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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 850, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has proven to be an important factor affecting obesity; however, it remains a challenge to identify consistent biomarkers across geographic locations and perform precisely targeted modulation for obese individuals. RESULTS: This study proposed a systematic machine learning framework and applied it to 870 human stool metagenomes across five countries to obtain comprehensive regional shared biomarkers and conduct a personalized modulation analysis. In our pipeline, a heterogeneous ensemble feature selection diagram is first developed to determine an optimal subset of biomarkers through the aggregation of multiple techniques. Subsequently, a deep reinforcement learning method was established to alter the targeted composition to the desired healthy target. In this manner, we can realize personalized modulation by counterfactual inference. Consequently, a total of 42 species were identified as regional shared biomarkers, and they showed good performance in distinguishing obese people from the healthy group (area under curve (AUC) =0.85) when demonstrated on validation datasets. In addition, by pooling all counterfactual explanations, we found that Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella copri, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides eggerthii, Alistipes finegoldii, Alistipes shahii, Eubacterium sp. _CAG_180, and Roseburia hominis may be potential broad-spectrum targets with consistent modulation in the multi-regional obese population. CONCLUSIONS: This article shows that based on our proposed machine-learning framework, we can obtain more comprehensive and accurate biomarkers and provide modulation analysis for the obese population. Moreover, our machine-learning framework will also be very useful for other researchers to further obtain biomarkers and perform counterfactual modulation analysis in different diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Biomarcadores , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11153-11168, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205751

RESUMO

Glucan is the most widely distributed glycan. Many probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encoded corresponding hydrolytic enzymes, which could use these glucans as energy substances. Brown alga is rich in glucan and has high edible and medicinal value, but research on its regulation to probiotics is not detailed enough. In this study, we determined a novel neutral α type gluco-oligosaccharide from the brown alga Laminaria japonica with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 2-8 and a structure that mainly consists of α-(1→4)-linked glycosidic bonds called Laminaria japonica gluco-oligosaccharide (LJGO). Fermentation in vitro and gene-phenotype correlation analyses revealed that LJGO selectively stimulated the growth of the LAB strain encoding a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system in a GH13 gene cluster, with apparent differences among 14 tested species. Comparative genomics further revealed that this transport system is species-specific, implying a potential contribution to species evolution. Transcriptomic analysis based on LAB strains cultured on LJGO and 1H-NMR findings of LJGO residues after strain utilization showed that the GH13 gene cluster contains functional LAB genes involved in LJGO utilization. Further verification by gene knockout studies is needed to expand our findings.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Laminaria , Laminaria/química , Oligossacarídeos , Glucanos , Polissacarídeos
3.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1001313, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090099

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a constant threat to the health of young children, and this is mainly attributed to the lack of effective prevention strategies. This study aimed to determine whether Lactobacillus (L.) mucosae, a potential probiotic, could protect against respiratory viral infection in a mouse model. Naive 3-4-week-old BALB/c mice were orally administered with three L. mucosae strains (2.5 × 108 CFU/mouse) 7 days before RSV infection (105 TCID50/mouse). Results showed that all three strains inhibited RSV replication and reduced the proportions of inflammatory cells, including granulocytes and monocytes in the blood. The L. mucosae M104R01L3 treatment maintained stable weight in mice and increased interferon (IFN)-ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The L. mucosae DCC1HL5 treatment increased interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-10 levels. Moreover, the M104R01L3 and DCC1HL5 strains increased the proportions of Akkermansia, Alistipes, and Anaeroplasma which contributed to the advantageous modulation of the gut microbiota. Besides, L. mucosae affected the gut levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are important for the antiviral response. L. mucosae 1,025 increased acetate, propionate, and butyrate levels, whereas L. mucosae M104R01L3 increased the level of acetate in the gut. L. mucosae M104R01L3 may protect against viral infection by upregulating the IFN-ß levels in the lungs and its antiviral effect may be related to the increase of acetate levels in the gut. In conclusion, the three L. mucosae strains exerted antiviral effects against RSV infection by differentially regulating immune responses and intestinal micro-ecological balance. This study can provide a reference for studying the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of L. mucosae.

