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1.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) is a rapidly developing intraoperative technology, and many contrast agents are currently under investigation. We sought to provide a review of the current state of FGS clinical trials in Otolaryngology, emphasizing its oncologic applications. METHODS: According to the preferred reporting Items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) workflow for scoping reviews, a clinical trial search was performed across multiple international clinical trials registries, searching for permutations of "fluorescence," "tumor," "surgery," and "nerve" to identify all relevant studies. Studies that were active, enrolling, or soon to be enrolling patients undergoing head and neck surgery were included. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were eligible for inclusion. Seventeen studies are focused on FGS for oncologic resection and lymph node detection. One study assesses peripheral nerve fluorescence, and one evaluates normal parathyroid function after thyroidectomy. Contrast agents under development are conjugated to fluorophores that excite in the 800 nm (indocyanine green), 410 nm (5-aminolevulinic acid), 700 nm (Cyanine 5.5), and 525 nm ranges (fluorescein derivatives). CONCLUSION: Presently, there are 19 ongoing trials investigating novel FGS contrast agents for their safety, efficacy, and utility in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. These agents rely on unique fluorophores and absorption ranges in the near-infrared and visible light spectra. FGS studies are expanding within Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery with profound implications in oncologic surgery, lymph node detection, and anatomic and functional assessment. Laryngoscope, 2021.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19150, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580385

RESUMO

To investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences of zolpidem between males and females and their causes, including CYP3A4 activity. A single oral dose of zolpidem (10 mg) was administered to 15 male and 15 female healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h post-dose to determine plasma zolpidem concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using non-compartmental analysis. Digit symbol substitution test, choice reaction time, and visual analog scale of sleepiness were used to evaluate pharmacodynamics. We measured CYP3A4 activity using 4ß-hydroxycholesterol, an endogenous metabolite. Mean maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve were higher for females than for males (9.9% and 32.5%, respectively); other pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant differences. Pharmacodynamic scores for females showed delayed recovery compared with that for males. CYP3A4 activity was higher in females than in males (p = 0.030). There was no serious adverse event, and adverse event incidence was not different between the sexes. Zolpidem exposure was about 30% higher in females than in males. Delayed pharmacodynamic score recovery in females could be related to higher zolpidem concentrations. Although apparent clearance was lower in females, systemic clearance might not be the cause of the different exposures to zolpidem.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1020, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High prevalence of falls among older persons makes falls prevention a public health priority. Yet community-based falls prevention face complexity in implementation and any commissioning strategy should be subject to economic evaluation to ensure cost-effective use of healthcare resources. The study aims to capture the views of older people on implementing the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on community-based falls prevention and explore how the qualitative data can be used to inform commissioning strategies and conceptual modelling of falls prevention economic evaluation in the local area of Sheffield. METHODS: Focus group and interview participants (n = 27) were recruited from Sheffield, England, and comprised falls prevention service users and eligible non-users of varying falls risks. Topics concerned key components of the NICE-recommended falls prevention pathway, including falls risk screening, multifactorial risk assessment and treatment uptake and adherence. Views on other topics concerning falls prevention were also invited. Framework analysis was applied for data analysis, involving data familiarisation, identifying themes, indexing, charting and mapping and interpretation. The qualitative data were mapped to three frameworks: (1) facilitators and barriers to implementing the NICE-recommended pathway and contextual factors; (2) intervention-related causal mechanisms for formulating commissioning strategies spanning context, priority setting, need, supply and demand; and (3) methodological and evaluative challenges for public health economic modelling. RESULTS: Two cross-component factors were identified: health motives of older persons; and professional competence. Participants highlighted the need for intersectoral approaches and prioritising the vulnerable groups. The local commissioning strategy should consider the socioeconomic, linguistic, geographical, legal and cultural contexts, priority setting challenges, supply-side mechanisms spanning provider, organisation, funding and policy (including intersectoral) and health and non-health demand motives. Methodological and evaluative challenges identified included: incorporating non-health outcomes and societal intervention costs; considering dynamic complexity; considering social determinants of health; and conducting equity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Holistic qualitative research can inform how commissioned falls prevention pathways can be feasible and effective. Qualitative data can inform commissioning strategies and conceptual modelling for economic evaluations of falls prevention and other geriatric interventions. This would improve the structural validity of quantitative models used to inform geriatric public health policies.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Motivação , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5631, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561453

