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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117283, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775786

RESUMO

There are inconsistent results on the impacts of controlling blood pressure (BP) on the risk of dementia. We investigated the association between BP and risk of dementia subtypes by antihypertensive treatment and comorbidities. Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Database from 2009 to 2012, a total of 4 522 447 adults aged 60+ years without a history of dementia were analyzed and followed up for a mean of 5.4 years. Individuals were classified according to their baseline systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP; SBP 130 to <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP 80 to <90 mm Hg were used as reference groups. The risk of overall dementia and probable Alzheimer disease was significantly higher in the SBP≥160 and lower SBP groups. These U-shaped associations were consistent regardless of antihypertensive use or comorbidities. The risk of probable vascular dementia (VaD) was not higher among lower SBP groups and increased gradually as SBP increased. Although there was a linear association between SBP and the risk of probable VaD in individuals not taking antihypertensives or without comorbidities, there was a U-shaped association in individuals taking antihypertensives or with comorbidities. Patterns of association between diastolic BP and risk of probable Alzheimer disease or probable VaD were similar to those with SBP, except for the risk of probable VaD in individuals taking antihypertensives. In conclusion, risks of probable Alzheimer disease and probable VaD were different among lower BP groups. Although the risk of dementia appears higher in people with lower BP receiving antihypertensives, this finding may be affected by comorbidities.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809412

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an independent relationship between regional fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the presence of NAFLD using nationally representative data in Korea. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 14,502 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. Total fat mass, leg fat mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validated NAFLD prediction models and scoring systems for hepatic fibrosis were used. Results: The leg fat to total fat (LF/TF) ratio showed a negative relationship with many factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and liver enzyme levels. When the LF/TF ratio and indices of hepatic steatosis were stratified by quartiles, the LF/TF ratio showed a negative correlation with the scoring systems that were used. The LF/TF ratio showed better accuracy in predicting NAFLD than total fat mass or leg fat mass alone. After adjusting for various traditional and lifestyle factors, a low LF/TF ratio remained a risk factor for NAFLD. Among NAFLD subjects, the LF/TF ratio showed a negative relationship with hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: A lower LF/TF ratio was markedly associated with a higher risk of hepatic steatosis and advanced hepatic fibrosis using various predictive models in a Korean population. Therefore, the LF/TF ratio could be a useful anthropometric parameter to predict NAFLD or advanced hepatic fibrosis.

3.
Hepatology ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773257

RESUMO

Currently there is no FDA-approved drug to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), rates of which are increasing worldwide. Although NAFLD/NASH are highly complex and heterogeneous conditions, most pharmacotherapy pipelines focus on a single mechanistic target. Considering the importance of the gut-liver axis in their pathogenesis, we investigated the therapeutic effect of a long-acting dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 receptors in mice with NAFLD/NASH. C57BL/6J mice were fed a choline-deficient high fat diet/high fructose and sucrose solution. After 16 weeks, mice were randomly allocated to receive vehicle, GLP1-Fc, GLP2-Fc, or GLP1/2-Fc subcutaneously every two days for four weeks. Body weight was monitored, insulin/glucose tolerance tests were performed, feces were collected, and microbiome profiles were analyzed. Immobilized cell systems were utilized to evaluate direct peptide effect. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, immunoblot analysis, tunnel assay, and biochemical assays were performed to assess drug effects on inflammation, hepatic fibrosis, cell death, and intestinal structures. The mice had well-developed NASH phenotypes. GLP1/2-Fc reduced body weight, glucose levels, hepatic triglyceride levels, and cellular apoptosis. It improved liver fibrosis, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal tight junctions, and increased microvillus height, crypt depth, goblet cells of intestine compared to a vehicle group. Similar effects of GLP1/2-Fc were found in in vitro cell systems. GLP1/2-Fc also changed microbiome profiles. We applied fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in order to gain further insight into the mechanism of GLP1/2-Fc-mediated protection. We confirmed that FMT exerted an additive effect on GLP1-Fc group, including the body weight change, liver weight, hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation and hepatic fibrosis. CONCLUSION: A long-acting dual agonist of GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptors is a promising therapeutic strategy to treat NAFLD/NASH.

