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1.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 59(2): 264-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130988

RESUMO

Because consensus on the optimal surgical treatment of tongue-type calcaneal fractures is lacking, this study aimed to compare outcomes and postoperative complications of open and closed surgical treatment of these fractures. For this cases series, all patients 18 years or older who underwent operative fixation of tongue-type calcaneal fractures at 2 level I trauma centers between 2004 and 2015 were considered eligible for participation. Data on explanatory and outcome variables were collected from medical records based on available follow-up. Additionally, a systematic literature review on surgical treatment of these fractures was conducted. Fifty-six patients (58 tongue-type fractures) were included. Open reduction internal fixation was performed in 33 fractures, and closed reduction internal (percutaneous) fixation was performed in 25. More wound problems and deep infections were observed with open treatment compared with the closed approach: 10 (30%) versus 3 (12%) and 4 (12%) versus 0 (0%) procedures, respectively. In contrast, revision and hardware removal predominated in patients with closed treatments: 4 (16%) versus 1 (3%) and 9 (36%) versus 8 (24%) procedures, respectively. The systematic literature review yielded 10 articles reporting on surgical treatment for tongue-type fractures, all showing relatively good outcomes and low complication rates with no definite advantage for either technique. Both open and closed techniques are suggested as accurate surgical treatment options for tongue-type calcaneal fractures. Surgical treatment should be individualized, considering both fracture and patient characteristics and the treating surgeon's expertise. We recommend attempting closed reduction internal fixation if deemed feasible, with conversion to an open procedure if satisfactory reduction or fixation is unobtainable.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most children with intra-abdominal injuries can be managed non-operatively. However, in Europe, there are many different healthcare systems for the treatment of pediatric trauma patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the management strategies and outcomes of all pediatric patients with blunt intra-abdominal injuries in our unique dedicated pediatric trauma center with a pediatric trauma surgeon. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center, cohort study to investigate the management of pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma. From the National Trauma Registration database, we retrospectively identified pediatric (≤ 18 years) patients with blunt abdominal injuries admitted to the UMCU from January 2012 till January 2018. RESULTS: A total of 121 pediatric patients were included in the study. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of patients was 12 (8-16) years, and the median ISS was 16 (9-25). High-grade liver injuries were found in 12 patients. Three patients had a pancreas injury grade V. Furthermore, 2 (1.6%) patients had urethra injuries and 10 (8.2%) hollow viscus injuries were found. Eighteen (14.9%) patients required a laparotomy and 4 (3.3%) patients underwent angiographic embolization. In 6 (5.0%) patients, complications were found and in 4 (3.3%) children intervention was needed for their complication. No mortality was seen in patients treated non-operatively. One patient died in the operative management group. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, it is safe to treat most children with blunt abdominal injuries non-operatively if monitoring is adequate. These decisions should be made by the clinicians operating on these children, who should be an integral part of the entire group of treating physicians. Surgical interventions are only needed in case of hemodynamic instability or specific injuries such as bowel perforation.

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(4): 290-298, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate pre-hospital trauma triage is crucial to enable optimal care in inclusive trauma systems. Transport of children in need of specialised trauma care to lower-level trauma centres is associated with adverse patient outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of paediatric field triage based on patient destination and triage tools. METHODS: We did a multisite observational study (P2-T2) of all children (aged <16 years) transported with high priority by ambulance from the scene of injury to any emergency department in seven of 11 inclusive trauma regions in the Netherlands. Diagnostic accuracy based on the initial transport destination was evaluated in terms of undertriage rate (ie, the proportion of patients in need of specialised trauma care who were initially transported to a lower-level paediatric or adult trauma centre) and overtriage rate (ie, the proportion of patients not requiring specialised trauma care who were transported to a level-I [highest level] paediatric trauma centre). The Dutch National Protocol of Ambulance Services and Field Triage Decision Scheme triage protocols were externally validated using data from this cohort against an anatomical (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16) and a resource-based reference standard. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, 12 915 children (median age 10·3 years, IQR 4·2-13·6) were transported to the emergency department with injuries. 4091 (31·7%) patients were admitted to hospital, of whom 129 (3·2%) patients had an ISS of 16 or greater and 227 (5·5%) patients used critical resources within a limited timeframe. Ten patients died within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department. Based on the primary reference standard (ISS ≥16), the undertriage rate was 16·3% (95% CI 10·8-23·7) and the overtriage rate was 21·2% (20·5-22·0). The National Protocol of Ambulance Services had a sensitivity of 53·5% (95% CI 43·9-62·9) and a specificity of 94·0% (93·4-94·6), and the Field Triage Decision Scheme had a sensitivity of 64·5% (54·1-74·1) and a specificity of 84·3% (83·1-85·5). INTERPRETATION: Too many children in need of specialised care were transported to lower-level paediatric or adult trauma centres, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Current protocols cannot accurately discriminate between patients at low and high risk, and highly sensitive and child-specific triage tools need to be developed to ensure the right patient is transported to the right hospital. FUNDING: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, Innovation Fund Health Insurers.