RESUMO

Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) regulates various physiological aspects in numerous species. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in the daf-2/insulin/IGF-1 receptor dramatically increase lifespan and immunity, but generally impair motility, growth, and reproduction. Whether these pleiotropic effects can be dissociated at a specific step in insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway remains unknown. Through performing a mutagenesis screen, we identified a missense mutation daf-18(yh1) that alters a cysteine to tyrosine in DAF-18/PTEN phosphatase, which maintained the long lifespan and enhanced immunity, while improving the reduced motility in adult daf-2 mutants. We showed that the daf-18(yh1) mutation decreased the lipid phosphatase activity of DAF-18/PTEN, while retaining a partial protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. We found that daf-18(yh1) maintained the partial activity of DAF-16/FOXO but restricted the detrimental upregulation of SKN-1/NRF2, contributing to beneficial physiological traits in daf-2 mutants. Our work provides important insights into how one evolutionarily conserved component, PTEN, can coordinate animal health and longevity.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 194: 113567, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481239

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in electronic nose-based diagnostic systems that are fast and portable. However, existing technologies are suitable only for operation in the laboratory, making them difficult to apply in a rapid, non-face-to-face, and field-suitable manner. Here, we demonstrate a DNA-derived phage nose (D2pNose) as a portable respiratory disease diagnosis system requiring no pretreatment. D2pNose was produced based on phage colour films implanted with DNA sequences from mammalian olfactory receptor cells, and as a result, it possesses the comprehensive reactivity of these cells. The manipulated surface chemistry of the genetically engineered phages was verified through a correlation analysis between the calculated and the experimentally measured reactivity. Breaths from 31 healthy subjects and 31 lung cancer patients were collected and exposed to D2pNose without pretreatment. With the help of deep learning and neural pattern separation, D2pNose has achieved a diagnostic success rate of over 75% and a classification success rate of over 86% for lung cancer based on raw human breath. Based on these results, D2pNose can be expected to be directly applicable to other respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Bacteriófagos/genética , DNA , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e020646, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398665

RESUMO

Background Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of dietary choline, L-carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine-rich foods. On the basis of experimental studies and patients with prevalent disease, elevated plasma TMAO may increase risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). TMAO is also renally cleared and may interact with and causally contribute to renal dysfunction. Yet, how serial TMAO levels relate to incident and recurrent ASCVD in community-based populations and the potential mediating or modifying role of renal function are not established. Methods and Results We investigated associations of serial measures of plasma TMAO, assessed at baseline and 7 years, with incident and recurrent ASCVD in a community-based cohort of 4131 (incident) and 1449 (recurrent) older US adults. TMAO was measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (laboratory coefficient of variation, <6%). Incident ASCVD (myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, sudden cardiac death, or other atherosclerotic death) was centrally adjudicated using medical records. Risk was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, including time-varying demographics, lifestyle factors, medical history, laboratory measures, and dietary habits. Potential mediating effects and interaction by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed. During prospective follow-up, 1766 incident and 897 recurrent ASCVD events occurred. After multivariable adjustment, higher levels of TMAO were associated with a higher risk of incident ASCVD, with extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR) compared with the lowest quintile=1.21 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; P-trend=0.029). This relationship appeared mediated or confounded by eGFR (eGFR-adjusted HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.90-1.27), as well as modified by eGFR (P-interaction <0.001). High levels of TMAO were associated with higher incidence of ASCVD in the presence of impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2: HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.13-2.14]; P-trend=0.007), but not normal or mildly reduced renal function (eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2: HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.85-1.25]; P-trend=0.668). Among individuals with prior ASCVD, TMAO associated with higher risk of recurrent ASCVD (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]; P-trend=0.009), without significant modification by eGFR. Conclusions In this large community-based cohort of older US adults, serial measures of TMAO were associated with higher risk of incident ASCVD, with apparent modification by presence of impaired renal function and with higher risk of recurrent ASCVD.