4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 862934, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464005

RESUMO

The coexistence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma reinforces the concept of "one airway, one disease," which has prompted the exploration for a single intervention to treat both diseases. Lactobacillus reuteri CCFM1040 (CCFM1040) was found to be an inhibitor of the common pathogenesis of AR and asthma in our previous studies. This study presented a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the clinical effects of CCFM1040 on both diseases. The total symptom score (TSS), the quality of life (QoL), and the modulation in the gut microbiota of patients with AR, the Asthma Control and Test (ACT) of patients with asthma, and the safety of both AR and asthma were measured. In patients with AR, CCFM1040 numerically decreased TSS, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), 3 nasal scores in TSS (nasal congestion, watery eyes, and rhinorrhea), and sleep and significantly improved (P = 0.014) non-nose/eye symptoms. The ACT score was numerically increased in patients with asthma (from partially controlled to well-controlled). Significant microbial (from class level to genus level) and metabolic differences (P < 0.05) were found in patients with AR. No adverse reactions were observed. No effect on the blood and urine routine indexes. CCFM1040 has a potential benefit on both diseases. Further studies based on these findings will help to optimize the management of AR and asthma.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 846555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308387

RESUMO

The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory disorders have increased globally, and is projected to double in the next decade. Gut microbiome-based therapeutics have shown promise in ameliorating chronic inflammation. However, they are largely experimental, context- or strain-dependent and lack a clear mechanistic basis. This hinders precision probiotics and poses significant risk, especially to individuals with pre-existing conditions. Molecules secreted by gut microbiota act as ligands to several health-relevant receptors expressed in human gut, such as the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Among these, the human AhR expressed in different tissues exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and shows activity against a wide range of ligands produced by gut bacteria. However, different AhR ligands induce varying host responses and signaling in a tissue/organ-specific manner, which remain mostly unknown. The emerging systems biology paradigm, with its powerful in silico tool repertoire, provides opportunities for comprehensive and high-throughput strain characterization. In particular, combining metabolic models with machine learning tools can be useful to delineate tissue and ligand-specific signaling and thus their causal mechanisms in disease and health. The knowledge of such a mechanistic basis is indispensable to account for strain heterogeneity and actualize precision probiotics.

6.
Food Funct ; 13(6): 3704-3719, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266474

RESUMO

Food allergy (FA) is a common immune disorder caused by food antigens. Probiotic strains showed alleviating effects on FA, such as the alleviation of FA pathological symptoms, serum OVA-sIgE levels, and the gut microbiota diversity and composition. The results showed that intragastric administration of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM1189, Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1190, and Bifidobacterium longum CCFM1029 alleviated the weight loss and FA pathological symptoms of FA mice and decreased OVA-specific IgE and histamine (HIS) levels. CCFM1189 and CCFM1190 decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels, while CCFM1189 and CCFM 1029 decreased IL-17 levels. The gut microbiota analysis demonstrated that CCFM1189 increased the abundance of Akkermansia, while CCFM1190 improved immune regulation bacteria such as Faecalibaculum. CCFM1029 increased Bifidobacterium and the bacteria involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, such as Dubosiella. L. plantarum CCFM1189 and L. reuteri CCFM1190 improved indoleacrylic acid levels in mouse fecal samples using untargeted metabolomics analysis. In conclusion, CCFM1189, CCFM1190, and CCFM1029 decreased Th2 immune responses and alleviated FA pathological symptoms by regulating the gut microbiota diversity and composition, and altering gut microbial metabolites, which could provide support in clinical tests and probiotic production in the future.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Indóis , Camundongos , Ovalbumina , Probióticos/farmacologia
7.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 135: 104556, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122783

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the fastest growing cognitive decline-related neurological diseases. To date, effective curative strategies have remained elusive. A growing body of evidence indicates that dietary patterns have significant effects on cognitive function and the risk of developing AD. Previous studies on the association between diet and AD risk have mainly focused on individual food components and specific nutrients, and the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary patterns on AD are not well understood. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurological delay (MIND), ketogenic diet, caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, methionine restriction, and low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet, on cognitive impairment and summarizes the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns attenuate cognitive impairment, especially highlighting the modulation of dietary patterns on cognitive impairment through gut microbiota. Furthermore, considering the variability in individual metabolic responses to dietary intake, we put forward a framework to develop personalized dietary patterns for people with cognitive disorders or AD based on individual gut microbiome compositions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Dieta Mediterrânea , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos
8.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2025016, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040752