4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921330

RESUMO

Background: Although the phrase "time is fascia" is well acknowledged in the case of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs), solid evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to review the current literature concerning the timing of surgery in relation to mortality and amputation in patients with NSTIs. Methods: A systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL) was performed. The primary outcomes were mortality and amputation. These outcomes were related to the following time-related variables: (1) time from onset symptoms to presentation; (2) time from onset symptoms to surgery; (3) time from presentation to surgery; (4) duration of the initial surgical procedure. For the meta-analysis, the effects were estimated using random-effects meta-analysis models. Result: A total of 109 studies, with combined 6051 NSTI patients, were included. Of these 6051 NSTI patients, 1277 patients died (21.1%). A total of 33 studies, with combined 2123 NSTI patients, were included for quantitative analysis. Mortality was significantly lower for patients with surgery within 6 h after presentation compared to when treatment was delayed more than 6 h (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.70; 10 studies included). Surgical treatment within 6 h resulted in a 19% mortality rate compared to 32% when surgical treatment was delayed over 6 h. Also, surgery within 12 h reduced the mortality compared to surgery after 12 h from presentation (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.27-0.61; 16 studies included). Patient delay (time from onset of symptoms to presentation or surgery) did not significantly affect the mortality in this study. None of the time-related variables assessed significantly reduced the amputation rate. Three studies reported on the duration of the first surgery. They reported a mean operating time of 78, 81, and 102 min with associated mortality rates of 4, 11.4, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: Average mortality rates reported remained constant (around 20%) over the past 20 years. Early surgical debridement lowers the mortality rate for NSTI with almost 50%. Thus, a sense of urgency is essential in the treatment of NSTI.

5.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 30(1): 109-116, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetabular fractures are difficult to classify owing to the complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the pelvis. 3D printing helps to understand and reliably classify acetabular fracture types. 3D-virtual reality (VR) may have comparable benefits. Our hypothesis is that 3D-VR is equivalent to 3D printing in understanding acetabular fracture patterns. METHODS: A total of 27 observers of various experience levels from several hospitals were requested to classify twenty 3D printed and VR models according to the Judet-Letournel classification. Additionally, surgeons were asked to state their preferred surgical approach and patient positioning. Time to classify each fracture type was recorded. The cases were randomized to rule out a learning curve. Inter-observer agreement was analyzed using Fleiss' kappa statistics (κ). RESULTS: Inter-observer agreements varied by observer group and type of model used to classify the fracture: medical students: 3D print (κ = 0.61), VR (κ = 0.41); junior surgical residents: 3D print (0.51) VR (0.54); senior surgical residents: 3D print (0.66) VR (0.52); junior surgeons: 3D print (0.56), VR (0.43); senior surgeons: 3D print (κ = 0.59), VR (κ = 0.42). Using 3D printed models, there was more agreement on the surgical approach (junior surgeons κ = 0.23, senior surgeons κ = 0.31) when compared with VR (junior surgeons κ = 0.17, senior surgeons 0.25). No difference was found in time used to classify these fractures between 3D printing and VR for all groups (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: The Judet-Letournel acetabular classification stays difficult to interpret; only moderate kappa agreements were found. We found 3D-VR inferior to 3D printing in classifying acetabular fractures. Furthermore, the current 3D-VR technology is still not practical for intra-operative use.

