype. In this study, we performed antibody array analysis to identify the hub signaling mechanism for the radiation resistance of RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells by comparing parental MDA-MB-231 (p-MDA-MB-231) and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells. Antibody array analysis unveiled that the MAPK1 protein was the most upregulated protein in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to in p-MDA-MB-231 cells. The pathway enrichment analysis also revealed the presence of MAPK1 in almost all enriched pathways. Thus, we used an MEK/ERK inhibitor, PD98059, to block the MEK/ERK pathway and to identify the role of MAPK1 in the radio-resistance of RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells. MEK/ERK inhibition induced cell death in both p-MDA-MB-231 and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells, but the death mechanism for each cell was different; p-MDA-MB-231 cells underwent apoptosis, showing cell shrinkage and PARP-1 cleavage, while RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells underwent necroptosis, showing mitochondrial dissipation, nuclear swelling, and an increase in the expressions of CypA and AIF. In addition, MEK/ERK inhibition reversed the radio-resistance of RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed the increased expression of CSC markers (CD44 and OCT3/4) and the EMT phenotype (ß-catenin and N-cadherin/E-cadherin). Taken together, this study suggests that activated ERK signaling is one of the major hub signals related to the radio-resistance of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Tolerância a Radiação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fenótipo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteômica , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809701

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that augmented expression of a certain gene can influence the efficacy of targeted and conventional chemotherapies. Here, we tested whether the high expression of enhancer of the rudimentary homolog (ERH), which serves as a prognostic factor in some cancers, can influence the efficacy of anthocyanins isolated from fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, Meoru in Korea (AIMs) on human gastric cancer cells. The anticancer efficacy of AIMs was augmented in ERH-transfected MKN28 cells (E-MKN28 cells). Molecularly, ERH augmented AIM-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and -9. The ERH-augmented apoptotic effect was related to mitochondrial depolarization and inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP, and Bcl-2. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was augmented in AIMs-treated E-MKN28 cells compared to AIMs-treated naïve MKN28 cells. In conclusion, ERH augmented AIM-induced caspase-dependent mitochondrial-related apoptosis in MKN28 cells. A decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and subsequent excessive ROS generation would be the mechanism for ERH-augmented mitochondrial-related apoptosis in AIMs-treated MKN28 cells. A decrease in expression of XIAP would be another mechanism for ERH-augmented caspase-dependent apoptosis in AIMs-treated MKN28 cells.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo
3.
ACS Omega ; 6(11): 7422-7433, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778255

RESUMO

Aging is associated with loss of muscle mass and strength that leads to a condition termed sarcopenia. Impaired conditions, morbidity, and malnutrition are the factors of devaluation of muscle fibers in aged animals. Satellite cells play an important role in maintaining muscle homeostasis during tissue regeneration and repair. Proteomic profiling on the skeletal muscle tissues of different age group rats helps to determine the differentially expressed (DE) proteins, which may eventually lead to the development of biomarkers in treating the conditions of sarcopenia. In this study, nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis was implemented in the calf tissues of young and old groups of rats. The mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed the presence of 335 differentially expressed proteins between the two different age conditions, among which those based on log-fold change 25 proteins were upregulated and 77 were downregulated. The protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 18 upregulated proteins with three distinct interconnected networks and 57 downregulated proteins with two networks. Further, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed the biological process, cellular component, and molecular function of the differential proteins. Pathway enrichment analysis of the DE proteins identified nine significantly enriched pathways with a list of eight significant genes (Cryab, Hspb2, Acat1, Ak1, Adssl1, Anxa5, Gys1, Ogdh, Gc, and Adssl1). Quantification of significant genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) confirmed the downregulation at the mRNA level. Western blot analysis of their protein expression showed concordant results on two candidate proteins (Ogdh and annexin 5) confirming their differential regulation between the two age groups of rats. Thus, these proteomic approaches on young and aged rats provide insights into the development of protein targets in the treatment of sarcopenia (muscle loss).