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that is closely related to the aging process. However, there is currently no reliable method to make full use of the metagenomics data of the gut microbiome to determine the age of the host. In this study, we considered the influence of geographical factors on the gut microbiome, and a total of 2604 filtered metagenomics data from the gut microbiome were used to construct an age prediction model. Then, we developed an ensemble model with multiple heterogeneous algorithms and combined species and pathway profiles for multi-view learning. By integrating gut microbiome metagenomics data and adjusting host confounding factors, the model showed high accuracy (R2 = 0.599, mean absolute error = 8.33 years). Besides, we further interpreted the model and identify potential biomarkers for the aging process. Among these identified biomarkers, we found that Finegoldia magna, Bifidobacterium dentium, and Clostridium clostridioforme had increased abundance in the elderly. Moreover, the utilization of amino acids by the gut microbiome undergoes substantial changes with increasing age which have been reported as the risk factors for age-associated malnutrition and inflammation. This model will be helpful for the comprehensive utilization of multiple omics data, and will allow greater understanding of the interaction between microorganisms and age to realize the targeted intervention of aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aprendizado de Máquina , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Metagenômica
9.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(2): 238-250, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353205

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity and its associated diseases is increasing. In the current study, 15 obese subjects took part in a 12-week multiphase dietetic protocol incorporating an improved ketogenic diet (MDP-i-KD) (KYLLKS 201806). We investigated the effects of the MDP-i-KD on the anthropometric parameters and the gut microbiota of obese subjects. Our results showed that the MDP-i-KD led to significant reductions in body mass index in obese subjects. The MDP-i-KD significantly decreased the relative abundance of the Lachnospiraceae_ND3007_group, the Eubacterium_hallii_group, and Pseudomonas and Blautia. In addition, gut microbiota co-occurrence networks in obese subjects were restructured to a more healthy condition after weight loss. These results show that the MDP-i-KD enhanced weight loss, which may be associated with dietary-induced changes in the gut microbiome. Our results emphasise the importance of determining the interaction between the host and microbial cells to comprehensively understand the mechanism by which diet affects host physiology and the microbiota.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Dietética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidade , Redução de Peso
10.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(20)2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849762

RESUMO

Here, we aim to understand the condition of the gut microbiome of Filipino adults in relation to their diet and metabolic status. Compared to rural Albay (n = 67), the gut microbiome of subjects living in urban Manila (n = 25) was more colonized by the order Clostridiales, which was negatively correlated with host carbohydrate consumption. Principal component analysis using the genus composition of the 92 total subjects indicated four microbiome types: one type driven by Prevotella, which was associated with high rice consumption and mainly consisted of healthy Albay subjects, one Clostridiales-driven group containing a number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) subjects from both Manila and Albay who showed lower butyrate levels in association with a decrease in Mediterraneibacter faecis, and the other two types showing dysbiosis-like microbiomes with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium overgrowth, with a high ratio of T2D and obese subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested high dietary energy intake, and two Veillonellaeae genera, Dialister and Megasphaera, as T2D risk factors, while Prevotella and M. faecis as anti-T2D factors. In conclusion, low-carbohydrate diets restructured the Prevotella-driven gut microbiome, which may predispose Filipino people with high energy diet to T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas , População Rural , População Urbana , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Filipinas
11.
Food Funct ; 12(24): 12606-12620, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821239

RESUMO

Brown algae glycan from Laminaria japonica (LJNP) is a heterogeneous glycan with two apparent molecular weights of 1.1 and 37.3 kDa, and is mainly composed of α ß-glucan and a few fucosyl residues. To explore the regulation of gut microbiota and the host, LJNP and 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) were compared to investigate their effect on mice via oral administration. Using metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, we found that 2'FL mainly relied on Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila to improve gut amino acid and bile acid metabolism, whereas LJNP mainly drove Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis to regulate gut amino acid metabolism and glycometabolism. Moreover, LJNP showed a weight loss effect and better protection of the intestinal barrier than 2'FL. We further employed LJNP and 2'FL on a germ-free mice model. Interestingly, the body weight management was not microbiome mediated. This study showed that LJNP can ameliorate the intestinal barrier through modulation of the gut microbiota, maintain the blood glucose level, and regulate body weight and the antioxidant function. Although the benefits of LJNP on host health were partly revealed, mechanisms such as the weight loss effect require further study.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Laminaria/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais
12.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683449