4.
Clin Hypertens ; 27(1): 21, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this prospective, multicenter, non-comparative observational study, the effectiveness and safety of the triple single-pill combination (SPC) of olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (OM/AML/HCTZ) were evaluated in a real clinical practice setting in Korean patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: A total of 3752 patients were enrolled and followed for 12 months after administration of OM/AML/HCTZ. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to month 6 in the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP). Secondary endpoints included changes from baseline in the mean SBP at month 3, 9, 12 and the mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at month 3, 6, 9, 12; changes in the mean SBP/DBP according to age and underlying risk factors; and blood pressure control rate (%) at different time points. Adherence to and satisfaction with OM/AML/HCTZ treatment among patients and physicians were assessed by medication possession ratio (MPR) and numeric rating scale, respectively, as exploratory endpoints. Safety was evaluated by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) as well as the discontinuation rate due to AEs. RESULTS: OM/AML/HCTZ administration led to significant reductions in the mean SBP/DBP by 11.5/6.6, 12.3/7.0, 12.3/7.2, and 12.8/7.4 mmHg from baseline to month 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively (P < 0.0001). The BP reductions were maintained throughout the 1-year observation period in all patients with different age groups and risk factors (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease). The BP control rate (%) of < 140/90 mmHg was 65.9, 67.9, 68.9, and 70.6% at month 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively. The mean MPR during the observation period was 0.96. The safety results were consistent with the previously reported safety profile of OM/AML/HCTZ. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with the triple SPC of OM/AML/HCTZ demonstrated significant effectiveness in reducing SBP/DBP and achieving target BP control with high adherence over the 1-year observation period in Korean hypertensive patients and was well-tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS, KCT0002196 , Registered 3 May 2016.

5.
Pain Physician ; 24(8): 571-576, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be encountered spontaneously or after procedures such as epidural or spinal anesthesia, intrathecal chemotherapy, CSF tapping, or other various spinal procedures. The leakage of CSF can lead to intracranial hypotension, which is associated with an orthostatic headache. For such patients with this type of headache, an epidural blood patch is the treatment of choice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and efficacy of an epidural blood patch for patients with spinal leakage of CSF. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital inpatients referred for consultation to the pain clinic. METHODS: Identification of patients with orthostatic headache was performed using the program Clinical Data Warehouse (CDW) v 2.5. Search word in CDW for analysis was "epidural blood patch." We carefully evaluated the demographics, etiology, clinical features of headache, associated phenomena other than headache, level and types of CSF leakage, and frequencies and outcomes of epidural blood patches. We allocated patients into 2 groups according to the cause of headache: spontaneous intracranial hypotension (group SIH) and post-dural puncture headache (group PDPH). RESULTS: The number of patients needing repeated epidural blood patches was significantly higher in the SIH group SIH in the PDPH group (P = 0.007). In the PDPH group, a targeted epidural blood patch was possible in 100% of the cases, whereas it was possible in only 66.7% of the patients in the SIH group, indicated by previous examination (P < 0.001). Forty patients (90.9%) and 17 patients (70.8%) achieved complete recovery from headache after a single epidural blood patch in the PDPH group and SIH group, respectively (P < 0.001). LIMITATION: The number of patients allocated to each group was not balanced because of the retrospective design. CONCLUSION: Most patients in the PDPH group required a single epidural blood patch to achieve complete recovery from headache. However, patients in the SIH group required repeated epidural blood patches for complete pain relief.

6.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827162

RESUMO

Predicting the regions at risk of invasion from IIAPS is an integral horizon-scanning activity that plays a crucial role in preventing, controlling, and eradicating invasive species. Here, we quantify the spatial distribution area and invasion risk of IIAPS using a species distribution model under different levels of environmental change in South Korea. From the model predictions, the current average spatial extent of the 10 IIAPS is 33,948 km2, and the individual spatial extents are estimated to change by -7% to 150% by 2050 and by -9% to 156% by 2070. The spatial invasion risk assessment shows that, currently, moderate-to-high invasion risk is limited to coastal areas and densely populated metropolitan cities (e.g., Seoul, Busan, and Gwangju), but that the area with this level of risk is expected to spread toward the central and northern regions of the country in the future, covering 86.21% of the total area of the country by 2070. These results demonstrate that the risk of invasion by IIAPS is estimated to enlarge across the whole country under future environmental changes. The modeling system provided in this study may contribute to the initial control and strategic management of IIAPS to maintain the dynamic ecosystems of South Korea.