7.
Circulation ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445886

RESUMO

Background: High intake of added sugar is linked to weight gain and cardiometabolic risk. In 2018, the US National Salt and Sugar Reduction Initiative (NSSRI) proposed government supported voluntary national sugar reduction targets. This intervention's potential health and equity impacts, and cost-effectiveness are unclear. Methods: A validated microsimulation model, CVD-PREDICT, coded in C++, was used to estimate incremental changes in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and cost-effectiveness of the NSSRI policy. The model was run at the individual-level, incorporating the annual probability of each person's transition between health status based on their risk factors. The model incorporated national demographic and dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey across 3 cycles (2011-2016), added sugar-related diseases from meta-analyses, and policy costs and health-related costs from established sources. A simulated nationally representative US population was created and followed until age 100 years or death, with 2019 as the year of intervention start. Findings were evaluated over 10 years and a lifetime from healthcare and societal perspectives. Uncertainty was evaluated in a one-way analysis by assuming 50% industry compliance, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses via a second-order Monte Carlo approach. Model outputs included averted diabetes cases, CVD events and CVD deaths, QALYs gained, and formal healthcare cost savings, stratified by age, race, income and education. Results: Achieving the NSSRI sugar reduction targets could prevent 2.48 million CVD events, 0.49 million CVD deaths, and 0.75 million diabetes cases; gain 6.67 million QALYs; and save $160.88 billion net costs from a societal perspective over a lifetime. The policy became cost-effective (<150K/QALYs) at 6 years, highly cost-effective (< 50K/QALYs) at 7 years, and cost-saving at 9 years. Results were robust from a healthcare perspective, with lower (50%) industry compliance, and in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The policy could also reduce disparities, with greatest estimated health gains per million adults among Black and Hispanic, lower income, and less educated Americans. Conclusions: Implementing and achieving the NSSRI sugar reformation targets could generate substantial health gains, equity gains and cost-savings.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108985, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329692

RESUMO

AIMS: Although metformin has been reported to affect the gut microbiome, the mechanism has not been fully determined. We explained the potential underlying mechanisms of metformin through a multiomics approach. METHODS: An open-label and single-arm clinical trial involving 20 healthy Korean was conducted. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and stool samples were collected to analyze the microbiome. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma, urine, and stool samples was performed by GC-TOF-MS. Network analysis was applied to infer the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. RESULTS: The relative abundances of Escherichia, Romboutsia, Intestinibacter, and Clostridium were changed by metformin treatment. Additionally, the relative abundances of metabolites, including carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, were changed. These changes were correlated with energy metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which are major metabolic pathways related to the hypoglycemic effect. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that specific changes in metabolites may affect hypoglycemic effects through both pathways related to AMPK activation and microbial changes. Energy metabolism was mainly related to hypoglycemic effects. In particular, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis were related to microbial metabolites. Our results will help uncover the potential underlying mechanisms of metformin through AMPK and the microbiome.

10.
Ann Coloproctol ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228912

RESUMO

Purpose: Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is recommended for patients with stage II colorectal cancer with adverse features. However, the effect of adjuvant treatment in elderly patients with high-risk stage II colorectal cancer remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the oncologic outcomes in elderly high-risk stage II colorectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection with or without AC. Methods: Patients aged over 70 years having stage II colorectal adenocarcinoma with at least 1 adverse feature who underwent radical surgery between 2008 and 2017 at a single center were included. We compared recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients who received more than 80% of the planned AC cycle (the AC+ group) and those who did not receive it (the AC- group). Results: The AC+ and AC- group contained 46 patients and 50 patients, respectively. The log-rank test revealed no significant intergroup differences in RFS (P = 0.083) and OS (P = 0.122). In the subgroup of 27 patients with more than 2 adverse features, the AC+ group (n = 16) showed better RFS (P = 0.006) and OS (P = 0.025) than the AC- group. In this subgroup, AC was the only significant factor affecting RFS in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.023). AC was significantly associated with OS (P = 0.033) in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.332). Conclusion: Among elderly patients with stage II high-risk colorectal cancer, the AC+ group did not show better RFS or OS than the AC- group. However, selected patients with more than 2 adverse features might benefit from AC.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 281: 114453, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314806

