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1.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738261

RESUMO

Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Given its tendency to cluster geographically, spatial analyses may provide a better understanding of the pattern of varicella transmission. We investigated the spatial characteristics of varicella in Korea and the risk factors for varicella at a national level. Using national surveillance and demographic data, we examined the spatial distribution of incidence rates and their spatial autocorrelation and calculated Moran's index. Spatial regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic predictors of varicella incidence at the district level. An increasing tendency in the annual incidence of varicella was observed over a 12-year period (2006-2018), with a surge in 2017. There was a clear positive spatial autocorrelation of the varicella incidence rate during the surveillance period. During 2006-2014, High-High (HH) clusters were mostly confined to the northeast region and neighboring districts. The spatial error model showed that population density had a negative coefficient and childhood percentage, percentage of children under 12 years of age among the total population, had positive coefficient, whereas vaccine coverage was insignificant. The varicella incidence according to geographic region varied with population density, childhood percentage, suggesting the importance of community-level surveillance and monitoring strategies.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805919

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is one of the main components in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and treatment strategies are mostly directed toward manipulation of the AR pathway. In the metastatic setting, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). However, treatment response is short-lived, and the majority of patients ultimately progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Surmountable data from clinical trials have shown that the maintenance of AR signaling in the castration environment is accountable for disease progression. Study results indicate multiple factors and survival pathways involved in PCa. Based on these findings, the alternative molecular pathways involved in PCa progression can be manipulated to improve current regimens and develop novel treatment modalities in the management of CRPC. In this review, the interaction between AR signaling and other molecular pathways involved in tumor pathogenesis and its clinical implications in metastasis and advanced disease will be discussed, along with a thorough overview of current and ongoing novel treatments for AR signaling inhibition.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540949

RESUMO

Vaccine-related errors (VREs) result from mistakes in vaccine preparation, handling, storage, or administration. We aimed to assess physicians' and nurses' experiences of VREs in South Korea, focusing on reconstitution issues, and to understand the barriers to and facilitators of preventing them. This was a cross-sectional study using an internet-based survey to examine experiences of reconstitution-related errors, and experience or preference with regard to ready-to-use vaccines (RTU) by physicians and nurses. A total of 700 participants, including 250 physicians and 450 nurses, responded to the questionnaire. In total, 76.4% and 41.5% of the physicians and nurses, respectively, reported an error related to reconstituted vaccines. All errors had been reported as experienced by between 4.9% and 52.0% of physicians or nurses. The errors were reported to occur in more than one in 100 vaccinations for inadequate shaking of vaccines by 28.0% of physicians and 6.9% of nurses, incomplete aspiration of reconstitution vials by 28.0% of physicians and 6.4% of nurses, and spillage or leakage during reconstitution by 20.8% of physicians and 6.9% of nurses. A total of 94.8% of physicians had experience with RTU vaccines, and all preferred RTU formulations. In conclusion, this study highlights the high frequency and types of reconstitution-related errors in South Korea. RTU vaccines could help reduce the time needed for preparation and reduce the risk of errors in South Korea.

4.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(2): 558-566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. CONCLUSION: The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 167: 35-45, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227331

RESUMO

To develop an efficient vector for mitochondria-targeted drug delivery, we synthesized triphenylphosphonium (TPP)-modified glycol chitosan polymeric microspheres that had a unique chemical structure with both lipophilic phenyl groups and cationic phosphonium. Notably, TPP can easily pass through the phospholipid bilayer of mitochondria, thereby resulting in specific accumulation of a combined drug molecule in the mitochondria due to the membrane potential between TPP and its membrane. Therefore, TPP has been widely used as a mitochondria-targeting moiety. Triphenylphosphonium-glycol chitosan derivatives (GC-TPP and GME-TPP) with two different degrees of substitution (11% and 36%) were prepared by amidation and Michael addition. The chemical structures of GC-TPP and GME-TPP were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and their sizes were measured via field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Cellular uptake through flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy confirmed that both GC-TPP and GME-TPP were well introduced into cells, targeting the mitochondria. In addition, cytotoxicity testing of the most common cell lines, such as HEK293, HeLa, NIH3T3, and HepG2, indicated the absence of polymer toxicity. To evaluate the carrier effectiveness of TPP for drug delivery, doxorubicin (Dox) was used as an anticancer drug. Confocal microscopy images showed that Dox-loaded GME-TPP accumulated inside cells more than Dox-loaded GC-TPP. The anticancer effects of Dox were also determined by MTT assay, apoptosis/necrosis assay, and three-dimensional spheroids. In summary, the results indicate that GC-TPP and GME-TPP microspheres possess great potential as effective drug delivery carriers.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Microesferas , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Compostos Organofosforados/síntese química , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198356

