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1.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. DESIGNS: This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47.5%) discontinued NA treatment within 6 months after HBsAg seroclearance (NA discontinuation group) and 145 (52.5%) continued NA treatment (NA continuation group). Primary endpoint was HBsAg reversion and secondary endpoints included serum HBV DNA redetection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RESULTS: During follow-up (median=26.9 months, IQR=12.2-49.2 months), 10 patients (3.6%) experienced HBsAg reversion, 6 (2.2%) showed HBV DNA redetection and 8 (2.9%) developed HCC. Compared with NA continuation, NA discontinuation was not associated with HBsAg reversion in both univariable (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.12 to 1.76, log-rank p=0.24) and multivariable analyses (adjusted HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.16 to 2.59, p=0.54). The cumulative probabilities of HBsAg reversion at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.8%, 2.3% and 5.0% in the NA discontinuation group, and 1.5%, 6.3% and 8.4% in the NA continuation group, respectively. NA discontinuation was not associated with higher risk of either HBV redetection (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.16 to 4.16, log-rank p=0.82) or HCC development (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.12 to 2.23, log-rank p=0.38). CONCLUSION: The discontinuation of NA was not associated with a higher risk of either HBsAg reversion, serum HBV DNA redetection or HCC development compared with NA continuation among patients who achieved HBsAg seroclearance with NA.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220301

RESUMO

Metastatic prostate cancer is characterized by recurrent genomic copy number alterations that are presumed to contribute to resistance to hormone therapy. We identified CHD1 loss as a cause of antiandrogen resistance in an in vivo small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen of 730 genes deleted in prostate cancer. ATAC-seq and RNA-seq analyses showed that CHD1 loss resulted in global changes in open and closed chromatin with associated transcriptomic changes. Integrative analysis of this data, together with CRISPR-based functional screening, identified four transcription factors (NR3C1, POU3F2, NR2F1, and TBX2) that contribute to antiandrogen resistance, with associated activation of non-luminal lineage programs. Thus, CHD1 loss results in chromatin dysregulation, thereby establishing a state of transcriptional plasticity that enables the emergence of antiandrogen resistance through heterogeneous mechanisms.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2277, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042021

RESUMO

Megakaryocytes (MKs) play key roles in regulating bone metabolism. To test the roles of MK-secreted factors, we investigated whether MK and promegakaryocyte (pro-MK) conditioned media (CM) may affect bone formation and resorption. K562 cell lines were differentiated into mature MKs. Mouse bone marrow macrophages were differentiated into mature osteoclasts, and MC3T3-E1 cells were used for osteoblastic experiments. Bone formation was determined by a calvaria bone formation assay in vivo. Micro-CT analyses were performed in the femurs of ovariectomized female C57B/L6 and Balb/c nude mice after intravenous injections of MK or pro-MK CM. MK CM significantly reduced in vitro bone resorption, largely due to suppressed osteoclastic resorption activity. Compared with pro-MK CM, MK CM suppressed osteoblastic differentiation, but stimulated its proliferation, resulting in stimulation of calvaria bone formation. In ovariectomized mice, treatment with MK CM for 4 weeks significantly increased trabecular bone mass parameters, such as bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, in nude mice, but not in C57B/L6 mice. In conclusion, MKs may secrete anti-resorptive and anabolic factors that affect bone tissue, providing a novel insight linking MKs and bone cells in a paracrine manner. New therapeutic agents against metabolic bone diseases may be developed from MK-secreted factors.

4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110824, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056616

RESUMO

Due to strong regulation of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers (NPPs) have been introduced to the industrial market. In this study, concentrations of 16 phthalates and five NPPs in sediment were measured to investigate the occurrence, potential source, and ecotoxicological implications of these contaminants. Phthalates and NPPs were detected in all sediment samples, indicating ubiquitous contaminants. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) were the dominant for phthalates and NPPs, respectively, implying emerging contamination by TOTM. Spatial distribution of these contaminants showed decreasing gradients from inner to outer bays. Clear declining trends in phthalate and NPP concentrations were found in sediment near a wastewater treatment plant outfall, suggesting a potential source of contamination. Approximately 95% of sediment samples exceeded sediment quality guidelines for DEHP suggested by previous studies, implying that benthic organisms are suffering from adverse biological effects. This is the first report on the occurrence of NPPs in the coastal environment.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2671, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060386