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as probiotics in the food industry owing to their beneficial effects on human health. However, numerous antibiotic resistance genes have been found in LAB strains, especially tetracycline resistance genes. Notably, the potential transferability of these genes poses safety risks. To comprehensively evaluate tetracycline resistance in LAB, we determined the tetracycline susceptibility patterns of 478 LAB strains belonging to four genera and eight species. By comparing phenotypes with genotypes based on genome-wide annotations, five tetracycline resistance genes, tet(M), tet(W/N/W), tet(L), tet(S), and tet(45), were detected in LAB. Multiple LAB strains without tetracycline resistance genes were found to be resistant to tetracycline at the currently recommended cutoff values. Thus, based on the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline for these LAB strains, the species-specific microbiological cutoff values for Lactobacillus (para)gasseri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus crispatus to tetracycline were first developed using the Turnidge, Kronvall, and eyeball methods. The cutoff values for Lactiplantibacillus plantarum were re-established and could be used to better distinguish susceptible strains from strains with acquired resistance. Finally, we verified that these five genes play a role in tetracycline resistance and found that tet(M) and tet(W/N/W) are the most widely distributed tetracycline resistance genes in LAB.

13.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683469

RESUMO

(1) Background: Constipation is a common condition that affects the health and the quality of life of patients. Recent studies have suggested that the gut microbiome is associated with constipation, but these studies were mainly focused on a single research cohort. Thus, we aimed to construct a classification model based on fecal bacterial and identify the potential gut microbes' biomarkers. (2) Methods: We collected 3056 fecal amplicon sequence data from five research cohorts. The data were subjected to a series of analyses, including alpha- and beta-diversity analyses, phylogenetic profiling analyses, and systematic machine learning to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the association between constipation and the gut microbiome. (3) Results: The alpha diversity of the bacterial community composition was higher in patients with constipation. Beta diversity analysis evidenced significant partitions between the two groups on the base of gut microbiota composition. Further, machine learning based on feature selection was performed to evaluate the utility of the gut microbiome as the potential biomarker for constipation. The Gradient Boosted Regression Trees after chi2 feature selection was the best model, exhibiting a validation performance of 70.7%. (4) Conclusions: We constructed an accurate constipation discriminant model and identified 15 key genera, including Serratia, Dorea, and Aeromonas, as possible biomarkers for constipation.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680899

RESUMO

The potential probiotic benefits of Bifidobacterium bifidum have received increasing attention recently. We used comparative genomic analysis to explore the differences in the genome and the physiological characteristics of B. bifidum isolated from the fecal samples of Chinese adults and infants. The relationships between genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed to assess the effects of isolation sources on the genetic variation of B. bifidum. The phylogenetic tree results indicated that the phylogeny of B. bifidum may be related to the geographical features of its isolation source. B. bifidum was found to have an open pan-genome and a conserved core genome. The genetic diversity of B. bifidum is mainly reflected in carbohydrate metabolism- and immune/competition-related factors, such as the glycoside hydrolase gene family, bacteriocin operons, antibiotic resistance genes, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas. Additionally, the type III A CRISPR-Cas system was discovered in B. bifidum for the first time. B. bifidum strains exhibited niche-specific characteristics, and the results of this study provide an improved understanding of the genetics of this species.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium bifidum/genética , Adulto , Bifidobacterium bifidum/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Lactente
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an aging population, developing non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) to delay dementia has become critical. Apart from cognitive decline, dementia is associated with multiple pathophysiology, including increased oxidative stress, dysregulated gene expressions, cytokine, neurotrophin, and stress markers, telomere shortening, and deteriorations in brain connectivity. Although mindfulness practices have been proposed to ameliorate these biological changes, no empirical studies were conducted. We thus aimed to investigate the effects of mindfulness awareness practice (MAP) to prevent cognitive decline and improve peripheral biomarkers in community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS/DESIGN: This was a single-blinded and parallel-group randomized controlled trial with two arms (intervention and active control arms), conducted over nine months. A total of 60 consenting community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with MCI were planned to be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the MAP or the Health Education Program (HEP). Interventions were performed weekly for the initial 12 weeks, and monthly for the subsequent six months. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 9-month post-intervention by blinded assessors. Primary outcomes were neurocognitive tests, comprehensive peripheral biomarkers, and brain imaging scans. Secondary outcomes included basic health screening measures, affective symptoms, and measures of physical functions. Linear-mixed models were used to examine the effects of MAP on these outcome measures. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first randomized controlled trial to systematically investigate the effects of a mindfulness intervention in improving cognitive functions and various biomarkers in community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with MCI. Our findings have the potential to inform mindfulness intervention as a novel approach to delay dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Atenção Plena , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 169, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the major micro-bacillary pathogen responsible for human coloenteritis. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to protect against Campylobacter infection. However, LAB with a good ability to inhibit the growth of C. jejuni in vitro are less effective in animals and animal models, and have the disadvantages of high cost, a long cycle, cumbersome operation and insignificant immune response indicators. Caenorhabditis elegans is increasingly used to screen probiotics for their anti-pathogenic properties. However, no research on the use of C. elegans to screen for probiotic candidates antagonistic to C. jejuni has been conducted to date. RESULTS: This study established a lifespan model of C. elegans, enabling the preselection of LAB to counter C. jejuni infection. A potential protective mechanism of LAB was identified. Some distinct LAB species offered a high level of protection to C. elegans against C. jejuni. The LAB strains with a high protection rate reduced the load of C. jejuni in C. elegans. The transcription of antibacterial peptide genes, MAPK and Daf-16 signalling pathway-related genes was elevated using the LAB isolates with a high protection rate. The reliability of the lifespan model of C. elegans was verified using mice and chickens infected with C. jejuni. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that different LAB had different abilities to protect C. elegans against C. jejuni. C. elegans provides a reliable model for researchers to screen for LAB that are antagonistic to C. jejuni on a large scale.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos/genética , Camundongos/imunologia , Camundongos/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/imunologia , Nematoides/microbiologia
18.
J Nutr ; 151(7): 1703-1716, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982127

