Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Gigascience ; 8(10)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 1000 Plant transcriptomes initiative (1KP) explored genetic diversity by sequencing RNA from 1,342 samples representing 1,173 species of green plants (Viridiplantae). FINDINGS: This data release accompanies the initiative's final/capstone publication on a set of 3 analyses inferring species trees, whole genome duplications, and gene family expansions. These and previous analyses are based on de novo transcriptome assemblies and related gene predictions. Here, we assess their data and assembly qualities and explain how we detected potential contaminations. CONCLUSIONS: These data will be useful to plant and/or evolutionary scientists with interests in particular gene families, either across the green plant tree of life or in more focused lineages.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Viridiplantae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(11): 5015-5020, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804180

RESUMO

Chloroplast retrograde signaling networks are vital for chloroplast biogenesis, operation, and signaling, including excess light and drought stress signaling. To date, retrograde signaling has been considered in the context of land plant adaptation, but not regarding the origin and evolution of signaling cascades linking chloroplast function to stomatal regulation. We show that key elements of the chloroplast retrograde signaling process, the nucleotide phosphatase (SAL1) and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) metabolism, evolved in streptophyte algae-the algal ancestors of land plants. We discover an early evolution of SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde signaling in stomatal regulation based on conserved gene and protein structure, function, and enzyme activity and transit peptides of SAL1s in species including flowering plants, the fern Ceratopteris richardii, and the moss Physcomitrella patens Moreover, we demonstrate that PAP regulates stomatal closure via secondary messengers and ion transport in guard cells of these diverse lineages. The origin of stomata facilitated gas exchange in the earliest land plants. Our findings suggest that the conquest of land by plants was enabled by rapid response to drought stress through the deployment of an ancestral SAL1-PAP signaling pathway, intersecting with the core abscisic acid signaling in stomatal guard cells.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Viridiplantae/fisiologia , Difosfato de Adenosina , Embriófitas/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Movimento , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia
3.
Nat Plants ; 5(1): 63-73, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626928

RESUMO

We present reference-quality genome assembly and annotation for the stout camphor tree (Cinnamomum kanehirae (Laurales, Lauraceae)), the first sequenced member of the Magnoliidae comprising four orders (Laurales, Magnoliales, Canellales and Piperales) and over 9,000 species. Phylogenomic analysis of 13 representative seed plant genomes indicates that magnoliid and eudicot lineages share more recent common ancestry than monocots. Two whole-genome duplication events were inferred within the magnoliid lineage: one before divergence of Laurales and Magnoliales and the other within the Lauraceae. Small-scale segmental duplications and tandem duplications also contributed to innovation in the evolutionary history of Cinnamomum. For example, expansion of the terpenoid synthase gene subfamilies within the Laurales spawned the diversity of Cinnamomum monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum camphora/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Magnoliopsida/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sintenia
4.
Syst Biol ; 68(4): 594-606, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535394

RESUMO

Sequencing of target-enriched libraries is an efficient and cost-effective method for obtaining DNA sequence data from hundreds of nuclear loci for phylogeny reconstruction. Much of the cost of developing targeted sequencing approaches is associated with the generation of preliminary data needed for the identification of orthologous loci for probe design. In plants, identifying orthologous loci has proven difficult due to a large number of whole-genome duplication events, especially in the angiosperms (flowering plants). We used multiple sequence alignments from over 600 angiosperms for 353 putatively single-copy protein-coding genes identified by the One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative to design a set of targeted sequencing probes for phylogenetic studies of any angiosperm group. To maximize the phylogenetic potential of the probes, while minimizing the cost of production, we introduce a k-medoids clustering approach to identify the minimum number of sequences necessary to represent each coding sequence in the final probe set. Using this method, 5-15 representative sequences were selected per orthologous locus, representing the sequence diversity of angiosperms more efficiently than if probes were designed using available sequenced genomes alone. To test our approximately 80,000 probes, we hybridized libraries from 42 species spanning all higher-order groups of angiosperms, with a focus on taxa not present in the sequence alignments used to design the probes. Out of a possible 353 coding sequences, we recovered an average of 283 per species and at least 100 in all species. Differences among taxa in sequence recovery could not be explained by relatedness to the representative taxa selected for probe design, suggesting that there is no phylogenetic bias in the probe set. Our probe set, which targeted 260 kbp of coding sequence, achieved a median recovery of 137 kbp per taxon in coding regions, a maximum recovery of 250 kbp, and an additional median of 212 kbp per taxon in flanking non-coding regions across all species. These results suggest that the Angiosperms353 probe set described here is effective for any group of flowering plants and would be useful for phylogenetic studies from the species level to higher-order groups, including the entire angiosperm clade itself.