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a complex disease consisting of various components including steatosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning degeneration, with or without fibrosis. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose NASH with only one imaging modality. This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting NASH and to develop a non-invasive multiparametric MR index for the detection of NASH in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. This prospective study included 47 NAFLD patients who were scheduled to undergo or underwent ultrasound-guided liver biopsy within 2 months. Biopsy specimens were graded as NASH or non-NASH. All patients underwent non-enhanced MRI including MR spectroscopy (MRS), MR elastography (MRE), and T1 mapping. Diagnostic performances of MRS, MRE, and T1 mapping for grading steatosis, activity, and fibrosis were evaluated. A multiparametric MR index combining fat fraction (FF), liver stiffness (LS) value, and T1 relaxation time was developed using linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the newly devised MR index. Twenty NASH patients and 27 non-NASH patients were included. Using MRS, MRE, and T1 mapping, the mean areas under the curve (AUCs) for grading steatosis, fibrosis, and activity were 0.870, 0.951, and 0.664, respectively. The multiparametric MR index was determined as 0.037 × FF (%) + 1.4 × LS value (kPa) + 0.004 × T1 relaxation time (msec) -3.819. ROC curve analysis of the MR index revealed an AUC of 0.883. The cut-off value of 6 had a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 85.2%. The multiparametric MR index combining FF, LS value, and T1 relaxation time showed high diagnostic performance for detecting NASH in NAFLD patients.

6.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1428-1437, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015092

RESUMO

Genomic rearrangements leading to the aberrant expression of ERG are the most common early events in prostate cancer and are significantly enriched for the concomitant loss of PTEN. Genetically engineered mouse models reveal that ERG overexpression alone is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis, but combined loss of PTEN results in an aggressive invasive phenotype. Here, we show that oncogenic ERG repressed PI3K signaling through direct transcriptional suppression of IRS2, leading to reduced RTK levels and activity. In accordance with this finding, ERG-positive human prostate cancers had a repressed AKT gene signature and transcriptional downregulation of IRS2. Although overexpression of IRS2 activated PI3K signaling, promoting cell migration in a PI3K-dependent manner, this did not fully recapitulate the phenotype seen with loss of PTEN as PI3K signaling is not as robust as observed in the setting of loss of PTEN. Importantly, deletions of the PTEN locus, which promotes active PI3K signaling, were among the most significant copy-number alterations that co-occurred with ERG genomic rearrangements. This work provides insight on how initiating oncogenic events may directly influence the selection of secondary concomitant alterations to promote oncogenic signaling during tumor evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides insight on how initiating oncogenic events may directly influence the selection of secondary concomitant alterations to promote tumorigenesis.

7.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985039

RESUMO

Ferroptosis has been reported as a unique form of cell death. However, in recent years, researchers have increasingly challenged the uniqueness of ferroptosis compared to other types of cell death. In this study, we examined whether ferroptosis shares cell death pathways with other types of cell death, especially autophagy, via the autophagic process. Here, we observed that ferroptosis inducers (artesunate [ART] and erastin [ERA]) and autophagy inducers (bortezomib [BOR] and XIE62-1004) led to autophagosome formation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Unlike XIE62-1004, ART, ERA, and BOR, which affect glutathione production or utilization, induced oxidative stress responses-an increase in the levels of heme oxygenase-1 and lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress responses were attenuated by deletion of autophagy-related gene-5 or treatment with autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin and chloroquine). Our studies provide an overview of common death pathways-the ER stress response-associated autophagic process in ferroptosis and autophagy. We also highlight the role played by glutathione redox system in the outcome of the autophagic process.

8.
EMBO Rep ; 21(2): e48097, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782602

RESUMO

TMEM16A, a Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel, is known to modulate the excitability of various types of cells; however, its function in central neurons is largely unknown. Here, we show the specific expression of TMEM16A in the medial habenula (mHb) via RNAscope in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology. When TMEM16A is ablated in the mHb cholinergic neurons (TMEM16A cKO mice), the slope of after-hyperpolarization of spontaneous action potentials decreases and the firing frequency is reduced. Reduced mHb activity also decreases the activity of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Moreover, TMEM16A cKO mice display anxiogenic behaviors and deficits in social interaction without despair-like phenotypes or cognitive dysfunctions. Finally, chemogenetic inhibition of mHb cholinergic neurons using the DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) approach reveals similar behavioral phenotypes to those of TMEM16A cKO mice. We conclude that TMEM16A plays a key role in anxiety-related behaviors regulated by mHb cholinergic neurons and could be a potential therapeutic target against anxiety-related disorders.