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573023

RESUMO

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated by chemotherapeutic reagents including natural plant polyphenols, and cell fate is determined by activated phospho-JNK as survival or death depending on stimuli and cell types. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of JNK on the anticancer effects of the Korean plant Artemisia annua L. (pKAL) polyphenols in p53 wild-type HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Cell morphology, protein expression levels, apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), acidic vesicles, and granularity/DNA content were analyzed by phase-contrast microscopy; Western blot; and flow cytometry of annexin V/propidium iodide (PI)-, dichlorofluorescein (DCF)-, acridine orange (AO)-, and side scatter pulse height (SSC-H)/DNA content (PI)-stained cells. The results showed that pKAL induced morphological changes and necrosis or late apoptosis, which were associated with loss of plasma membrane/Golgi integrity, increased acidic vesicles and intracellular granularity, and decreased DNA content through downregulation of protein kinase B (Akt)/ß-catenin/cyclophilin A/Golgi matrix protein 130 (GM130) and upregulation of phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser-139 (γ-H2AX)/p53/p21/Bak cleavage/phospho-JNK/p62/microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-I. Moreover, JNK inhibition by SP600125 enhanced ROS-independently pKAL-induced cell death through downregulation of p62 and upregulation of p53/p21/Bak cleavage despite a reduced state of DNA damage marker γ-H2AX. These findings indicate that phospho-JNK activated by pKAL inhibits p53-dependent cell death signaling and enhances DNA damage signaling, but cell fate is determined by phospho-JNK as survival rather than death in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Artemisia annua , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Artemisia annua/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297377

RESUMO

Plant-derived natural polyphenols exhibit anticancer activity without showing any noticeable toxicities to normal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of p53 on the anticancer effect of polyphenols isolated from Korean Artemisia annua L. (pKAL) in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. We confirmed that pKAL induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, propidium iodide (PI) uptake, nuclear structure change, and acidic vesicles in a p53-independent manner in p53-null HCT116 cells through fluorescence microscopy analysis of DCF/PI-, DAPI-, and AO-stained cells. The pKAL-induced anticancer effects were found to be significantly higher in p53-wild HCT116 cells than in p53-null by hematoxylin staining, CCK-8 assay, Western blot, and flow cytometric analysis of annexin V/PI-stained cells. In addition, expression of ectopic p53 in p53-null cells was upregulated by pKAL in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, increasing pKAL-induced cell death. Moreover, Western bot analysis revealed that pKAL-induced cell death was associated with upregulation of p53-dependent targets such as p21, Bax and DR5 and cleavage of PARP1 and lamin A/C in p53-wild HCT116 cells, but not in p53-null. Taken together, these results indicate that p53 plays an important role in enhancing the anticancer effects of pKAL by upregulating p53 downstream targets and inducing intracellular cell death processes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Morte Celular , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Artemisia annua/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Laminas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Proteólise , Regulação para Cima
6.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233701

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that anthocyanins from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIMs) induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, many researchers argued that the concentrations of AIMs were too high for in vivo experiments. Therefore, we performed in vitro at lower concentrations and in vivo experiments for the anti-cancer effects of AIMs. AIMs inhibited the cell proliferation of Hep3B cells in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum concentration of 100 µg/mL. AIMs also inhibited the invasion and migration at 100 µg/mL concentration with or without the presence of TNF-α. To establish the relevance between the in vitro and in vivo results, we validated their effects in a Xenograft model of Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In the in vivo test, AIMs inhibited the tumorigenicity of Hep3B cells in the xenograft mouse model without showing any clinical signs of toxicity or any changes in the body weight of mice. AIMs inhibited the activation NF-κB and suppressed the NF-κB-regulated proteins, intra-tumoral microvessel density (IMVD) and the Ki67 activity of Hep3B xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, this study indicates that AIMs have anti-cancer effects (inhibition of proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis) on human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft through the inhibition of NF-κB and its target protein.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784919

RESUMO

Anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) (AIMs) have various anti-cancer properties by inhibiting Akt and NF-κB which are involved in drug resistance. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the popular anti-cancer agents. Studies reported that MCF-7 human breast cancer cells have high resistance to CDDP compared to other breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we confirmed CDDP resistance of MCF-7 cells and tested whether AIMs can overcome CDDP resistance of MCF-7 cells. Cell viability assay revealed that MCF-7 cells were more resistant to CDDP treatment than MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibiting aggressive and high cancer stem cell phenotype. AIMs significantly augmented the efficacy of CDDP with synergistic effects on MCF-7 cells. Molecularly, Western blot analysis revealed that CDDP strongly increased Akt and moderately reduced p-NF-κB and p-IκB and that AIMs inhibited CDDP-induced Akt activation, and augmented CDDP-induced reduction of p-NF-κB and p-IκB in MCF-7 cells. In addition, AIMs significantly downregulated an anti-apoptotic protein, XIAP, and augmented PARP-1 cleavage in CDDP-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, under TNF-α treatment, AIMs augmented CDDP efficacy with inhibition of NF-κB activation on MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, AIMs enhanced CDDP sensitivity by inhibiting Akt and NF-κB activity of MCF-7 cells that show relative intrinsic CDDP resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455624