7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109077, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599972

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is the most common risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, not all obese individuals develop diabetes. In the era of precision medicine, metabolomics may reveal the fundamental metabolic status of an individual. Our aim was to assess the association of metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes in obese individuals using Korean Genome and Epidemiology Cohort Study. METHODS: Using 12 years of metabolomic data from 2,580 individuals, we performed a metabolomic study to define metabolically healthy obesity in an obese population (n = 704) with incident type 2 diabetes. Cox proportional hazards regression model and survival analysis were performed adjusted for the traditional risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Our study revealed that spermine, acyl-alkyl phosphatidylcholines (C34:3, C36:3, C42:1), hydroxy sphingomyelin (C22:2, C14:1), and sphingomyelin (C16:0) were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in obese individuals after the adjustment for risk factors and correction of multiple comparisons by Bonferroni method. Five metabolites (except hydroxy sphingomyelin C14:1 and sphingomyelin C16:0) were also significantly associated with incident type 2 diabetes in lean individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for defining metabolically healthy obesity based on serum metabolites and elucidates potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes in an obese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metabolômica , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 181: 109082, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627943

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of urine protein to creatinine ratio (uPCR) in relation to the cardiovascular risk associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normoalbuminuria. METHODS: In this retrospective longitudinal study on T2D, we recruited 927 participants with normoalbuminuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio [uACR] < 30 mg/g) whose cIMT was measured at baseline and after at least 1 year, and whose initial uPCR and uACR data were available. RESULTS: Higher initial uPCR was positively correlated with a greater increment in maximal cIMT (ß = 0.074, p = 0.028), and this correlation was significant even after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (ß = 0.074, p = 0.046). High baseline uPCR was an independent predictive factor for the increased risk of maximal cIMT progression in a simple logistic regression model (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, [1.08-1.86]; p = 0.013). Even after adjusting for several confounding variables, higher uPCR was significantly associated with a higher risk of cIMT progression (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, [1.08-2.03]; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high uPCR may be a useful predictive marker for the progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis, even in subjects with T2D and without albuminuria.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Artérias Carótidas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Pain Physician ; 24(7): E1007-E1013, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saline or local anesthetic injection into the epidural space increases intracranial pressure (ICP), at least transiently. Measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using ocular ultrasonography is one of the noninvasive methods for ICP assessment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the different volume on the ONSD and cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during thoracic epidural saline injection under awake conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: An interventional pain management practice in South Korea. METHODS: This study included 71 patients receiving thoracic epidural catheterization for pain management, following upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. Following successful epidural space confirmation, patients were randomly allocated to receive 5 mL (5 mL group), 10 mL (10 mL group), and 20 mL (20 mL group) of epidural normal saline. Transorbital sonography was performed to measure the ONSD. This was measured at 3 mm posterior to the optic nerve head. An rSO2 was measured using cerebral oximeter sensors. RESULTS: All 3 groups showed significant increases of ONSD from 10 minutes to 40 minutes as compared to baseline (before procedure). Among the 3 groups, the 20 mL group demonstrated the most significantly increased ONSD, as compared to the 5 mL and 10 mL groups. At the 20 minute and 40 minute time points, the ONSD showed a volume-dependent increase (P = 0.0005, P = 0.014). All 3 groups showed the rSO2 to be distributed between 60~70% without any statistical difference. LIMITATIONS: We could not determine the returning point of the normalized ONSD value. CONCLUSION: Twenty milliliters of normal saline epidural injection resulted in a significant increase of ONSD, as compared to the 5 mL and 10 mL groups. Our results also indicate that an increase of ONSD occurs in accordance with the injected volume of normal saline.

10.
Pain Physician ; 24(7): E1129-E1135, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI) is a useful intervention for radicular leg pain. Compared to TFEI in lumbar level, S1 TFEI is reported to have higher incidence rates of intravascular injection as well as technical difficulties. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence rates of intravascular injection and foramen passage time between anteroposterior (AP) and oblique (OB) approaches. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial. SETTING: An interventional pain management practice in South Korea. METHODS: One hundred forty-seven patients receiving S1 TFEI for radicular leg pain were randomly assigned to one of 2 approach methods (AP view vs OB view). For S1 TFEI in the OB view group, lineup of the L5-S1 endplate was performed by adjusting the cephalad-caudad tilt. Then C-arm was rotated at an ipsilateral oblique angle, approximately 10° to 15°. After final confirmation of intravascular injection with real time fluoroscopy, the foramen passage time and amount of radiation exposure during S1 TFEI were measured. RESULTS: The incidence rate of intravascular injection in the AP view group was 24.2% (24/99), whereas that of intravascular injection in the OB view group was 10.1% (17/99, P = 0.008). The radiation dose required to pass the S1 foramen was significantly higher in the AP view group than in the OB view group (51.3 ± 27.2 cGy/cm2 vs 41.0 ± 17.0 cGy/cm2, P = 0.002). The foramen passage time during S1 TFEI was significantly higher in the AP view group than in the OB view group (103.5 ± 44.1 second vs 84.9 ± 21.0 second, P = 0.001). The failure rate of S1 TFEI was significantly higher in the AP view group than in the OB view group (13% vs 4%, P = 0.022). LIMITATION: The physicians involved in the present study were not blinded to the type of approach method (AP view vs OB view) by fluoroscopy. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated reduced incidence rates of intravascular injection and reduced foramen passage time and radiation dosage with the use of OB view method during S1 TFEI.