6.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 46(1): 65-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this systematic literature review, the effects of the application of a checklist during in hospital resuscitation of trauma patients on adherence to the ATLS guidelines, trauma team performance, and patient-related outcomes were integrated. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses checklist. The search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane inception till January 2019. Randomized controlled- or controlled before-and-after study design were included. All other forms of observational study designs, reviews, case series or case reports, animal studies, and simulation studies were excluded. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Three of the 625 identified articles were included, which all used a before-and-after study design. Two studies showed that Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS)-related tasks are significantly more frequently performed when a checklist was applied during resuscitation. [14 of 30 tasks (p < 0.05), respectively, 18 of 19 tasks (p < 0.05)]. One study showed that time to task completion (- 9 s, 95% CI = - 13.8 to - 4.8 s) and workflow improved, which was analyzed as model fitness (0.90 vs 0.96; p < 0.001); conformance frequency (26.1% vs 77.6%; p < 0.001); and frequency of unique workflow traces (31.7% vs 19.1%; p = 0.005). One study showed that the incidence of pneumonia was higher in the group where a checklist was applied [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.69, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.03-2.80)]. No difference was found for nine other assessed complications or missed injuries. Reduced mortality rates were found in the most severely injured patient group (Injury Severity score > 25, aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: The application of a checklist may improve ATLS adherence and workflow during trauma resuscitation. Current literature is insufficient to truly define the effect of the application of a checklist during trauma resuscitation on patient-related outcomes, although one study showed promising results as an improved chance of survival for the most severely injured patients was found.

7.
Anesthesiology ; 132(3): 424-439, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vital signs are usually recorded once every 8 h in patients at the hospital ward. Early signs of deterioration may therefore be missed. Wireless sensors have been developed that may capture patient deterioration earlier. The objective of this study was to determine whether two wearable patch sensors (SensiumVitals [Sensium Healthcare Ltd., United Kingdom] and HealthPatch [VitalConnect, USA]), a bed-based system (EarlySense [EarlySense Ltd., Israel]), and a patient-worn monitor (Masimo Radius-7 [Masimo Corporation, USA]) can reliably measure heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) continuously in patients recovering from major surgery. METHODS: In an observational method comparison study, HR and RR of high-risk surgical patients admitted to a step-down unit were simultaneously recorded with the devices under test and compared with an intensive care unit-grade monitoring system (XPREZZON [Spacelabs Healthcare, USA]) until transition to the ward. Outcome measures were 95% limits of agreement and bias. Clarke Error Grid analysis was performed to assess the ability to assist with correct treatment decisions. In addition, data loss and duration of data gaps were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-five high-risk surgical patients were included. More than 700 h of data were available for analysis. For HR, bias and limits of agreement were 1.0 (-6.3, 8.4), 1.3 (-0.5, 3.3), -1.4 (-5.1, 2.3), and -0.4 (-4.0, 3.1) for SensiumVitals, HealthPatch, EarlySense, and Masimo, respectively. For RR, these values were -0.8 (-7.4, 5.6), 0.4 (-3.9, 4.7), and 0.2 (-4.7, 4.4) respectively. HealthPatch overestimated RR, with a bias of 4.4 (limits: -4.4 to 13.3) breaths/minute. Data loss from wireless transmission varied from 13% (83 of 633 h) to 34% (122 of 360 h) for RR and 6% (47 of 727 h) to 27% (182 of 664 h) for HR. CONCLUSIONS: All sensors were highly accurate for HR. For RR, the EarlySense, SensiumVitals sensor, and Masimo Radius-7 were reasonably accurate for RR. The accuracy for RR of the HealthPatch sensor was outside acceptable limits. Trend monitoring with wearable sensors could be valuable to timely detect patient deterioration.