9.
Gut Liver ; 14(1): 117-124, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970445

RESUMO

Backgrounds/Aims: Rebleeding of gastric varices (GVs) after endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) can be fatal. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) for the prediction of rebleeding after EVO GV bleeding. Methods: Patients who were treated with EVO for GV bleeding and underwent CT before and after EVO were included. CT images of the portal phase showing pretreatment GVs and feeding vessels, and nonenhanced images showing posttreatment cyanoacrylate impaction were reviewed. Results: Fifty-three patients were included. Their mean age was 60.6±11.6 years, and 40 patients (75.5%) were men. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying liver disease (45.3%). Complete impaction of cyanoacrylate in GVs and feeding vessels were achieved in 40 (75.5%) and 24 (45.3%) of patients, respectively. During the follow-up, GV rebleeding occurred in nine patients, and the cumulative incidences of GV rebleeding at 3, 6, and 12 months were 11.8%, 18.9%, and 18.9%, respectively. The GV rebleeding rate did not differ significantly according to the complete cyanoacrylate impaction in the GV, while it differed significantly according to complete cyanoacrylate impaction in the feeding vessels. The cumulative incidences of GV rebleeding at 3, 6, and 12 months were 22.3%, 35.2%, and 35.2%, respectively, in patients with incomplete impaction in feeding vessels, and there was no rebleeding during the follow-up period in patients with complete impaction in the feeding vessels (p=0.002). Conclusions: Abdominal CT is useful in the evaluation of the treatment response after EVO for GV bleeding. Incomplete cyanoacrylate impaction in feeding vessels is a risk factor for GV rebleeding.

10.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(1): 132-138, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859618

RESUMO

Introduction. The bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has emerged as a major threat to kiwifruit cultivation throughout the world. One pandemic strain (from the Psa3 group) has occurred in various geographical regions. It is important to understand how this pathogen is being transmitted.Aim. Although Psa has been found in Korea since 1992, the isolates were until recently of a distinct type (Psa2). Recently, the more virulent Psa3 type has been detected. The purpose of this study was to describe the variety of Psa3 now found in Korea.Methodology. Strains were isolated from kiwifruit plants in Korea and from pollen imported into Korea from New Zealand. The genomes of 10 isolates were sequenced using the Illumina platform and compared to the completely assembled genomes of pandemic Psa3 strains from New Zealand and China. Comparisons were also made with pandemic strains from Chile and non-pandemic Psa3 isolates from China.Results. Six of the 10 Psa3 isolates from Korea show a clear relationship with New Zealand isolates. Two isolates show a distinct relationship to isolates from Chile; one further isolate has a sequence that is highly similar to that of M228, a strain previously isolated in China; and the last isolate belongs to the Psa3 group, but is not a member of the pandemic lineage.Conclusion. This analysis establishes that there have been multiple routes of transmission of the Psa3 pandemic strain into Korea. One route has involved the importation of pollen from New Zealand. A second route probably involves importation from Chile.


Assuntos
Actinidia/microbiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pólen/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/classificação , Pseudomonas syringae/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Coreia (Geográfico) , Pseudomonas syringae/genética
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Since there is a shortage of liver donors, we investigated recurrence patterns and outcomes after liver resection (LR) to determine the feasibility of salvage liver transplantation (SLT). METHODS: We analyzed 468 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria (MC) who were mainly associated with Hepatitis B virus infection (76.3%) and had undergone curative LR as an initial treatment. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates were 86.6% and 67.4% at 5 and 10 years after LR, respectively. During a median follow-up of 59 months, 211 patients experienced recurrences including 175 (37.4%) within MC and 36 (7.7%) beyond MC. Survival was lowest in patients with beyond MC-recurrence followed by within MC- and no-recurrence groups (26.5%, 86.6%, and 94.7% at 5 years, respectively, P<0.001). Independent pathologic predictors of recurrence beyond MC were the presence of satellite nodules, microvascular invasion, and unfavorable gross findings (multinodular confluent and infiltrative) (all, P<0.05). Patients with all three risk factors experienced recurrence with the highest cumulative incidence of mortality. Among 173 patients with recurrence within MC, the cumulative incidence of HCC progression beyond MC despite resection and locoregional treatment (LRT) was 29% and 60% at 5 and 10 years after recurrence, respectively, and their 10-year OS rate was 25.8%. CONCLUSION: Curative LR achieved a 5-year survival of>85% in patients with transplantable HCC, but early SLT after recurrence within MC is advocated because of poor survival and high risk of progression thereafter. Further, prophylactic LT could be considered for those with high risk of recurrence.