11.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 823-834, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. RESULTS: Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. CONCLUSION: The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinical practice.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 708547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489627

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Additionally, abnormal extracellular amyloid plaques accumulation and nerve damage caused by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and tau protein are characteristic of AD. Furthermore, AD is associated with oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial structure and function, denormalization, and inflammatory responses. Recently, besides the amyloid ß hypothesis, another hypothesis linking AD to systemic diseases has been put forth by multiple studies as a probable cause for AD. Particularly, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its features, including hyperinsulinemia, and chronic hyperglycemia with an inflammatory response, have been shown to be closely related to AD through insulin resistance. The brain cannot synthesize or store glucose, but it does require glucose, and the use of glucose in the brain is higher than that in any other organ in the mammalian body. One of the therapeutic drugs for T2DM, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, suppresses the degradation of incretins, glucagon-like peptides and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, recently used in T2DM treatment, have a unique mechanism of action via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption, and which is different from the mechanisms of previously used medications. This manuscript reviews the pathophysiological relationship between the two diseases, AD and T2DM, and the pharmacological effects of therapeutic T2DM drugs, especially DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors.

13.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503311

RESUMO

Background: Risk assessment tools have been actively studied, and they summarize key predictors with relative weights/importance for a disease. Currently, standardized screening scores for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-two key global health problems-are available in United States and Korea. We aimed to compare and evaluate screening scores for DM (or combined with prediabetes) and CKD, and assess the risk in contemporary United States and Korean populations. Methods: Four (2×2) models were evaluated in the United States-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015-2018) and Korea-NHANES (2016-2018)-8,928 and 16,209 adults. Weighted statistics were used to describe population characteristics. We used logistic regression for predictors in the models to assess associations with study outcomes (undiagnosed DM and CKD) and diagnostic measures for temporal and cross-validation. Results: Korean adult population (mean age 47.5 years) appeared to be healthier than United States counterpart, in terms of DM and CKD risks and associated factors, with exceptions of undiagnosed DM, prediabetes and prehypertension. Models performed well in own country and external populations regarding predictor-outcome association and discrimination. Risk tests (high vs. low) showed area under the curve >0.75, sensitivity >84%, specificity >45%, positive predictive value >8%, and negative predictive value >99%. Discrimination was better for DM, compared to the combined outcome of DM and prediabetes, and excellent for CKD due to age. Conclusion: Four easy-to-use screening scores for DM and CKD are well-validated in contemporary United States and Korean populations. Prevention of DM and CKD may serve as first-step in public health, with these self-assessment tools as basic tools to help health education and disparity.

14.
15.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118172, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543960

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and has long been considered to have significantly low toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates based on short-term toxicity tests (<56 d). However, long-term GBH toxicity assessment is necessary as GBH is repeatedly applied in the same field annually because of the advent of glyphosate-resistant crops. In this study, a multigeneration test was conducted where Allonychiurus kimi (Collembola) was exposed to GBH for three generations (referred to as F0, F1, and F2) to evaluate the long-term toxic effect. The endpoints used were adult survival and juvenile production for the individual level toxicity assessment. Phospholipid profile and population age structure were the endpoints used for sub-individual and population levels, respectively. GBH was observed to have no negative effects on adult survivals of all generations, but juvenile production was found to decrease in a concentration-dependent manner, with EC50s being estimated as 572.5, 274.8, and 59.8 mg a.i. kg-1 in the F0, F1, and F2 generations, respectively. The age structure of A. kimi population produced in the test of all generations was altered by GBH exposure, mainly because of the decrease in the number of young juveniles. Further, differences between the phospholipid profiles of the control and GBH treatments became apparent over generations, with PA 16:0, PA 12:0, and PS 42:0 lipids not being detected at the highest concentration of 741 mg kg-1 in F2. Considering all our findings from sub-individual to population levels, repeated and long-term use of GBH could have significantly higher negative impacts on non-target soil organisms than expected.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Herbicidas , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451649