RESUMO

Metformin, an oral biguanide used for first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has attracted attention for its anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and protein synthesis, induction of apoptosis and autophagy by p53 and p21, and decreased blood insulin level have been suggested as direct anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin. Research has shown that PCa development and progression are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Therefore, reduction in the risk of PCa and improvement in survival in metformin users may be the results of the direct anti-cancer mechanisms of the drug or the secondary effects from improvement of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, some research has suggested that there is no association between metformin use and PCa incidence or survival. In this comprehensive review, we summarize updated evidence on the relationship between metformin use and oncological effects in patients with PCa. We also highlight ongoing clinical trials evaluating metformin as an adjuvant therapy in novel drug combinations in various disease settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Autofagia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Risco , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
8.
World J Urol ; 38(10): 2469-2476, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The delivery of precision medicine is a primary objective for both clinical and translational investigators. Patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) face the challenge of deciding among multiple initial treatment modalities. The purpose of this study is to utilize artificial neural network (ANN) modeling to predict survival outcomes according to initial treatment modality and to develop an online decision-making support system. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from 7267 patients diagnosed with PCa between January 1988 and December 2017. The analyses included 19 pretreatment clinicopathological covariates. Multilayer perceptron (MLP), MLP for N-year survival prediction (MLP-N), and long short-term memory (LSTM) ANN models were used to analyze progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), according to initial treatment modality. The performances of the ANN and the Cox-proportional hazards regression models were compared using Harrell's C-index. RESULTS: The ANN models provided higher predictive power for 5- and 10-year progression to CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS compared to the Cox-proportional hazards regression model. The LSTM model achieved the highest predictive power, followed by the MLP-N, and MLP models. We developed an online decision-making support system based on the LSTM model to provide individualized survival outcomes at 5 and 10 years, according to the initial treatment strategy. CONCLUSION: The LSTM ANN model may provide individualized survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment strategy. Our online decision-making support system can be utilized by patients and health-care providers to determine the optimal initial treatment modality and to guide survival predictions.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(11): 793-799, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify the demographic variables that are affecting performances on the Logical Memory (LM) subtest included in the Korean version of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-IV and to provide normative data on the LM subtest for the middle-age and elderly Korean people. METHODS: The participants were 435 non-demented adults aging from 50 to 90 and with the educational level ranging from 0 to 21 years. RESULTS: Age and education were found to be significantly associated with performance on the LM subtest, while gender effect was not statistically significant. Therefore, we stratified the norm blocks by age and education. Age was divided into three groups: 50-59, 60-74, and 75-90 years. Education was stratified into three groups: 0-8 years, 9-12 years, and 13 years or more. CONCLUSION: The normative data provided in the current study are expected to be useful in clinical and research settings to detect or define subtle changes in episodic memory in Korean adults and elderly, and can also be used for cross-cultural comparison of verbal episodic memory performance among elderly populations using different languages.

11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e245, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364576

RESUMO

In the Republic of Korea, despite the introduction of one-dose universal varicella vaccination in 2005 and achieving a high coverage rate of 98.9% in 2012, the incidence rate has been increased sevenfold. This study aimed to investigate time trends of varicella incidence rate, assessing the age, period and birth cohort effects. We used national data on the annual number of reported cases from 2006 to 2017. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used to estimate age-period-cohort effects on varicella incidence rate. From 2006 to 2017, the incidence of varicella increased from 22.5 cases to more than 154.8 cases per 100 000. Peak incidence has shifted from 4 to 6 years old. The estimated period and cohort effects showed significant upward patterns, with a linear increasing trend by net drift. There has been an increase in the incidence among the Korean population regarding period and cohort despite the universal vaccination of varicella vaccine. Our data suggest the need for additional studies to address the current gap in herd immunity.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/administração & dosagem , Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Incidência , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960280

RESUMO

Highly efficient and safe gene delivery has become an important aspect of neuronal gene therapy. We evaluated the ability of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer grafted with phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine (PAMAM-FHR), a nonviral gene delivery vector, to deliver a therapeutic, tumor cell-specific killer gene, apoptin, into the human primary glioma cell line GBL-14 and human dermal fibroblasts. We performed a transfection assay using plasmids of luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and assessed cell viability. Both cell lines were treated with complexes of PAMAM-FHR and apoptin after which their intracellular uptake and localization were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Confocal microscopy showed that the PAMAM-FHR escaped from the endo-lysosome into the cytosol. Cell cycle phase distribution analysis, annexin V staining, and a tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) assay established that apoptin triggered apoptosis in the GBL-14 cell line but not in normal fibroblasts. These results indicated that the PAMAM-FHR/apoptin complex is an effective gene vehicle for cancer therapy in vitro.