RESUMO

The rate of obesity is rapidly increasing and has become a health and economic burden worldwide. As recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota is closely linked to obesity, researchers have used various approaches to modulate the gut microbiota to treat the condition. Dietary composition and energy intake strongly affect the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Intestinal microbial changes alter the composition of bile acids and fatty acids and regulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide production, all of which influence energy metabolism and immunity. Evidence also suggests that remodeling the gut microbiota through intake of probiotics, prebiotics, fermented foods, and dietary plants, as well as by fecal microbiota transplantation, are feasible methods to remediate obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas , Probióticos , Humanos , Obesidade , Prebióticos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11264, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050197

RESUMO

Short-term changes in dietary intake can induce changes in gut microbiome. While various dietary polyphenols have been shown to modulate gut microflora, the acute influence of polyphenol-rich mixed spices has not been explored in a controlled setting. We investigated the effects of a single serving of mixed spices Indian curry consumption, in two separate doses, on the gut microbiome in 15 healthy, Singaporean Chinese males, with age and BMI of 23.5 ± 2.4 years and 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2 respectively. We found that a low-polyphenol, no spices Dose 0 Control (D0C) meal led to an increase in Bacteroides and a decrease in Bifidobacterium. In comparison to D0C, there was significant suppression of Bacteroides (p < 0.05) and an increase in Bifidobacterium (p < 0.05) with increasing doses of curry meal Dose 1 Curry (D1C) and Dose 2 Curry (D2C) containing 6 g and 12 g mixed spices respectively. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial changes and plasma phenolic acids. No differences between treatments were observed in the alpha-diversity of the gut microflora. This study has shown that a single serving of mixed spices can significantly modify/restore certain commensal microbes, particularly in people who do not regularly consume these spices.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Singapura , Especiarias/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805276

RESUMO

With increasing globalisation, various diets from around the world are readily available in global cities. This study aimed to verify if multiethnic dietary habits destabilised the gut microbiome in response to frequent changes, leading to readily colonisation of exogenous microbes. This may have health implications. We profiled Singapore young adults of different ethnicities for dietary habits, faecal type, gut microbiome and cytokine levels. Subjects were challenged with Lactobacillus casei, and corresponding changes in microbiome and cytokines were evaluated. Here, we found that the majority of young adults had normal stool types (73% Bristol Scale Types 3 and 4) and faecal microbiome categorised into three clusters, irrespective of race and gender. Cluster 1 was dominated by Bacteroides, Cluster 2 by Prevotella, while Cluster 3 showed a marginal increase in Blautia, Ruminococaceae and Ruminococcus, without a predominant microbiota. These youngsters in the three faecal microbiome clusters preferred Western high sugary beverages, Southeast Asian plant-rich diet and Asian/Western diets in rotation, respectively. Multiethnic dietary habits (Cluster 3) led to a gut microbiome without predominant microbiota yet demonstrated colonisation resistance to Lactobacillus. Although Bacteroides and Prevotella are reported to be health-promoting but also risk factors for some illnesses, Singapore-style dietary rotation habits may alleviate Bacteroides and Prevotella associated ill effects. Different immunological outcome was observed during consumption of the lactobacilli among the three microbiome clusters.

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