Assuntos
Sondas de DNA , Magnoliopsida/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados
5.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
6.
Genome Res ; 28(9): 1333-1344, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002159

RESUMO

In grasses, two pathways that generate diverse and numerous 21-nt (premeiotic) and 24-nt (meiotic) phased siRNAs are highly enriched in anthers, the male reproductive organs. These "phasiRNAs" are analogous to mammalian piRNAs, yet their functions and evolutionary origins remain largely unknown. The 24-nt meiotic phasiRNAs have only been described in grasses, wherein their biogenesis is dependent on a specialized Dicer (DCL5). To assess how evolution gave rise to this pathway, we examined reproductive phasiRNA pathways in nongrass monocots: garden asparagus, daylily, and lily. The common ancestors of these species diverged approximately 115-117 million years ago (MYA). We found that premeiotic 21-nt and meiotic 24-nt phasiRNAs were abundant in all three species and displayed spatial localization and temporal dynamics similar to grasses. The miR2275-triggered pathway was also present, yielding 24-nt reproductive phasiRNAs, and thus originated more than 117 MYA. In asparagus, unlike in grasses, these siRNAs are largely derived from inverted repeats (IRs); analyses in lily identified thousands of precursor loci, and many were also predicted to form foldback substrates for Dicer processing. Additionally, reproductive phasiRNAs were present in female reproductive organs and thus may function in both male and female germinal development. These data describe several distinct mechanisms of production for 24-nt meiotic phasiRNAs and provide new insights into the evolution of reproductive phasiRNA pathways in monocots.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Lilianae/genética , Poaceae/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Meiose , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 95, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait that have evolved numerous times in angiosperms. Storage roots primarily function to store carbohydrates underground as reserves for perennial species. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato, where starch accumulates in storage roots. This starch-storage tissue proliferates, and roots thicken to accommodate the additional tissue. In morning glories, storage roots have evolved numerous times. The primary goal of this study is to understand whether this was through parallel evolution, where species use a common genetic mechanism to achieve storage root formation, or through convergent evolution, where storage roots in distantly related species are formed using a different set of genes. Pairs of species where one forms storage roots and the other does not were sampled from two tribes in the morning glory family, the Ipomoeeae and Merremieae. Root anatomy in storage roots and fine roots was examined. Furthermore, we sequenced total mRNA from storage roots and fine roots in these species and analyzed differential gene expression. RESULTS: Anatomical results reveal that storage roots of species in the Ipomoeeae tribe, such as sweetpotato, accumulate starch similar to species in the Merremieae tribe but differ in vascular tissue organization. In both storage root forming species, more genes were found to be upregulated in storage roots compared to fine roots. Further, we find that fifty-seven orthologous genes were differentially expressed between storage roots and fine roots in both storage root forming species. These genes are primarily involved in starch biosynthesis, regulation of starch biosynthesis, and transcription factor activity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results demonstrate that storage roots of species from both morning glory tribes are anatomically different but utilize a common core set of genes in storage root formation. This is consistent with a pattern of parallel evolution, thus highlighting the importance of examining anatomy together with gene expression to understand the evolutionary origins of ecologically and economically important plant traits.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea/genética , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ipomoea/anatomia & histologia , Ipomoea/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/anatomia & histologia , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Amido/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima
8.
Am J Bot ; 105(3): 587-601, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746718