RESUMO

Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) has been used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers. Evidence suggests that NF-κB activation is mainly involved in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. TNF-α also enhances the inflammatory process in tumor development. Recently, flavonoids from plants have been reported to have inhibitory effects on NF-κB activities. We investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIM, anthocyanins isolated from Meoru (AIM)) on TNF-α-induced NF-κB activities in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the molecules involved in AIM-induced anti-cancer effects, especially on cancer metastasis. We performed cell viability assay, gelatin zymography, invasion assay, and western blot analysis to unravel the anti-NF-κB activity of AIMs on MCF-7 cells. AIM suppressed the TNF-α effects on the NF-κB-regulated proteins involved in cancer cell proliferation (COX-2, C-myc), invasion, and angiogenesis (MMP-2, MMP9, ICAM-1, and VEGF). AIM also increased the expression of E-cadherin, which is one of the hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the anthocyanins isolated from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat acts as an inhibitor of TNF-α induced NF-κB activation, and subsequent downstream molecules involved in cancer proliferation, invasion, adhesion, angiogenesis, and thus have anti-metastatic activities in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Frutas/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , NF-kappa B/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética
9.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326231

RESUMO

Artemisia annua L. has been reported to show anti-cancer activities. Here, we determined whether polyphenols extracted from Artemisia annua L. (pKAL) exhibit anti-cancer effects on radio-resistant MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells (RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells), and further explored their molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assay and colony-forming assay revealed that pKAL inhibited cell proliferation on both parental and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-proliferative effects of pKAL on RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells were superior or similar to those on parental ones. Western blot analysis revealed that expressions of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) and Oct 3/4, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation were significantly increased in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to parental ones, suggesting that these proteins could be associated with RT resistance. pKAL inhibited the expression of CD44 and Oct 3/4 (CSC markers), and ß-catenin and MMP-9 as well as STAT-3 phosphorylation of RT-R-MDA-MB-231. Regarding upstream signaling, the JNK or JAK2 inhibitor could inhibit STAT-3 activation in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells, but not augmented pKAL-induced anti-cancer effects. These findings suggest that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling are not closely related to the anti-cancer effects of pKAL. In conclusion, this study suggests that pKAL exhibit anti-cancer effects on RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing CD44 and Oct 3/4, ß-catenin and MMP-9, which appeared to be linked to RT resistance of RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Artemisia annua/química , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 679-702, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329644

RESUMO

Autophagy is a process of active programmed cell death, where a dying cell induces autophagosomes and subsequently regulated by degradative machinery. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism behind induction of autophagic cell death by Naringin flavonoid in AGS cancer cells. Growth inhibition of AGS cells showed downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by Naringin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed swollen mitochondria and lysosome near peri-nuclear zone fused with autophagic vacuoles. Rapamycin pre-treatment with Naringin showed significant decrease in mTOR phosphorylation and increase in LC3B activation in AGS cells. Decrease in mTOR phosphorylation is associated with lysosomal function activation was observed by time-dependent treatment of Naringin. Induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) was observed by LAMP1 activation leading lysosomal cell death by releasing Cathepsin D from lysosomal lumen to cytosol. Naringin treated AGS cells showed up-regulating BH3 domain Bad, down-regulating Bcl-xL, and Bad phosphorylation and significant mitochondrial fluorescence intensity expression. Significant localization of mitochondria and LC3B activation was examined by person coefficient correlation. Activation of ERK1/2-p38 MAPKs and production of intracellular ROS has been observed over Naringin treatment. It has also been elucidated that pre-treatment with NAC inhibited mitochondria-LC3B colocalization, where ROS acted as upstream of ERK1/2-p38 MAPKs activation. Lysosomal cell death involvement has been evaluated by BAF A1 pre-treatment, inhibiting LAMP1, Cathepsin D, ROS, and blocking autophagolysosome in AGS cell death. Taken together, these findings show that, Naringin induced autophagy cell death involves LMP mediated lysosomal damage and BH3 protein Bad activation in AGS cancer cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Lisossomos/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
J Prosthet Dent ; 122(5): 474.e1-474.e8, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590980