13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(10): e83, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886550

RESUMO

Background: In Korea, the incidence of varicella has increased despite the introduction of a universal one-dose vaccination for children aged 12-15 months in 2005. A previous study demonstrated that the vaccine effectiveness was insufficient to prevent against varicella. We assessed the effect of the varicella vaccination on disease severity. Methods: Epidemiologic investigation of varicella cases in Seoul metropolitan area from 2015 to 2017 were used. Varicella-related symptoms such as rash were determined by the clinical practitioners. Disease severity of patients was assessed by the number of skin lesions and divided into mild (≤ 50) and moderate (51-249) to severe (≥ 250). Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed and age was controlled. Results: Among a total of 1,008 varicella cases reported, 869 cases were breakthrough cases and 139 were unvaccinated cases. The risk for occurrence of moderate-to-severe disease in the breakthrough group was 0.57 times less than that of the unvaccinated group. Conclusion: These data suggest that national varicella vaccination may have a significant effect on attenuation of disease severity in children.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/patologia , Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação
14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 16(1): 104, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat to kill cancer cells, respectively has attracted considerable attention because it gives synergistic effects on the cancer treatment by utilizing the radiation of nontoxic low-energy photons such as long wavelength visible light and near IR (NIR) penetrating into subcutaneous region. For the effective combination of the phototherapies, various organic photosensitizer-conjugated gold nanocomplexes have been developed, but they have still some disadvantages due to photobleaching and unnecessary energy transfer of the organic photosensitizers. RESULTS: In this study, we fabricated novel inorganic phototherapeutic nanocomplexes (Au NR-TiO2 NCs) by conjugating gold nanorods (Au NRs) with defective TiO2 nanoparticle clusters (d-TiO2 NP clusters) and characterized their optical and photothermal properties. They were observed to absorb a broad range of visible light and near IR (NIR) from 500 to 1000 nm, exhibiting the generation of ROS as well as the photothermal effect for the simultaneous application of PDT and PTT. The resultant combination of PDT and PTT treatments of HeLa cells incubated with the nanocomplexes caused a synergistic increase in the cell death compared to the single treatment. CONCLUSION: The higher efficacy of cell death by the combination of PDT and PTT treatments with the nanocomplexes is likely attributed to the increases of ROS generation from the TiO2 NCs with the aid of local surface plasma resonance (LSPR)-induced hot electrons and heat generation from Au NRs, suggesting that Au NR-TiO2 NCs are promising nanomaterials for the in vivo combinatorial phototherapy of cancer.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanotubos/química , Fotoquimioterapia , Titânio , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(46): e304, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416412

RESUMO

Background: The Republic of Korea has a very low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the number of new HIV diagnoses has steadily risen, strongly indicating a large number of undetected HIV infections. Thus, it is important for Korean public health authorities to adopt and encourage cost-effective HIV detection tools, such as rapid HIV screening tests. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and rapid tests in a public health center (PHC) setting. Methods: We developed a decision analytic model to assess the per-examinee cost and the cost-effectiveness of identifying HIV patients in a PHC setting using two HIV testing strategies: conventional HIV screening by ELISA versus rapid HIV testing. Analysis was performed in two scenarios: HIV testing in an average-risk population and in a high-risk population. Results: Compared to the ELISA, the rapid test was cost-saving and cost-effective. The per-examinee cost was USD 1.61 with rapid testing versus USD 3.38 with ELISA in an average-risk population, and USD 4.77 with rapid testing versus USD 7.62 with ELISA in a high-risk population. The cost of identifying a previously undiagnosed HIV case was USD 26,974 with rapid testing versus USD 42,237 with ELISA in an average-risk population, and USD 153 with rapid testing versus USD 183 with ELISA in a high-risk population. Conclusion: Rapid testing would be more cost-effective than using conventional ELISA testing for identifying previously undiagnosed HIV-infected cases in Korea, a country with extremely low HIV prevalence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/economia , República da Coreia , Risco , Testes Sorológicos
16.
Infect Chemother ; 50(4): 346-349, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600658

RESUMO

In 2015, rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing was implemented in all 25 public health centers in Seoul. During March and December 2015, 20,987 rapid HIV tests were performed, of which 116 (0.5%) were positive. Compared to those of the period before application of the rapid HIV test in place of conventional enzyme immunoassay method, the number of HIV tests performed and the number of positive results increased by sevenfold and twofold, respectively. In conclusion, expansion of the provision of rapid HIV tests in public health centers increased the number of voluntary HIV tests.