12.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878771

RESUMO

Background/Aims: To prevent the perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from mother to child, administration of an antiviral agent during pregnancy has been attempted in women who are either hepatitis B e antigen positive or have a high viral load. In this systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized controlled trials, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in preventing the perinatal transmission of HBV in pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers. Methods: Multiple comprehensive databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) were searched for studies evaluating the efficacy of TDF for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV. Results: Two studies (one open label study and one double blind study) were included and analyzed. Intention-to-treat analysis (527 pregnancies) showed that the preventive effect of TDF was not significant (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 2.17; p = 0.38, I2 = 81%). However, the per-protocol analysis showed that TDF significantly reduced perinatal transmission (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.77; p = 0.03, I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between the TDF group and the control group with respect to maternal and fetal safety outcomes. Conclusions: In pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers, TDF can reduce the perinatal transmission from mother to child without significant adverse events.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731761

RESUMO

Exosome-like extracellular vesicles (ELVs) contain biomolecules that have potential as diagnostic biomarkers, such as proteins, micro-RNAs (miRNAs), and lipids. However, it is difficult to enrich ELVs consistently with high yield and purity from clinical samples, which hampers the development of ELV biomarkers. This is particularly true for miRNAs in protein-rich plasma. Hence, we modified ELV isolation protocols of three commercially available polymer-precipitation-based kits using proteinase K (PK) treatment to quantify ELV-associated miRNAs in human plasma. We compared the yield, purity, and characteristics of enriched plasma ELVs, and measured the relative quantity of three selected miRNAs (miR-30c, miR-126, and miR-192) in ELVs using six human plasma samples. Compared with the original protocols, we demonstrated that ELVs can be isolated with PK treatment with high purity (i.e., lack of non-exosomal proteins and homogeneous size of vesicles) and yield (i.e., abundancy of exosomal markers), which were dependent on kits. Using the kit with the highest purity and yield with PK treatment, we successfully quantified ELV miRNAs (levels of 45%-65% in total plasma) with acceptable variability. Collectively, ELV enrichment using the modified easy-to-use method appears suitable for the analysis of miRNAs, although its clinical applicability needs to be confirmed in larger clinical studies.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17277, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574842

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and it is a main cause of death in women. As with breast cancer, metabolic components are important risk factors for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with breast cancer and the impact of NAFLD on the prognosis of breast cancer.Patients with breast cancer were enrolled in the study from January 2007 to June 2017. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated through non-enhanced computed tomography scan by measuring Hounsfield Units in the liver and spleen, respectively; 123 healthy controls who underwent non-enhanced computed tomography scan were also analyzed.The prevalence of NAFLD in patients with breast cancer was 15.8% (251/1587), which was significantly higher than in healthy controls (8.9%, 11/123) (P = .036). Overall survival did not significantly differ between the groups with and without NAFLD (P = .304). However, recurrence-free survival was significantly higher in patients without NAFLD than in those with NAFLD (P = .009). Among breast cancer patients receiving endocrine treatment, the NAFLD group showed a higher cumulative incidence of significant liver injury than the group without NAFLD (P < .001).The prevalence of NAFLD in patients with breast cancer is significantly higher than in healthy controls. Moreover, breast cancer patients with NAFLD showed poorer prognosis in terms of recurrence. Therefore, diagnostic evaluation for NALFD is important in managing patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Anal Chem ; 91(20): 13297-13305, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549806

RESUMO

Exosomes are nanosized vesicles commonly found in biological fluids as a result of a secretion process involving endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The isolation and analysis of exosomes can be useful for noninvasive clinical diagnosis of a variety of human diseases. We investigated the utility of analyzing exosomal proteins, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR-MS), as a means of determining the presence of exosomes. MALDI-FTICR-MS analyses of exosomes enriched from human serum via centrifugation in a mass range of m/z 1000-20 000 yielded a distinctive protein around m/z 7766. The high mass accuracy and resolution of MALDI-FTICR-MS allowed for reliable comparisons against a protein database, through which the protein was identified as platelet factor 4 (PLF4), whose singly charged protein peak has an elemental composition of C341H577N96O101S4+, with a theoretical most abundant isotopic peak at m/z 7765.194 and a theoretical average peak at m/z 7766. The MALDI-TOF MS analysis of exosomes from the serum of 27 patients with different states of liver diseases provided the most abundant PLF4 peak for each mass spectrum, along with several additional minor peaks. In conclusion, MALDI-MS is suitable as an alternative exosome detection method, serving as a valuable confirmation tool, greatly decreasing the time and workload associated with exosome identification.