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to evaluate the biomechanical behaviors of dental implants. However, in some FEA studies, the influence of the preload condition has been omitted to simplify the analysis. This might affect the results of biomechanical analysis significantly. The preload condition requires analysis. PURPOSE: The purpose of this FEA study was to evaluate and verify the effects of the presence of the preload condition on abutment screws under the occlusal load for external and internal hexagonal connection systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The finite element models consisting of bone blocks, 2 different implant systems (Osstem US and GS system; Osstem Implant Co), and crowns were created. With these components, a total of 6 models with different conditions were constructed for FEA: external hexagonal connection system only with preload (EO), external hexagonal connection system with no preload but occlusal load (EN), external hexagonal system with both preload and occlusal load (EP), internal hexagonal system only with preload (IO), internal hexagonal system with no preload but occlusal load (IN), and internal hexagonal system with both preload and occlusal load (IP). An 11.3-degree oblique load (100 N) to the axis of the implant was applied on the occlusal surface of the crown for the models with occlusal load. A preload of 825 N was applied in the abutment screw of the models EO, EP, IO, and IP. The maximum von Mises stress, maximum principal stress, and maximum displacement of the components of the models were evaluated. RESULTS: Both external and internal connection systems resulted in higher maximum von Mises stress and maximum principal stress values in the presence of preload in the abutment screw. The internal connection system showed higher displacement values than the external system with or without occlusal loading, and values tended to increase with the preload condition. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a preload condition significantly affected the biomechanical behaviors of the components of 2 different connection systems. The preload condition should be included in FEA to achieve more realistic results.


Assuntos
Dente Suporte , Implantes Dentários , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Projeto do Implante Dentário-Pivô , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico
12.
J Gastric Cancer ; 19(3): 301-314, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598373

RESUMO

Purpose: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients results in extremely poor prognosis. Malignant ascites samples are the most appropriate biological material to use to evaluate biomarkers for peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study identified exosomal MicroRNAs (miRNAs) differently expressed between benign liver cirrhosis-associated ascites (LC-ascites) and malignant gastric cancer-associated ascites (GC-ascites), and validated their role as diagnostic biomarkers for GC-ascites. Materials and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from 165 ascites samples (73 LC-ascites and 92 GC-ascites). Initially, microarrays were used to screen the expression levels of 2,006 miRNAs in the discovery cohort (n=22). Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to validate the expression levels of selected exosomal miRNAs in the training (n=70) and validation (n=73) cohorts. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were determined in ascites samples. Results: The miR-574-3p, miR-181b-5p, miR-4481, and miR-181d were significantly downregulated in the GC-ascites samples compared to the LC-ascites samples, and miR-181b-5p showed the best diagnostic performance for GC-ascites (area under the curve [AUC]=0.798 and 0.846 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). The diagnostic performance of CEA for GC-ascites was improved by the combined analysis of miR-181b-5p and CEA (AUC=0.981 and 0.946 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). Conclusions: We identified exosomal miRNAs capable of distinguishing between non-malignant and GC-ascites, showing that the combined use of miR-181b-5p and CEA could improve diagnosis.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1741-1752, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545396