8.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 46(1): 131-146, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238385

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severely injured patients should be treated at higher-level trauma centres, to improve chances of survival and avert life-long disabilities. Emergency medical service (EMS) providers must try to determine injury severity on-scene, using a prehospital trauma triage protocol, and decide the most appropriate type of trauma centre. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of EMS provider judgment in the prehospital triage process of trauma patients, by analysing the compliance rate to the protocol and administering a questionnaire among EMS providers. METHODS: All trauma patients transported to a trauma centre in two different regions of the Netherlands were analysed. Compliance rate was based on the number of patients meeting the triage criteria and transported to the corresponding level trauma centre. The questionnaire was administered among EMS providers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: For adult patients, the compliance rate to the level I criteria of the triage protocol was 72% in Central Netherlands and 42% in Brabant. For paediatric patients, this was 63% and 38% in Central Netherlands and Brabant, respectively. The judgment on injury severity was mostly based on the injury-type criteria. Additionally, the distance to a level I trauma centre influenced the decision for destination facility in the Brabant region. CONCLUSION: The compliance rate varied between regions. Improvement of prehospital trauma triage depends on the accuracy of the protocol and compliance rate. A new protocol, including EMS provider judgment, might be the key to improvement in the prehospital trauma triage quality.

10.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867051

RESUMO

Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias or defects (TAWDs) after blunt trauma are rare and comprehensive literature on this topic is scarce. Altogether, there is no consensus about optimal methods and timing of repair, resulting in a surgeon's dilemma. The aim of this study was to analyze current literature, comparing (1) acute versus delayed repair and (2) mesh versus no mesh repair. Methods: A broad and systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The selected articles were assessed on methodological quality using a modified version of the CONSORT 2010 Checklist and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Primary endpoint was hernia recurrence, diagnosed by clinical examination or CT. Random effects meta-analyses on hernia recurrence rates after acute versus delayed repair, and mesh versus no mesh repair, were conducted separately. Results: In total, 19 studies were evaluated, of which 6 were used in our analysis. These studies reported a total of 229 patients who developed a TAWD, of whom a little more than half underwent surgical repair. Twenty-three of 172 patients (13%) who had their TAWD surgically repaired developed a recurrence. In these studies, nearly 70% of the patients who developed a recurrence had their TAWD repaired primarily without a mesh augmentation and mostly during the initial hospitalization. Pooled analysis did not show any statistically significant favor for either use of mesh augmentation or the timing of surgical repair. Conclusion: Although 70% of the recurrences occurred in patients without mesh augmentation, pooled analysis did not show significant differences in either mesh versus no mesh repair, nor acute versus delayed repair for the management of traumatic abdominal wall defects. Therefore, a patient's condition (e.g., concomitant injuries) should determine the timing of repair, preferably with the use of a mesh augmentation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore injury-related characteristics that differentiate between patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following traumatic musculoskeletal injury. METHODS: We reviewed English-language articles in PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (January 1995 to September 2018). We included studies that compared patient-reported outcomes of musculoskeletal trauma based on injury characteristics, and excluded studies related to development or validation of outcome tools without implementation, measurement, or comparison. Studies on patients with isolated neurotrauma or spine trauma were not included. Study level of evidence was assessed by 2 reviewers using the modified Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine rating system. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies (21 articles) that reported on a total of 10,186 patients were included (4 were prospective cohort-studies, 8 were matched-control retrospective cohort-studies, and 8 were retrospective cohort-studies). Median minimum follow-up was 3 years (range 0.5-10 years). Injury-related factors associated with worse PROs were polytrauma or multiple injuries (10 studies), neurotrauma (11 studies), and high-energy injury mechanism (7 studies). Among all studies, 32 different outcome metrics were used (17 general health status metrics and 15 limb-specific metrics) making meta-analysis infeasible. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the included studies, we propose a framework where musculoskeletal injuries occur in one of 4 scenarios that is associated with a different context-dependent outcome: (1) polytrauma with neurotrauma, (2) polytrauma without neurotrauma, (3) high-energy monotrauma, and (4) low-energy monotrauma. Our results suggest that standardization of outcome instruments is needed to facilitate future meta-analyses that assess PROs in this population.