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus (FT), knowns as "Jeolpaemo ()" in Korean traditional medicine, is a perennial plant belonging to the Liliaceae family and has been used to treat symptoms such as cough, sputum formation, and purulent pneumonia. Owing to its effects of lowering heat, removing sputum, and reducing swelling, the plant has also been used as an external prescription medicine to treat inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze the anti-inflammatory effects of FT-ethanol extract (FT-Et) and FT-chloroform fraction extract (FT-Cl) on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of FT-Et and FT-Cl on AD was observed using an AD-like skin lesion model induced by DNCB in vivo. HaCaT and RBL2H3 cells were used to determine the effects of FT-Et and FT-Cl in vitro. After inducing AD-like skin lesions in vivo, FT was topically applied to the skin lesion for 35 days. Epidermal thickness, dermal thickness, scratching behavior, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and expression of skin barrier proteins were measured. TARC, MDC, and IL-4 levels were analyzed using ELISA in HaCaT cells. Beta-hexosaminidase and IL-4 levels were measured in RBL2H3 cells. The expression of filaggrin (FLG), loricrin (LOR), involucrin (INV), and aquaporin-3(AQP-3) was measured by PCR. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was analyzed using Western blot technique. RESULTS: FT-Cl significantly reduced ear swelling, scratching behavior, SCORAD index, epidermal thickness, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and loss of skin barrier proteins. FT-Et inhibited the infiltration of mast cells and CD8+ cells and decreased the loss of skin barrier proteins. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells, FT-Cl inhibited TRAC, MDC, and IL-4 expression and upregulated the expression of FLG, INV, and AQP-3, whereas FT-Et inhibited the expression of TRAC and MDC and increased the expression of FLG, INV, and AQP-3 at high concentrations. In RBL2H3, FT-Cl downregulated ß-hexosaminidase and IL-4 expression. In addition, FT-Cl inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p-38 in HaCaT and RBL2H3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, FT-Cl showed better effect than FT-Et in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that a specific component present in FT-Cl acted against AD. Future research should focus on the analysis of components contained in FT-Cl and the anti-inflammatory effects of the active ingredient.

12.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0008421, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232082

RESUMO

Probiotics are consumed in fermented dairy products or as capsules for their putative health benefits. However, little research has been done to evaluate the effects of the delivery matrix on the health benefits of probiotics in humans. To examine the effects of delivering Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) (log10 10 ± 0.5 CFU/day) via a yogurt smoothie versus a capsule, we monitored the fecal microbiota, gut transit times (GTTs), and fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in healthy adults. In a randomized, four-period, crossover study performed in a partially blind manner, 36 adults were recruited and randomly assigned to four treatments: control yogurt smoothie (YS), yogurt smoothie with BB-12 added prefermentation (PRE), yogurt smoothie with BB-12 added postfermentation (POST), and capsule containing BB-12 (CAP). Participants' fecal microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA sequencing, GTTs via SmartPill, and fecal SCFAs by gas chromatography (GC) before (baseline) and after each intervention. Participants had significantly higher percentage of Streptococcus after consuming YS versus CAP (P = 0.01). Bifidobacterium-specific terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed a significantly higher percentage of B. animalis after consuming PRE and POST compared to baseline, YS, CAP, and final washout (P < 0.0001). The predominant SCFAs were negatively correlated with GTTs. Consumption of BB-12 delivered in a yogurt smoothie or capsule did not significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, GTTs, or fecal SCFA concentration of the study cohort. However, daily consumption of BB-12 in yogurt smoothie may result in higher relative abundance of B. animalis in healthy adults. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01399996.) IMPORTANCE Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a probiotic strain that has been used worldwide since 1985. It has commonly been delivered in fermented dairy products for perceived benefits associated with gut health and enhanced immune function. In addition to fermented dairy products, many new probiotic-containing alternatives such as probiotic-containing juice, probiotic-containing chocolate, and capsules have been developed. While these products provide more options for people to access probiotics, little research has been done on the effect of delivery matrix (dairy versus nondairy) on their efficacy in humans. In addition, it was unclear how yogurt fermentation may influence the survival of BB-12 in the product or on its performance in vivo. The significance of our study is in simultaneously assessing the effect of BB-12, alone and in different delivery vehicles, on the gut transit time, fecal short-chain fatty acids, and the composition of the gut microbiota of the study cohort.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 629438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123865

RESUMO

Several classes of antibiotics have reduced the mortality caused by infectious diseases; however, orally administered antibiotics alter the composition of gut microbiota, leading to dysbiosis-related disease. Therefore, in this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing- and metabolomics-based approaches to investigate the effects of oral vancomycin on gut bacterial microbiota and the metabolome in biospecimens collected from healthy men. Samples collected from 11 healthy men were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to analyze the gut bacterial microbiota, and GC-TOFMS-based untargeted metabolomics was performed to analyze fecal, urine, and plasma metabolomics. Spearman's rank correlation was utilized to explore the associations between gut bacterial microbiota and metabolome. Fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed decreased relative abundance of genera belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and increased relative abundance of genera of the phyla Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria. Fecal metabolomics analysis showed that levels of uracil, L-aspartic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxycholic acid were significantly higher at baseline, whereas that of dihydrouracil was significantly higher after vancomycin administration. No significant metabolic markers were selected from urine and plasma metabolomics analysis. This study demonstrates that oral vancomycin administration induces alterations in gut bacterial microbiota and metabolome. Correlation analysis between our two datasets shows that alteration of the gut bacterial microbiota, induced by oral vancomycin, potentially affected the systemic activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. This correlation should be further examined in future studies to define the effects of gut bacterial microbiota on drug-metabolizing enzymes, thereby contributing to the development of personalized therapy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Vancomicina
14.
Ann Coloproctol ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167188

RESUMO

Purpose: It is known that as the T stage of a carcinoma progresses, the prognosis becomes poorer. However, there are few studies about factors that affect the prognosis of T4 advanced colon cancer. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in T4 colon cancer. Methods: Patients diagnosed with stage T4 on histopathology after undergoing curative surgery for colon cancer between March 2009 and March 2018 were retrospectively analyzed for factors related to postoperative survival. Primary outcomes were DFS and OS. Results: Eighty-two patients were included in the study. DFS and OS of the pathologic (p) T4b group were not inferior to that of the pT4a group. Multivariate analysis showed that differentiation (hazard ratio [HR], 4.994; P = 0.005), and laparoscopic surgery (HR, 0.323; P = 0.008) were significant prognostic factors for DFS, while differentiation (HR, 7.904; P ≤ 0.001) and chemotherapy (HR, 0.344; P = 0.038) were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: Tumor differentiation, laparoscopic surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy were found to be significant prognostic factors in patients with T4 colon cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy and curative resections by laparoscopy might improve the prognosis in these patients.

15.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1278-1281, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174171

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may dramatically alter the immunity of a recipient. Transient immunodeficiency that occurs before and after HSCT could be associated with the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), which is presumed to be often due to viral aetiology. We found an incidence of SSNHL of 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in patients receiving HSCT, 12-fold higher than reported for background population incidence. Development of SSNHL tended to cluster early after diagnosis of haematological malignancies, rather than around date of treatment with HSCT. Increased risk of unilateral SSNHL in patients with haematological malignancy may relate to underlying disease rather than treatment.