RESUMO

In the present study, a polyphenolic mixture was isolated from Seomae mugwort (SM; a native Korean variety of Artemisia argyi H.) via extraction with aqueous 70% methanol followed by the elution of ethyl acetate over a silica gel column. Each polyphenolic compound was analyzed using high­performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and compared with the literature. In addition to the 14 characterized components, one hydroxycinnamate, six flavonoids, and one lignan were reported for the first time, to the best our knowledge, in Artemisia argyi H. The anti­inflammatory properties of SM polyphenols were studied in lipopolysaccharide­treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The SM polyphenols attenuated the activation of macrophages via the inhibition of nitric oxide production, nuclear factor­κB activation, the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin­1ß, and the phosphorylation of mitogen­activated protein kinase. Our results suggested that SM polyphenols may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory­related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , República da Coreia
14.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(4): 1411-1419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that CD44v9 and Ki-67 played an important role in predicting poor prognosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, little is known about combined use of both biomarkers as prognostic biomarker. The present study was performed to investigate the significance of CD44v9 and Ki-67 expression as a combination biomarker for EGC. Materials and Methods: With tissue microarray for 158 EGC tissues, we performed immunohistochemical staining for CD44v9 and Ki-67. The whole patients were divided into three groups (group A, CD44v9- negative/Ki-67-low; group B, neither group A or C; and group C, CD44v9-positive/Ki-67- high). Its clinical significance was re-analyzed with adjustment via propensity score matching (PSM). For validation, we performed bootstrap resampling. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 90.4 months (range, 3.7 to 120.4 months). In the comparison according to CD44v9/Ki-67 expression, the combined use of the two biomarker clearly separated the three groups by 5-year survival rates (5-YSR, 96.3%, 89.8%, and 76.8% in group A, B, and C, respectively; p=0.009). After PSM, 5-YSR were 97.7% and 76.8% in group A+B and group C, respectively (p=0.002). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that group C had independently poor prognosis (hazard ratio, 9.137; 95% confidence interval, 1.187 to 70.366; p=0.034) compared with group A. Bootstrap resampling internally validated this result (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both positive CD44v9 and high Ki-67 expression are associated with poor prognosis in EGC, and the combined use of these markers provides better prognostic stratification than the single use of them.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos
15.
Phytother Res ; 33(5): 1384-1393, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887612

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that auranofin (AF) exhibits anticancer activity by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, in this study, we have investigated the synergistic effects of AF and morin and their mechanism for the anticancer effects focusing on apoptosis in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We assessed the anticancer activities by annexin V/PI double staining, caspase, and TrxR activity assay. Morin enhances the inhibitory effects on TrxR activity of AF as well as reducing cell viability. Annexin V/PI double staining revealed that morin/AF cotreatment induced apoptotic cell death. Morin enhances AF-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss and cytochrome c release. Further, morin/AF cotreatment upregulated death receptor DR4/DR5, modulated Bcl-2 family members (upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2), and activated caspase-3, -8, and -9. Morin also enhances AF-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The anticancer effects results from caspase-dependent apoptosis, which was triggered via extrinsic pathway by upregulating TRAIL receptors (DR4/DR5) and enhanced via intrinsic pathway by modulating Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein family members. These are related to ROS generation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that morin can enhance the anticancer activity of AF in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, indicating that its combination could be an alternative treatment strategy for the hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Auranofina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Oncol Rep ; 40(6): 3249-3260, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272339

RESUMO

Proteomic analysis serves as an important biological tool for identifying biological events. Novel biomarkers of a specific disease such as cancer may be identified using these promising techniques. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tangeretin and to identify potential biomarkers in AGS gastric cancer cells using a proteomics approach. The results of the present study revealed that tangeretin inhibited AGS cell viability dose­dependently with a half­maximal inhibitory concentration of 100 µM. Two­dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed to determine the potential biomarker between control and tangeretin (100 µM)­treated AGS cells. A total of 16 proteins was identified from 36 significant protein spots using matrix­assisted laser­desorption/ionization time­of­flight­mass spectrometry using peptide fingerprinting. The bioinformatics tools Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) were used to identify the functional properties and association of the proteins obtained. Using western blot analysis, the regulatory pattern of four selected proteins, protein kinase Cε, mitogen­activated protein kinase 4, phosphoinositide 4­kinase and poly(ADP­ribose) polymerase 14, were successfully verified in replicate sample sets. These selected proteins are primarily involved in apoptosis signaling, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, receptor kinase binding, intracellular cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. Therefore, aim of the present study was to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers from the functional categories of altered protein expression in tangeretin­inhibited AGS gastric cancer cell viability.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Flavonas/farmacologia , Proteômica/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , 1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
17.
J Adv Prosthodont ; 10(4): 265-270, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new implant impression technique using bite impression coping and a dual arch tray. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two implant fixtures were placed on maxillary left second premolar and first molar area in dentoform model. The model with two fixtures was used as the reference. The impression was divided into 2 groups, n=10 each. In group 1, heavy/light body silicone impression was made with pick up impression copings and open tray. In group 2, putty/light body silicone impression was made with bite impression copings and dual arch tray. The reference model and the master casts with implant scan bodies were scanned by a laboratory scanner. Surface tessellation language (STL) datasets from test groups was superimposed with STL dataset of reference model using inspection software. The three-dimensional deviation between the reference model and impression models was calculated and illustrated as a color-map. Data was analyzed by independent samples T-test of variance at α=.05. RESULTS: The mean 3D implant deviations of pick up impression group (group 1) and dual arch impression group (group 2) were 0.029 mm and 0.034 mm, respectively. The difference in 3D deviations between groups 1 and 2 was not statistically significant (P=.075). CONCLUSION: Within limitations of this study, the accuracy of implant impression using a bite impression coping and dual arch tray is comparable to that of conventional pick-up impression.