12.
Injury ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are common in high-risk surgical patients, but early detection is difficult. Recent innovations have resulted in wireless and 'wearable' sensors, which may capture patient deterioration at an early stage, but little is known regarding their ability to timely detect events. The objective of this study is to describe the ability of currently available wireless sensors to detect adverse events in high-risk patients. METHODS: A descriptive analysis was performed of all vital signs trend data obtained during an observational comparison study of wearable sensors for vital signs monitoring in high-risk surgical patients during the initial days of recovery at a surgical step-down unit (SDU) and subsequent traumatology or surgical oncology ward. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were continuously recorded. Vital sign trend patterns of patients that developed adverse events were described and compared to vital sign recordings of patients without occurrence of adverse events. Two wearable patch sensors were used (SensiumVitals and HealthPatch), a bed-based mattress sensor (EarlySense) and a patient-worn monitor (Masimo Radius-7). RESULTS: Twenty adverse events occurred in 11 of the 31 patients included. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was most common (20%). The onset of AF was recognizable as a sudden increase in HR in all recordings, and all patients with new-onset AF after esophagectomy developed other postoperative complications. Patients who developed respiratory insufficiency showed an increase in RR and a decrease in SpO2, but an increase in HR was not always visible. In patients without adverse events, temporary periods of high HR and RR are observed as well, but these were transient and less frequent. CONCLUSIONS: Current systems for remote wireless patient monitoring on the ward are capable of detecting abnormalities in vital sign patterns in patients who develop adverse events. Remote patient monitoring may have potential to improve patient safety by generating early warnings for deterioration to nursing staff.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664467

RESUMO

The randomized controlled trial (RCT) in surgery may not always be ethical, feasible, or necessary to address a particular research question about the effect of a surgical intervention. If so, properly designed and conducted observational (non-randomized) studies may be valuable alternatives for an RCT and produce credible results. In this paper, we discus differences between RCTs and observational studies and differentiate between three types of comparisons of surgical interventions. We assert that results of different designs should be regarded as complementary to each other when evaluating surgical interventions. Criteria for credible observational research are presented to provide guidance for future observational research of surgical interventions. We argue that the research question that is being asked should guide the discussion about the value of a particular study design.

14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 199, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incorporation of repeated measurements into multivariable prediction research may greatly enhance predictive performance. However, the methodological possibilities vary widely and a structured overview of the possible and utilized approaches lacks. Therefore, we [1] propose a structured framework for these approaches, [2] determine what methods are currently used to incorporate repeated measurements in prediction research in the critical care setting and, where possible, [3] assess the added discriminative value of incorporating repeated measurements. METHODS: The proposed framework consists of three domains: the observation window (static or dynamic), the processing of the raw data (raw data modelling, feature extraction and reduction) and the type of modelling. A systematic review was performed to identify studies which incorporate repeated measurements to predict (e.g. mortality) in the critical care setting. The within-study difference in c-statistics between models with versus without repeated measurements were obtained and pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: From the 2618 studies found, 29 studies incorporated multiple repeated measurements. The annual number of studies with repeated measurements increased from 2.8/year (2000-2005) to 16.0/year (2016-2018). The majority of studies that incorporated repeated measurements for prediction research used a dynamic observation window, and extracted features directly from the data. Differences in c statistics ranged from - 0.048 to 0.217 in favour of models that utilize repeated measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated measurements are increasingly common to predict events in the critical care domain, but their incorporation is lagging. A framework of possible approaches could aid researchers to optimize future prediction models.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolisms (VTE) are a major concern after acute survival from trauma. Variations in treatment protocols for trauma patients exist worldwide. This study analyzes the differences in the number of VTE events and the associated complications of thromboprophylaxis between two level I trauma populations utilizing varying treatment protocols. METHODS: International multicenter trauma registry-based study was performed at the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) in The Netherlands (early commencement chemical prophylaxis), and Harborview Medical Center (HMC) in the United States (restrictive early chemical prophylaxis). All severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 16), aged ≥ 18 years, and admitted in 2013 were included. Primary outcomes were VTE [deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (no screening), pulmonary embolism (PE)], and hemorrhagic complications. RESULTS: In UMCU, 279 patients were included and in HMC, 974 patients. Overall, 75% of the admitted trauma patients in UMCU and 81% in HMC (p < 0.001) received thromboprophylaxis, of which 100% in and 75% at, respectively, UMCU and HMC consisted of chemical prophylaxis. From these patients, 72% at UMCU and 47% at HMC (p < 0.001) were treated within 48 h after arrival. At UMCU, 4 patients (1.4%) (PE = 3, DVT = 1) and HMC 37 patients (3.8%) (PE = 22, DVT = 16; p = 0.06) developed a VTE. At UMCU, a greater percent of patients with VTE had traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Most VTE occurred despite adequate prophylaxis being given (75% UMCU and 81% HMC). Hemorrhagic complications occurred in, respectively, 4 (1.4%) and 10 (1%) patients in UMCU and HMC (p = 0.570). After adjustment for age, ISS, HLOS, and injury type, no significant difference was demonstrated in UMCU compared to HMC for the development of VTE, OR 2.397, p = 0.102 and hemorrhagic complications, OR 0. 586, p = 0.383. CONCLUSIONS: A more early commencement protocol resulted in almost twice as much chemical prophylaxis being started within the first 48 h in comparison with a more delayed initiation of treatment. Interestingly, most episodes of VTE developed while receiving recommended prophylaxis. Early chemical thromboprophylaxis did not significantly increase the bleeding complications and it appears to be safe to start early.