RESUMO

Predicting the distribution of invasive weeds under climate change is important for the early identification of areas that are susceptible to invasion and for the adoption of the best preventive measures. Here, we predicted the habitat suitability of 16 invasive weeds in response to climate change and land cover changes in South Korea using a maximum entropy modeling approach. Based on the predictions of the model, climate change is likely to increase habitat suitability. Currently, the area of moderately suitable and highly suitable habitats is estimated to be 8877.46 km2, and 990.29 km2, respectively, and these areas are expected to increase up to 496.52% by 2050 and 1439.65% by 2070 under the representative concentration pathways 4.5 scenario across the country. Although habitat suitability was estimated to be highest in the southern regions (<36° latitude), the central and northern regions are also predicted to have substantial increases in suitable habitat areas. Our study revealed that climate change would exacerbate the threat of northward weed invasions by shifting the climatic barriers of invasive weeds from the southern region. Thus, it is essential to initiate control and management strategies in the southern region to prevent further invasions into new areas.

18.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440852

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate fibromodulin (FMOD) and myostatin (MSTN) gene expressions during skeletal muscle aging and to understand their involvements in this process. The expressions of genes related to muscle aging (Atrogin 1 and Glb1), diabetes (RAGE and CD163), and lipid accumulation (CD36 and PPARγ) and those of FMOD and MSTN were examined in CTX-injected, aged, MSTN-/-, and high-fat diet (HFD) mice and in C2C12 myoblasts treated with ceramide or grown under adipogenic conditions. Results from CTX-injected mice and gene knockdown experiments in C2C12 cells suggested the involvement of FMOD during muscle regeneration and myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Downregulation of the FMOD gene in MSTN-/- mice, and MSTN upregulation and FMOD downregulation in FMOD and MSTN knockdown C2C12 cells, respectively, during their differentiation, suggested FMOD negatively regulates MSTN gene expression, and MSTN positively regulates FMOD gene expression. The results of our in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate FMOD inhibits muscle aging by negatively regulating MSTN gene expression or by suppressing the action of MSTN protein, and that MSTN promotes muscle aging by positively regulating the expressions of Atrogin1, CD36, and PPARγ genes in muscle.


Assuntos
Fibromodulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceramidas/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibromodulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibromodulina/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miostatina/antagonistas & inibidores , Miostatina/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/patologia , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(43): 23435-23443, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432940

RESUMO

Here we report a palladium-catalysed difunctionalisation of unsaturated C-C bonds with acid chlorides. Formally, the C-COCl bond of an acid chloride is cleaved and added, with complete atom economy, across either strained alkenes or a tethered alkyne to generate new acid chlorides. The transformation does not require exogenous carbon monoxide, operates under mild conditions, shows a good functional group tolerance, and gives the isolated products with excellent stereoselectivity. The intermolecular reaction tolerates both aryl- and alkenyl-substituted acid chlorides and is successful when carboxylic acids are transformed to the acid chloride in situ. The reaction also shows an example of temperature-dependent stereodivergence which, together with plausible mechanistic pathways, is investigated by DFT calculations. Moreover, we show that benzofurans can be formed in an intramolecular variant of the reaction. Finally, derivatisation of the products from the intermolecular reaction provides a highly stereoselective approach for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted cyclopentanes.

20.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253010

RESUMO

Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is closely associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), an early renal tubular damage biomarker in DKD, could be related to the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Methods: A total of 300 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient elastography. The levels of urinary biomarkers, including u-NAG, albumin, protein, and creatinine, and glucometabolic parameters were measured. Results: Based on the median value of the u-NAG to creatinine ratio (u-NCR), subjects were divided into low and high u-NCR groups. The high u-NCR group showed a significantly longer duration of diabetes, worsened hyperglycemia, and a more enhanced hepatic fibrosis index. A higher u-NCR was associated with a greater odds ratio for the risk of higher hepatic fibrosis stage (F2: odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.82). Also, u-NCR was an independent predictive marker for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, even after adjusting for several confounding factors (ß=1.58, P<0.01). Conclusion: The elevation of u-NAG was independently associated with a higher degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Considering the common metabolic milieu of renal and hepatic fibrosis in T2DM, the potential use of u-NAG as an effective urinary biomarker reflecting hepatic fibrosis in T2DM needs to be validated in the future.

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