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The relative ease of high throughput sequencing is facilitating comprehensive phylogenomic and gene expression studies, even for nonmodel groups. To date, however, these two approaches have not been merged; while phylogenomic methods might use transcriptome sequences to resolve relationships, assessment of gene expression patterns in a phylogenetic context is less common. Here we analyzed both carbon assimilation and gene expression patterns of closely related species within the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) to elucidate changes in gene expression across weak and strong phenotypes for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). METHODS: Gene expression patterns were compared across four genera: Agave (CAM), which is paraphyletic with Polianthes (weak CAM) and Manfreda (CAM), and Beschorneria (weak CAM). RNA-sequencing was paired with measures of gas exchange and titratable acidity. Climate niche space was compared across the four lineages to examine abiotic factors and their correlation to CAM. KEY RESULTS: Expression of homologous genes showed both shared and variable patterns in weak and strong CAM species. Network analysis highlights that despite shared expression patterns, highly connected genes differ between weak and strong CAM, implicating shifts in regulatory gene function as key for the evolution of CAM. Variation in carbohydrate metabolism between weak and strong CAM supports the importance of sugar turnovers for CAM physiology. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of phylogenetics and RNA-sequencing provides a powerful tool to study the evolution of CAM photosynthesis across closely related but photosynthetically variable species. Our findings regarding shared or shifted gene expression and regulation of CAM via carbohydrate metabolism have important implications for efforts to engineer the CAM pathway into C3 food and biofuel crops.


Assuntos
Asparagaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Clima , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Transcriptoma , Adaptação Biológica , Agave , Asparagaceae/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , RNA de Plantas/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Açúcares/metabolismo
9.
Am J Bot ; 105(4): 631-640, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608785

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae) are a morphologically distinct subfamily of Orchidaceae. They also have some of the largest genomes in the orchids, which may be due to polyploidy or some other mechanism of genome evolution. We generated 10 transcriptomes and incorporated existing RNA-seq data to infer a multilocus nuclear phylogeny of the Cypripedioideae and to determine whether a whole-genome duplication event (WGD) correlated with the large genome size of this subfamily. Knowing more about timing of ancient polyploidy events can help us understand the evolution of one of the most species-rich plant families. METHODS: Transcriptome data were used to identify low-copy orthologous genes to infer a phylogeny of Orchidaceae and to identify paralogs to place any WGD events on the species tree. KEY RESULTS: Our transcriptome phylogeny confirmed relationships published in previous studies that used fewer markers but incorporated more taxa. We did not find a WGD event at the base of the slipper orchids; however, we did identify one on the Orchidaceae stem lineage. We also confirmed the presence of a previously identified WGD event deeper in the monocot phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS: Although WGD has played a role in the evolution of Orchidaceae, polyploidy does not appear to be responsible for the large genome size of slipper orchids. The conserved set of 775 largely single-copy nuclear genes identified in this study should prove useful in future studies of orchid evolution.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Evolução Biológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Orchidaceae , Filogenia , Poliploidia
10.
Am J Bot ; 105(3): 463-469, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574686

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Previous phylogenetic studies employing molecular markers have yielded various insights into the evolutionary history across Brassicales, but many relationships between families remain poorly supported or unresolved. A recent phylotranscriptomic approach utilizing 1155 nuclear markers obtained robust estimates for relationships among 14 of 17 families. Here we report a complete family-level phylogeny estimated using the plastid genome. METHODS: We conducted phylogenetic analyses on a concatenated data set comprising 44,926 bp from 72 plastid genes for species distributed across all 17 families. Our analysis includes three additional families, Tovariaceae, Salvadoraceae, and Setchellanthaceae, that were omitted in the previous phylotranscriptomic study. KEY RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses obtained fully resolved and strongly supported estimates for all nodes across Brassicales. Importantly, these findings are congruent with the topology reported in the phylotranscriptomic study. This consistency suggests that future studies could utilize plastid genomes as markers for resolving relationships within some notoriously difficult clades across Brassicales. We used this new phylogenetic framework to verify the placement of the At-α event near the origin of Brassicaceae, with median date estimates of 31.8 to 42.8 million years ago and restrict the At-ß event to one of two nodes with median date estimates between 85 to 92.2 million years ago. These events ultimately gave rise to novel chemical defenses and are associated with subsequent shifts in net diversification rates. CONCLUSIONS: We anticipate that these findings will aid future comparative evolutionary studies across Brassicales, including selecting candidates for whole-genome sequencing projects.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Brassicaceae/química , Brassicaceae/genética , Núcleo Celular , Evolução Molecular , Magnoliopsida/química , Plastídeos , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(2): 354-364, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069493