16.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 9-15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Improve documentation during a mass casualty incident (MCI). DESIGN: This is a retrospective chart review. SETTING: This chart review was done in the Major Incident Hospital (MIH). The MIH is a highly prepared back-up hospital in the center of the Netherland that can be deployed in case of a major incident. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Until recently, the MIH used an extensive paper medical record: the hospital in special circumstances medical record (HSCMR). A concise primary survey form was developed and attached to the HSCMR, forming the pilot disaster medical record (pDMR). In this retrospective chart review, primary survey data documented in the HSCMR (during a MCI) were compared to the pDMR (during a drill exercise). Three triage categories were used: T1, immediate; T2, urgent; and T3, delayed. MAIN OUTCOME: The MIH hypothesized that a dedicated, concise, and practical primary survey form could improve quantitative patient documentation during an MCI. Significant differences were tested with the chi square and Fisher exact test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The pDMR was used significantly more often 61 percent vs 89 percent (p = 0.001), especially in T1 and T2 patients. Quantitative documentation in the pDMR improved significantly on airway, breathing, breathing frequency, saturation, circulation, heart rate, blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Score, exposure, and medication given but not in cervical spine and temperature. CONCLUSION: Significantly more primary survey forms were used and more data were documented using the pDMR, especially in the most critical patients. An MCI medical record should be simple and concise and should not deviate from daily routine.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Registros Médicos/normas , Triagem/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Immunol Methods ; 474: 112646, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phagocytes such as granulocytes and monocytes are fundamental players in the innate immune system. Activation of these cells can be quantified by the measurement of activation marker expression using flow cytometry. Analysis of receptor expression on inflammatory cells facilitates the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases and can be used to determine the extent of inflammation. However, several major limitations of this analysis precludes application of inflammation monitoring in clinical practice. Fast and automated analysis would minimalize ex vivo manipulation and allow reproducible processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated "load & go" flow cytometer for analyzing activation of granulocytes and monocytes in a clinically applicable setting. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 10 anonymous and healthy volunteers between the age of 18 and 65 years. Granulocyte and monocyte activation was determined by the use of the markers CD35, CD11b and CD10 measured in the automated AQUIOS CL® "load & go" flow cytometer. This machine is able to pierce the tube caps, add antibodies, lyse and measure the sample within 20 min after vena puncture. Reproducibility tests were performed to test the stability of activation marker expression on phagocytes. The expression of activation markers was measured at different time points after blood drawing to analyze the effect of bench time on granulocyte and monocyte activation. RESULTS: The duplicate experiments demonstrate a high reproducibility of the measurements of the activation state of phagocytes. Healthy controls showed a very homogenous expression of activation markers at T = 0 (immediately after vena puncture). Activation markers on neutrophils were already significantly increased after 1 h (T = 1) depicted as means (95%Cl) CD35: 2.2× (1.5×-2.5×) p = .028, CD11b: 2.5× (1.7×-3.1×) p = .023, CD10: 2.5× (2.1×-2.7×) p = .009) and a further increase in activation markers was observed after 2 and 3 h. Monocytes also showed a increase in activation markers in 1 h (mean (95%Cl) CD35: 1.8× (1.3×-2.2×) p = .058, CD11b: 2.13× (1.6×-2.4×) p = .025) and also a further significant increase in 2 and 3 h was observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that bench time of one hour already leads to a significant upregulation and bigger variance in activation markers of granulocytes and monocytes. In addition, it is likely that automated flow cytometry reduces intra-assay variability in the analysis of activation markers on inflammatory cells. Therefore, we found that it is of utmost importance to perform immune activation analysis as fast as possible to prevent drawing wrong conclusions. Automated flow cytometry is able to reduce this analysis from 2 h to only 15-20 min without the need of dedicated personnel and in a point-of-care context. This now allows fast and automated inflammation monitoring in blood samples obtained from a variety of patient groups. FUND: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