18.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096805

RESUMO

Pectolinarigenin (PEC), a natural flavonoid present in Cirsium chanroenicum and in some species of Citrus fruits, has various pharmacological benefits such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer mechanism of PEC induced cell death caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS and MKN28 human gastric cancer cells. The PEC treatment significantly inhibited the AGS and MKN28 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Further, PEC significantly elevated sub-G1 phase in AGS cells and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in both AGS and MKN28 cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Moreover, Immunoblotting results revealed that PEC treatment down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family protein XIAP that leads to the activation of caspase-3 thereby cleavage of PARP (poly-ADP-ribose polymerase) in both AGS and MKN28 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the increased formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and increased protein levels of LC3-II conversion in both AGS and MKN28 cells. PEC shows the down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway which is a major regulator of autophagic and apoptotic cell death in cancer cells that leads to the down-regulation of p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K, and p-eIF4E in PEC treated cells when compared with the untreated cells. In conclusion, PEC treatment might have anti-cancer effect by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway leading to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human gastric cancer cells. Further studies of PEC treatment can support to develop as a potential alternative therapeutic agent for human gastric carcinoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
Opt Express ; 26(8): 9901-9919, 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715937

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the enhancement of resolution of continuous wave (CW) stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy by a novel method of structured illumination of an excitation beam. Illumination by multiple excitation beams through the specific pupil apertures with high in-plane wave vectors leads to interference of diffracted light flux near the focal plane, resulting in the contraction of the point spread function (PSF) of the excitation. Light spot reduction by the suggested standing wave (SW) illumination method contributes to make up much lower depletion efficiency of the CW STED microscopy than that of the pulsed STED method. First, theoretical analysis showed that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the effective PSF on the detection plane is expected to be smaller than 25% of that of conventional CW STED. Second, through the simulation, it was elucidated that both the donut-shaped PSF of the depletion beam and the confocal optics suppress undesired contribution of sidelobes of the PSF by the SW illumination to the effective PSF of the STED system. Finally, through the imaging experiment on 40-nm fluorescent beads with the developed SW-CW STED microscopy system, we obtained the result which follows the overall tendency from the simulation in the aspects of resolution improvement and reduction of sidelobes. Based on the obtained result, we expect that the proposed method can become one of the strategies to enhance the resolution of the CW STED microscopy.

20.
Oncotarget ; 9(5): 5993-6006, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464049

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. South Korea is in first place with 9,180 death alone attributed to gastric cancer in 2013. Plenty of literature suggests the evasion of apoptosis is implicated in neurodegeneration, autoimmune diseases, and tumors development due to dysregulation in the apoptotic mechanism. Reduced apoptosis or its resistance in cancer cells plays a significant role in carcinogenesis. It's imperative to understand apoptosis, which provides the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce cancer cell death or sensitize them to cytotoxic agents by regulating key factors like IAPs, MDM2, p53, caspases and much more. Studies have demonstrated that Scutellarein have the ability to inhibit several cancer cells by inducing apoptosis with both: Scutellarein monomers as well as scutellarein containing flavonoids. MTT results revealed that scutellarein inhibited cell viability in both dose and time dependent manner. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that scutellarein induces apoptosis in both AGS and SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in SNU-484 cells. This study demonstrated that the Scutellarein on AGS and SNU-484 cells significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death via down regulating MDM2 and activated the tumor suppresser protein p53, subsequently down regulating the IAP family proteins (cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP) leading to caspase-dependent apoptosis in AGS and SNU-484 cells.

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