17.
AIDS Care ; 30(3): 289-295, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859484

RESUMO

This study examined factors associated with the intention to take an HIV test among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Korea. An internet website-based survey was conducted among users of the only and largest online MSM website between 20 July 2016, and 20 August 2016. A total of 2915 participants completed the survey and answered questions related to sociodemographic information, health behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing history. Of these, 2587 (88.7%) participants responded as having an intention to take an HIV test. A multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the following as having reduced the intention to undergo HIV testing: very good subjective health status and no sexual interactions during the last 6 months (Adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 0.45 and 0.54, respectively). In contrast, increased intention to take an HIV test was associated with being 20-29 years old, 30-39 years old, not paying or receiving money for sex, having a history of HIV testing, and taking an HIV test once per 12 months (AOR 2.64, 2.13, 1.54, 1.81, and 2.17, respectively). In conclusion, HIV testing among MSM in this study was associated with age, subjective health status, sex(es) of one's sexual partner(s) during the last 6 months, sexual risk behaviors, HIV testing history, and undergoing regular HIV testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Intenção , Programas de Rastreamento , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(21): 17606-17615, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597391

RESUMO

In this study, to examine the accumulated micropollutants in the spent carbon filter used in the water purifier, first, the method to desorb micropollutant from the activated carbon was developed and optimized. Then, using this optimized desorption conditions, we examined which micropollutants exist in spent carbon filters collected from houses in different regions in Korea where water purifiers were used. A total of 11 micropollutants (caffeine (CFF), acetaminophen (ACT), sulfamethazine (SMA), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), metoprolol (MTP), carbamazepine (CBM), naproxen (NPX), bisphenol-A (BPA), ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DCF), and triclocarban (TCB)) were analyzed using LC/MS-MS from the spent carbon filters. CFF, NPX, and DCF had the highest detection frequencies (>60%) in the carbon filters (n = 100), whereas SMA, SMZ, and MTP were only detected in the carbon filters, but not in the tap waters (n = 25), indicating that these micropollutants, which exist less than the detection limit in tap water, were accumulated in the carbon filters. The regional micropollutant detection patterns in the carbon filters showed higher levels of micropollutants, especially NPX, BPA, IBU, and DCF, in carbon filters collected in the Han River and Nakdong River basins where large cities exist. The levels of micropollutants in the carbon filter were generally lower in the regions where advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were employed at nearby water treatment plants (WTPs), indicating that AOP process in WTP is quite effective in removing micropollutant. Our results suggest that desorption of micropollutant from the carbon filter used can be a tool to identify micropollutants present in tap water with trace amounts or below the detection limit.


Assuntos
Carbono , Purificação da Água , República da Coreia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 57: 92-97, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To characterize the temporal dynamics of mumps epidemiology according to the different vaccine strains used, sex-specific trends were decomposed in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis for mumps cases reported in South Korea. METHODS: National surveillance data were used to describe the epidemiology of mumps cases from 2001 to 2015. An APC model was used to break down the reported mumps cases into the effects of age, period, and birth cohort. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2015, the incidence started to increase from fewer than 10 cases to more than 100 cases per 100 000. The incidence rate was highest among males aged 15-17 years during 2013-2015, reaching 508.7 per 100 000 persons. There was an increased incidence during the late teenage years in the 1998-2000 cohort. An age shift towards the earlier teenage years was observed across the 2001-2003 and 2004-2006 cohorts. The risk of mumps increased according to the birth cohort; the net drift from 2001 to 2015 was 27.67 (95% confidence interval 27.5.47-29.90) for males and 27.25 (95% confidence interval 24.91-29.65) for females. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in mumps seen in Korea may have been affected by the birth cohort exposed to the Rubini strain; however other factors may have contributed to the increase in non-exposed cohorts.


Assuntos
Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 31(12): 1897-1901, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822926

RESUMO

A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
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