RESUMO

Even though lateral movements of transposons across families and even phyla within multicellular eukaryotic kingdoms have been found, little is known about transposon transfer between the kingdoms Animalia and Plantae. We discovered a novel non-LTR retrotransposon, AdLINE3, in a wild peanut species. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that AdLINE3 is a member of the RTE clade, originally identified in a nematode and rarely reported in plants. We identified RTE elements in 82 plants, spanning angiosperms to algae, including recently active elements in some flowering plants. RTE elements in flowering plants were likely derived from a single family we refer to as An-RTE. Interestingly, An-RTEs show significant DNA sequence identity with non-LTR retroelements from 42 animals belonging to four phyla. Moreover, the sequence identity of RTEs between two arthropods and two plants was higher than that of homologous genes. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of RTEs from both animals and plants suggest that the An-RTE family was likely transferred horizontally into angiosperms from an ancient aphid(s) or ancestral arthropod(s). Notably, some An-RTEs were recruited as coding sequences of functional genes participating in metabolic or other biochemical processes in plants. This is the first potential example of horizontal transfer of transposons between animals and flowering plants. Our findings help to understand exchanges of genetic material between the kingdom Animalia and Plantae and suggest arthropods likely impacted on plant genome evolution.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Artrópodes/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Retroelementos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1899, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196618

RESUMO

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a water-use efficient adaptation of photosynthesis that has evolved independently many times in diverse lineages of flowering plants. We hypothesize that convergent evolution of protein sequence and temporal gene expression underpins the independent emergences of CAM from C3 photosynthesis. To test this hypothesis, we generate a de novo genome assembly and genome-wide transcript expression data for Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi, an obligate CAM species within the core eudicots with a relatively small genome (~260 Mb). Our comparative analyses identify signatures of convergence in protein sequence and re-scheduling of diel transcript expression of genes involved in nocturnal CO2 fixation, stomatal movement, heat tolerance, circadian clock, and carbohydrate metabolism in K. fedtschenkoi and other CAM species in comparison with non-CAM species. These findings provide new insights into molecular convergence and building blocks of CAM and will facilitate CAM-into-C3 photosynthesis engineering to enhance water-use efficiency in crops.


Assuntos
Ácidos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Kalanchoe/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Kalanchoe/classificação , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1279, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093472

RESUMO

Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes many times across the eukaryote phylogeny. Several models have been proposed to explain this transition, some involving male and female sterility mutations linked in a region of suppressed recombination between X and Y (or Z/W, U/V) chromosomes. Comparative and experimental analysis of a reference genome assembly for a double haploid YY male garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) individual implicates separate but linked genes as responsible for sex determination. Dioecy has evolved recently within Asparagus and sex chromosomes are cytogenetically identical with the Y, harboring a megabase segment that is missing from the X. We show that deletion of this entire region results in a male-to-female conversion, whereas loss of a single suppressor of female development drives male-to-hermaphrodite conversion. A single copy anther-specific gene with a male sterile Arabidopsis knockout phenotype is also in the Y-specific region, supporting a two-gene model for sex chromosome evolution.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Asparagus (Planta)/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Organismos Hermafroditas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
14.
Plant Physiol ; 174(2): 904-921, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446636

RESUMO

The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SPn EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis , Funções Verossimilhança , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Plant J ; 90(5): 994-1006, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258650

RESUMO

The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex consists of about 30 subunits from both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes and is ubiquitous across most land plants. In some orchids, such as Phalaenopsis equestris, Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium catenatum, most of the 11 chloroplast genome-encoded ndh genes (cp-ndh) have been lost. Here we investigated whether functional cp-ndh genes have been completely lost in these orchids or whether they have been transferred and retained in the nuclear genome. Further, we assessed whether both cp-ndh genes and nucleus-encoded NDH-related genes can be lost, resulting in the absence of the NDH complex. Comparative analyses of the genome of Apostasia odorata, an orchid species with a complete complement of cp-ndh genes which represents the sister lineage to all other orchids, and three published orchid genome sequences for P. equestris, D. officinale and D. catenatum, which are all missing cp-ndh genes, indicated that copies of cp-ndh genes are not present in any of these four nuclear genomes. This observation suggests that the NDH complex is not necessary for some plants. Comparative genomic/transcriptomic analyses of currently available plastid genome sequences and nuclear transcriptome data showed that 47 out of 660 photoautotrophic plants and all the heterotrophic plants are missing plastid-encoded cp-ndh genes and exhibit no evidence for maintenance of a functional NDH complex. Our data indicate that the NDH complex can be lost in photoautotrophic plant species. Further, the loss of the NDH complex may increase the probability of transition from a photoautotrophic to a heterotrophic life history.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
Am J Bot ; 103(10): 1712-1716, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793857
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 105: 102-113, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591171