16.
Blood ; 138(14): 1225-1236, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115827

RESUMO

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a clinically heterogeneous collection of lymphomas of the skin-homing T cell. To identify molecular drivers of disease phenotypes, we assembled representative samples of CTCLs from patients with diverse disease subtypes and stages. Via DNA/RNA-sequencing, immunophenotyping, and ex vivo functional assays, we identified the landscape of putative driver genes, elucidated genetic relationships between CTCLs across disease stages, and inferred molecular subtypes in patients with stage-matched leukemic disease. Collectively, our analysis identified 86 putative driver genes, including 19 genes not previously implicated in this disease. Two mutations have never been described in any cancer. Functionally, multiple mutations augment T-cell receptor-dependent proliferation, highlighting the importance of this pathway in lymphomagenesis. To identify putative genetic causes of disease heterogeneity, we examined the distribution of driver genes across clinical cohorts. There are broad similarities across disease stages. Many driver genes are shared by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS). However, there are significantly more structural variants in leukemic disease, leading to highly recurrent deletions of putative tumor suppressors that are uncommon in early-stage skin-centered MF. For example, TP53 is deleted in 7% and 87% of MF and SS, respectively. In both human and mouse samples, PD1 mutations drive aggressive behavior. PD1 wild-type lymphomas show features of T-cell exhaustion. PD1 deletions are sufficient to reverse the exhaustion phenotype, promote a FOXM1-driven transcriptional signature, and predict significantly worse survival. Collectively, our findings clarify CTCL genetics and provide novel insights into pathways that drive diverse disease phenotypes.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045353, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tourniquet use in total knee replacement (TKR) is believed to improve the bone-cement interface by reducing bleeding, potentially prolonging implant survival. This study aimed to compare the risk of revision for primary cemented TKR performed with or without a tourniquet. DESIGN: We analysed data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for all primary cemented TKRs performed in England and Wales between April 2003 and December 2003. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression were used to assess the influence of tourniquet use, age at time of surgery, sex and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification on risk of revision for all-causes. RESULTS: Data were available for 16 974 cases of primary cemented TKR, of which 16 132 had surgery with a tourniquet and 842 had surgery without a tourniquet. At 10 years, 3.8% had undergone revision (95% CI 2.6% to 5.5%) in the no-tourniquet group and 3.1% in the tourniquet group (95% CI 2.8% to 3.4%). After adjusting for age at primary surgery, gender and primary ASA score, the HR for all-cause revision for cemented TKR without a tourniquet was 0.82 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that using a tourniquet for primary cemented TKR offers a clinically important or statistically significant reduction in the risk of all-cause revision up to 13 years after surgery. Surgeons should consider this evidence when deciding whether to use a tourniquet for cemented TKR.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação , Torniquetes , País de Gales
18.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074804

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase widely expressed in many cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer. Mutations such as L858R in exon 21, exon 19 truncation (Del19), exon 20 insertions, and others are responsible for aberrant activation of EGFR in NSCLC. First-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib have clinical benefits for EGFR-sensitive (L858R and Del19) NSCLC patients. However, after 10-12 months of treatment with these inhibitors, a secondary T790M mutation at the gatekeeper position in the kinase domain of EGFR was identified, which limited the clinical benefits. Second-generation EGFR irreversible inhibitors (afatinib and dacomitinib) were developed to overcome this T790M mutation. However, their lack of selectivity toward wild-type EGFR compromised their clinical benefits due to serious adverse events. Recently developed third-generation irreversible EGFR TKIs (osimertinib and lazertinib) are selective toward driving mutations and the T790M mutation, while sparing wildtype EGFR activity. The latest studies have concluded that their efficacy was also compromised by additional acquired mutations, including C797S, the key residue cysteine that forms covalent bonds with irreversible inhibitors. Because second- and thirdgeneration EGFR TKIs are irreversible inhibitors, they are not effective against C797S containing EGFR triple mutations (Del19/ T790M/C797S and L858R/T790M/C797S). Therefore, there is an urgent unmet medical need to develop next-generation EGFR TKIs that selectively inhibit EGFR triple mutations via a non-irreversible mechanism.

19.
Theranostics ; 11(15): 7188-7198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158844

RESUMO

Rationale: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a well-established minimally invasive staging procedure that maps the spread of tumour metastases from their primary site to the regional lymphatics. Currently, the procedure requires the local peri-tumoural injection of radiolabelled and/or optical agents, and is therefore operator dependent, disruptive to surgical workflow and restricted largely to a small subset of malignancies that can be readily accessed externally for local tracer injection. The present study set out to determine whether intravenous (IV) infusion of a tumor-targeted tracer could identify sentinel and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in order to overcome these limitations. Methods: We examined 27 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 18 of whom were clinically node negative (cN0). Patients were infused intravenously with 50mg of Panitumumab-IRDye800CW prior to surgical resection of their primary tumour with neck dissection and/or SLNB. Lymphadenectomy specimens underwent fluorescence molecular imaging to evaluate tracer distribution to LNs. Results: A total of 960 LNs were analysed, of which 34 (3.5%) contained metastatic disease. Panitumumab-IRDye800CW preferentially localized to metastatic and sentinel LNs as evidenced by a higher fluorescent signal relative to other lymph nodes. The median MFI of metastatic LNs was significantly higher than the median MFI of benign LNs (0.06 versus 0.02, p < 0.05). Furthermore, selecting the highest five fluorescence intensity LNs from individual specimens resulted in 100% sensitivity, 85.8% specificity and 100% negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of occult metastases and 100% accuracy for clinically staging the neck. In the cN+ cohort, assessment of the highest 5 fluorescence LNs per patient had 87.5% sensitivity, 93.2% specificity and 99.1% NPV for the detection of metastatic nodes. Conclusion: When intravenously infused, a tumour-targeted tracer localized to sentinel and metastatic lymph nodes. Further validation of an IV tumor-targeted tracer delivery approach for SLNB could dramatically change the practice of SLNB, allowing its application to other malignancies where the primary tumour is not accessible for local tracer injection.


Assuntos
Benzenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Panitumumabe/administração & dosagem , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Theranostics ; 11(15): 7130-7143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158840

RESUMO

Rationale: First-line therapy for high-grade gliomas (HGGs) includes maximal safe surgical resection. The extent of resection predicts overall survival, but current neuroimaging approaches lack tumor specificity. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a highly expressed HGG biomarker. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of an anti-EGFR antibody, panitumuab-IRDye800, at subtherapeutic doses as an imaging agent for HGG. Methods: Eleven patients with contrast-enhancing HGGs were systemically infused with panitumumab-IRDye800 at a low (50 mg) or high (100 mg) dose 1-5 days before surgery. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging was performed intraoperatively and ex vivo, to identify the optimal tumor-to-background ratio by comparing mean fluorescence intensities of tumor and histologically uninvolved tissue. Fluorescence was correlated with preoperative T1 contrast, tumor size, EGFR expression and other biomarkers. Results: No adverse events were attributed to panitumumab-IRDye800. Tumor fragments as small as 5 mg could be detected ex vivo and detection threshold was dose dependent. In tissue sections, panitumumab-IRDye800 was highly sensitive (95%) and specific (96%) for pathology confirmed tumor containing tissue. Cellular delivery of panitumumab-IRDye800 was correlated to EGFR overexpression and compromised blood-brain barrier in HGG, while normal brain tissue showed minimal fluorescence. Intraoperative fluorescence improved optical contrast in tumor tissue within and beyond the T1 contrast-enhancing margin, with contrast-to-noise ratios of 9.5 ± 2.1 and 3.6 ± 1.1, respectively. Conclusions: Panitumumab-IRDye800 provided excellent tumor contrast and was safe at both doses. Smaller fragments of tumor could be detected at the 100 mg dose and thus more suitable for intraoperative imaging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioma , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Panitumumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
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