16.
Cell Metab ; 30(5): 877-889.e7, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474565

RESUMO

Activation of hepatocyte cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) by hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-derived 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) drives de novo lipogenesis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). How alcohol stimulates 2-AG production in HSCs is unknown. Here, we report that chronic alcohol consumption induced hepatic cysteine deficiency and subsequent glutathione depletion by impaired transsulfuration pathway. A compensatory increase in hepatic cystine-glutamate anti-porter xCT boosted extracellular glutamate levels coupled to cystine uptake both in mice and in patients with ALD. Alcohol also induced the selective expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) in HSCs where mGluR5 activation stimulated 2-AG production. Consistently, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of mGluR5 or xCT attenuated alcoholic steatosis in mice via the suppression of 2-AG production and subsequent CB1R-mediated de novo lipogenesis. We conclude that a bidirectional signaling operates at a metabolic synapse between hepatocytes and HSCs through xCT-mediated glutamate-mGluR5 signaling to produce 2-AG, which induces CB1R-mediated alcoholic steatosis.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 354-360, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351279

RESUMO

Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that cause adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Due to domestic and global regulations of phthalates in commercial products, non-phthalate plasticizers (NPPs) have been introduced into industrial markets. Few studies have been conducted on the occurrence of phthalates and NPPs in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, sludge samples were collected from 40 WWTPs in Korea to investigate the occurrence, compositional profiles, and emission flux of phthalates and NPPs. Total concentrations of phthalates and NPPs in sludge ranged from 4.7 to 1400 (mean: 110) µg/g dry weight and from 0.17 to 780 (mean: 28.0) µg/g dry weight, respectively. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a predominant compound, suggesting widespread consumption in Korea. Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT) was dominant in industrial sludge samples, whereas di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) and trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) were dominant in domestic sludge. This implies different consumption patterns of phthalate alternatives by industry and domestic activities. Concentrations of NPPs were significantly correlated with those of high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, indicating that HMW phthalates were preferentially replaced by NPPs. The emission fluxes of phthalates via domestic WWTP activities were higher than those measured for industrial WWTPs, while the emission fluxes of NPPs via industrial WWTPs were higher than those found for domestic and industrial WWTPs. This indicates that phthalate emissions are associated with household activities, while NPP emissions are associated with industrial activities.

18.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(9): 1577-1586, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296553

RESUMO

On the basis of our previous work defining the molecular rationale for combined targeting of the PI3K and AR pathways in PTEN loss prostate cancer, the first clinical trial was recently reported demonstrating a significant benefit for combination therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In this phase II trial, loss of PTEN was a biomarker predictive of response to combined AKT and AR inhibition. Given that PTEN loss prostate cancers are significantly enriched for ERG genomic rearrangements, we evaluated how the aberrant expression of ERG may impact response to PI3K/AR-targeted therapy. Here, we show that overexpression of ERG in the setting of Pten loss promotes resistance to combined PI3K and AR pathway inhibition with associated maintenance of AR target gene expression. Importantly, following AR knockout in the setting of ERG overexpression, there is maintenance of a subset of AR lineage-specific target genes, making AR dispensable in this context. This has important clinical implications as even in the setting of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG genomic rearrangement, ERG expression is never abolished following AR inhibition and may allow for cell survival following AR (lineage)-targeted therapies.

19.
Hepatology ; 70(1): 447-448, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081150
20.
Mycobiology ; 47(1): 76-86, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001451

RESUMO

Scab disease caused by Venturia nashicola is of agroeconomic importance in cultivation of Asian pear. However, little is known about the degree of genetic diversity in the populations of this pathogen. In this study, we collected 55 isolates from pear scab lesions in 13 major cultivation areas in Korea and examined the diversity using sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ß-tubulin (TUB2), and translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) genes as molecular markers. Despite a low level of overall sequence variation, we found three distinctive subgroups from phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, TUB2, and TEF-1α sequences. Among the three subgroups, subgroup 1 (60% of isolates collected) was predominant compared to subgroup 2 (23.6%) or subgroup 3 (16.4%) and was distributed throughout Korea. To understand the genetic diversity among the subgroups, RAPD analysis was performed. The isolates yielded highly diverse amplicon patterns and none of the defined subgroups within the dendrogram were supported by bootstrap values greater than 30%. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between the geographical distribution and the subgroups defined by molecular phylogeny. Our data suggest a low level of genetic diversification among the populations of V. nashicola in Korea.

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