18.
J Eur CME ; 8(1): 1633193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263631

RESUMO

The time required to observe changes in participant evaluation of continuing medical education (CME) courses in surgical fields is unclear. We investigated the time required to observe changes in participant evaluation of an orthopaedic course after educational redesign using aggregate course-level data obtained from 1359 participants who attended one of 23 AO Davos Courses over a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011. Participants evaluated courses using two previously validated, 5-point Likert scales based on content and faculty performance, and we compared results between groups that underwent educational redesign incorporating serial needs assessment, problem-based learning, and faculty training initiatives (Masters Course), and those that did not (Non-Masters Course). Average scores for the usefulness and relevancy of a course and faculty performance were significantly higher for redesigned courses (p < 0.0001) and evaluations were significantly improved for both groups after faculty training was formalised in 2009 (p < 0.001). In summary, educational redesign incorporating serial needs assessment, problem-based learning, and faculty training initiatives were associated with improvement in participant evaluation, but these changes required 4-5 years to become evident.

19.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(3): 455-462, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Penetrating neck injuries (PNIs) have a low incidence in European trauma populations. Selective non-operative management of PNI has been suggested as a safe alternative to standard surgical neck exploration, but evidence is lacking. This clinical scenario evaluates institutional PNI management, specifically the associated carotid artery injury, and compares it with current guidelines. METHODS: Retrospectively, PNI patients presenting at two Dutch level 1 trauma centres from 2007 to 2015, were identified. International guidelines on PNI management were reviewed and recommendations were assessed in relation to current institutional management, and considering an illustrative case. RESULTS: Two current guidelines on PNI management were reviewed. Both advocate a zone based approach; one recommends a prominent role for computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning in stable patients, supplemented by endoscopy when indicated. A combined total of 43 PNI patients were identified over a nine year period. Haemodynamically unstable patients and patients with other hard signs (i.e. active bleeding, expanding haematoma, air/saliva leak, massive subcutaneous emphysema) received immediate exploration (n = 9). Haemodynamically stable patients and those responding to resuscitation (transient responders) had a CTA scan (n = 31). Three asymptomatic patients were treated conservatively, and had an uncomplicated clinical course regarding the PNI. In 10 of 14 patients who received surgical exploration, a significant vascular or aerodigestive injury was found and repaired (71%). All patients treated conservatively after CTA scanning had an uncomplicated clinical course regarding the PNI (n = 17). Six patients with penetrating carotid artery injury underwent primary arterial reconstruction, of whom five survived. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical scenario evaluates institutional management in two trauma centres for PNI and associated carotid artery injury, and compares it to current guidelines. In comparison with guideline recommendations, CTA scanning and the so called "No zone" approach appears to have assumed a more prominent role in management of PNI.

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