RESUMO

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species. Carbon isotope data was used as a proxy for mode of photosynthesis in extant species and ancestral states were estimated on the phylogeny. Ancestral character state mapping suggests three independent origins of CAM in the Agavoideae. CAM species differ from C3 species in climate space and are found to have thicker leaves with densely packed cells. C3 ancestors of CAM species show a predisposition toward CAM-like morphology. Leaf characteristics in the ancestral C3 species may have enabled the repeated evolution of CAM in the Agavoideae subfamily. Anatomical changes, including a tendency toward 3D venation, may have initially arisen in C3 ancestors in response to aridity as a way to increase leaf succulence for water storage.


Assuntos
Asparagaceae/anatomia & histologia , Asparagaceae/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Clima , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
BMC Biotechnol ; 16(1): 47, 2016 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. RESULTS: We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p < 0.005), and green algae, red algae, and bryophytes had significantly more ABCF transporter gene members (p < 0.005). Ferns had significantly fewer ABCA transporter gene members than all other plant groups (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: We present a transcriptomic overview of ABC transporter gene members across all major plant groups. An increase in the number of gene family members present in the ABCB, ABCC, and ABCD transporter subfamilies may indicate an expansion of the ABC transporter superfamily among green land plants, which include all crop species. The striking difference between the number of ABCA subfamily transporter gene members between ferns and other plant taxa is surprising and merits further investigation. Discussed is the potential exploitation of ABC transporters in plant biotechnology, with an emphasis on crops.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Biotecnologia/tendências , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Data Brief ; 7: 532-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054154

RESUMO

This data article provides data and supplemental materials referenced in "Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae)" (Comer et al., 2016) [1]. Raw sequence reads generated for this study are available through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA Study Accession: SRP061467). An aligned supermatrix of 168 nuclear genes for 35 taxa (34 palms and one outgroup taxon) is provided. Also provided are individual maximum likelihood gene trees used for the coalescent based analyses, output from the maximum parsimony analyses, and two figures.

20.
Genome Biol Evol ; 8(4): 1150-64, 2016 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988252

RESUMO

Comparisons of flowering plant genomes reveal multiple rounds of ancient polyploidy characterized by large intragenomic syntenic blocks. Three such whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, designated as rho (ρ), sigma (σ), and tau (τ), have been identified in the genomes of cereal grasses. Precise dating of these WGD events is necessary to investigate how they have influenced diversification rates, evolutionary innovations, and genomic characteristics such as the GC profile of protein-coding sequences. The timing of these events has remained uncertain due to the paucity of monocot genome sequence data outside the grass family (Poaceae). Phylogenomic analysis of protein-coding genes from sequenced genomes and transcriptome assemblies from 35 species, including representatives of all families within the Poales, has resolved the timing of rho and sigma relative to speciation events and placed tau prior to divergence of Asparagales and the commelinids but after divergence with eudicots. Examination of gene family phylogenies indicates that rho occurred just prior to the diversification of Poaceae and sigma occurred before early diversification of Poales lineages but after the Poales-commelinid split. Additional lineage-specific WGD events were identified on the basis of the transcriptome data. Gene families exhibiting high GC content are underrepresented among those with duplicate genes that persisted following these genome duplications. However, genome duplications had little overall influence on lineage-specific changes in the GC content of coding genes. Improved resolution of the timing of WGD events in monocot history provides evidence for the influence of polyploidization on functional evolution and species diversification.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Magnoliopsida/genética , Transcriptoma , Duplicação Gênica , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Poaceae/genética , Poliploidia , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA