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1.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(2): 202-212.e6, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450181

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as cellular signal transducers through repression of protein translation. Elucidating targets using bioinformatics and traditional quantitation methods is often insufficient to uncover global miRNA function. Herein, alteration of protein function caused by miRNA-185 (miR-185), an immunometabolic miRNA, was determined using activity-based protein profiling, transcriptomics, and lipidomics. Fluorophosphonate-based activity-based protein profiling of miR-185-induced changes to human liver cells revealed that exclusively metabolic serine hydrolase enzymes were regulated in activity, some with roles in lipid and endocannabinoid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis linked enzymatic changes to levels of cellular lipid species, such as components of very-low-density lipoprotein particles. Additionally, inhibition of one miR-185 target, monoglyceride lipase, led to decreased hepatitis C virus levels in an infectious model. Overall, the approaches used here were able to identify key functional changes in serine hydrolases caused by miR-185 that are targetable pharmacologically, such that a small molecule inhibitor can recapitulate the miRNA phenotype.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19479, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173109

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation leaves behind around 20 t ha-1 of biomass residue after harvest and processing. We investigated the potential for sequestering carbon (C) in soil with these residues by partially converting them into biochar (recalcitrant carbon-rich material). First, we modified the RothC model to allow changes in soil C arising from additions of sugarcane-derived biochar. Second, we evaluated the modified model against published field data, and found satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted soil C accumulation. Third, we used the model to explore the potential for soil C sequestration with sugarcane biochar in São Paulo State, Brazil. The results show a potential increase in soil C stocks by 2.35 ± 0.4 t C ha-1 year-1 in sugarcane fields across the State at application rates of 4.2 t biochar ha-1 year-1. Scaling to the total sugarcane area of the State, this would be 50 Mt of CO2 equivalent year-1, which is 31% of the CO2 equivalent emissions attributed to the State in 2016. Future research should (a) further validate the model with field experiments; (b) make a full life cycle assessment of the potential for greenhouse gas mitigation, including additional effects of biochar applications on greenhouse gas balances.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974391

RESUMO

Nigeria is a large densely populated country in West Africa. Most of its livestock is raised in a pastoralist production system with typical long distance migration in search of water and feed. As the demand for animal products largely exceeds the domestic production, large numbers of livestock are imported from neighboring countries without sanitary restrictions. In Nigeria, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A, and Southern African Territories (SAT)2 are endemic for a long time. Clinical outbreaks of FMD due to serotype SAT1 are described again since 2015, after an absence of more than 30 years. Historically, outbreaks of FMD due to serotypes O, A, SAT1, and SAT2 were each time associated with trade of cattle entering Nigeria from neighboring countries. In the present study, tissue samples from 27 outbreaks of FMD were collected in Nigerian cattle from 2012 until 2017 in six different States and in the Federal Capital Territory. FMDV was isolated and serotyped and further characterized by VP1 sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to gain more knowledge on FMDV circulation in Nigeria. Half of the outbreaks were characterized as FMDV topotype O/EA-3, while outbreaks with other serotypes and topotypes were-in descending order-less prevalent: A/Africa/G-IV, SAT1/X, SAT2/VII, and O/WA. The high dynamics and omnipresence of FMD in Nigeria were illustrated in Plateau State where FMDV serotypes O, SAT1, and SAT2 were isolated during the course of the study, while at some point in the study, outbreaks due to FMDV serotype A were observed in three remote States. The genetic and phylogenetic analysis suggests a mixed origin of FMD outbreaks. Some outbreaks seem to be caused by sustained local transmission of FMDV strains present in Nigeria since a number of years, while other outbreaks seem to be related to recent incursions with new FMDV strains. The role of African buffaloes in the etiology of FMD in Nigeria is unclear, and sampling of wildlife is needed. The results of the present study suggest that systematic sample collection is essential to understand the complex concomitance of FMDV strains in Nigeria and essential to support the implementation of a vaccination-based control plan.

5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5: 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908850

RESUMO

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with high economic impact, representing a major threat for cloven-hooved mammals worldwide. Vaccines based on adjuvanted inactivated virus (iFMDV) induce effective protective immunity implicating antibody (Ab) responses. To reduce the biosafety constraints of the manufacturing process, a non-replicative human adenovirus type 5 vector encoding FMDV antigens (Ad5-FMDV) has been developed. Here we compared the immunogenicity of iFMDV and Ad5-FMDV with and without the ISA206VG emulsion-type adjuvant in sheep. Contrasted Ab responses were obtained: iFMDV induced the highest Ab levels, Ad5-FMDV the lowest ones, and ISA206VG increased the Ad5-FMDV-induced Ab responses to protective levels. Each vaccine generated heterogeneous Ab responses, with high and low responders, the latter being considered as obstacles to vaccine effectiveness. A transcriptomic study on total blood responses at 24 h post-vaccination revealed several blood gene module activities correlating with long-term Ab responses. Downmodulation of T cell modules' activities correlated with high responses to iFMDV and to Ad5-FMDV+ISA206VG vaccines as also found in other systems vaccinology studies in humans and sheep. The impact of cell cycle activity depended on the vaccine types, as it positively correlated with higher responses to iFMDV but negatively to non-adjuvanted Ad5-FMDV. Finally an elevated B cell activity at 24 h correlated with high Ab responses to the Ad5-FMDV+ISA206VG vaccine. This study provides insights into the early mechanisms driving the Ab response induced by different vaccine regimens including Ad5 vectors and points to T cell modules as early biomarker candidates of different vaccine-type efficacy across species.

6.
Prev Vet Med ; 181: 104704, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196699

RESUMO

Capripox viruses are the causative agents of important animal diseases in cattle (Lumpy Skin Disease), sheep (Sheeppox) and goats (Goatpox) with severe socio-economic impact in case of wide scale outbreaks. Therefore there is a constant need for adequate diagnostic tools. The assays must be fit-for-purpose to identify the virus quickly and correctly and to be useful for surveillance and monitoring at different stages of an epidemic. Different diagnostic performance characteristics are required depending on the situation and the test purpose. The need for high throughput, high specificity/sensitivity and the capability for differentiating field virus strains from vaccine strains drives the development of new and better assays preferably with an advantageous cost-benefit balance. This review aims to look at existing and new virological and serological diagnostic tools used in the control against diseases caused by Capripox viruses.

7.
J Virol Methods ; 276: 113786, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765721

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly variable RNA virus existing as seven different serotypes. The antigenic variability between and within serotypes can limit the cross-reactivity and therefore the in vivo cross-protection of vaccines. Selection of appropriate vaccine strains is crucial in the control of FMD. Determination of indirect relationships (r1-value) between potential vaccine strains and field strains based on antibody responses against both are routinely used for vaccine matching purposes. Aiming at the investigation of the repeatability, reproducibility and comparability of r1-value determination within and between laboratories and serological tests, a small scale vaccine matching ring test for FMDV serotype A was organized. Well-characterized serum pools from cattle vaccinated with a monovalent A24/Cruzeiro/Brazil/55 (A24) FMD vaccine with known in vivo protection status (homologous and heterologous) were distributed to four laboratories to determine r1-values for the heterologous FMD strains A81/Argentina/87, A/Argentina/2000 and A/Argentina/2001 using the virus neutralization tests (VNT) and liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE). Within laboratories, the repeatability of r1-value determination was high for both antibody assays. VNT resulted in reproducible and comparable r1-values between laboratories, indicative of a lack of antigenic relatedness between the A24 strain and the heterologous strains tested in this work, thus corresponding to some of the in vivo findings with these strains. Using LPBE, similar trends in r1-values were observed in all laboratories, but the overall reproducibility was lower than with VNT. Inconsistencies between laboratories may at least in part be attributed to differences in LPBE protocols as well as the in preexisting information generated in each laboratory (such as antibody titer-protection correlation curves). To gain more insight in the LPBE-derived r1-values standard bovine control sera were included in the antibody assays performed in each laboratory and a standardization exercise was performed.

8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386392

RESUMO

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with high economic impact, representing a major threat for cloven-hooved mammals worldwide. Vaccines based on adjuvanted inactivated virus (iFMDV) induce effective protective immunity implicating antibody (Ab) responses. To reduce the biosafety constraints of the manufacturing process, a non-replicative human adenovirus type 5 vector encoding FMDV antigens (Ad5-FMDV) has been developed. Here we compared the immunogenicity of iFMDV and Ad5-FMDV with and without the ISA206VG emulsion-type adjuvant in sheep. Contrasted Ab responses were obtained: iFMDV induced the highest Ab levels, Ad5-FMDV the lowest ones, and ISA206VG increased the Ad5-FMDV-induced Ab responses to protective levels. Each vaccine generated heterogeneous Ab responses, with high and low responders, the latter being considered as obstacles to vaccine effectiveness. A transcriptomic study on total blood responses at 24 h post-vaccination revealed several blood gene module activities correlating with long-term Ab responses. Downmodulation of T cell modules' activities correlated with high responses to iFMDV and to Ad5-FMDV+ISA206VG vaccines as also found in other systems vaccinology studies in humans and sheep. The impact of cell cycle activity depended on the vaccine types, as it positively correlated with higher responses to iFMDV but negatively to non-adjuvanted Ad5-FMDV. Finally an elevated B cell activity at 24 h correlated with high Ab responses to the Ad5-FMDV+ISA206VG vaccine. This study provides insights into the early mechanisms driving the Ab response induced by different vaccine regimens including Ad5 vectors and points to T cell modules as early biomarker candidates of different vaccine-type efficacy across species.

9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1575-1586, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901506

RESUMO

The Kachia Grazing Reserve (KGR) is located in Kaduna state in north-western Nigeria and consists of 6 contiguous blocks housing 744 defined households (HH), all engaged in livestock keeping. It is considered as a homogenous epidemiological unit and a defined study area. In 2012, all cattle and sheep of 40 selected HH were sampled to determine sero-prevalence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and of FMDV. The overall sero-prevalence of antibodies to the non-structural 3ABC protein (NSP-3ABC ELISA) was 28.9% (380/1,315) (30.6% cattle; 16.3% sheep), and in 4.5% (62/1,380) (5% cattle; 0.6% sheep) of the examined sera FMD viral RNA could be detected by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Additionally, in 2012 and 2014 serum, epithelium and probang samples were collected from cattle in reported FMD outbreaks and the causative FMDVs were molecularly characterized. Approximately half (28/59) of the outbreak sera reacted positive in NSP-3ABC ELISA, and 88% (52/59) of the outbreak sera contained detectable viral RNA. Overall, antibodies against five FMDV serotypes (O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) were detected by solid phase competitive ELISA with combinations of two or more serotypes being common. Of the 21 FMDVs that could be isolated 19 were sequenced and 18 were confirmed as SAT2 (lineage VII) while one was characterized as serotype O (EA-3 topotype). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between Nigerian FMDV strains and strains in this region and even with strains in North-Africa. Our findings indicate that FMD constitutes an endemic health problem to cattle rearing in the agro-pastoralist community in the KGR and that the KGR is not a closed epidemiological unit. Insight into the local FMDV epidemiology and in the circulating FMDV serotypes/strains is of support to the relevant authorities in Nigeria when considering the need for an FMD control policy to improve animal production in grazing reserves.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Geografia , Gado , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
10.
Nutr Rev ; 77(2): 96-106, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380124

RESUMO

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world and renders those affected susceptible to potentially severe oxidative hemolysis. Although the resulting hemolysis is most often associated with drug exposure, it has also been reported after consumption of certain foods. With the exception of review articles that reiterated the historical knowledge that fava beans can provoke severe oxidative hemolysis in individuals with G6PD deficiency, very few articles have examined the safety of other food ingredients and food additives for people with G6PD deficiency. Some articles that associated specific foods with hemolysis appeared to be speculative and based on limited information. The objective of this review was to examine the association between foods, including food additives, and the triggering factors of acute hemolysis. The literature was searched for studies and case reports on food consumption and G6PD deficiency. In this review, fava beans were found to be the only food for which there is conclusive clinical evidence linking the risk of hemolytic anemia to individuals with G6PD deficiency. Food additives, at their permitted level of use in North America, can be consumed safely by most patients with G6PD deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/dietoterapia , Animais , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Humanos , Vicia faba/efeitos adversos
11.
Mycotoxin Res ; 34(4): 241-255, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971579

RESUMO

The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its effects on juveniles exposed during the reproduction and development period have not been studied. To address this, Fischer rats were exposed to 0, 0.16, 0.4, 1.0, or 2.5 mg OTA/kg diet throughout breeding, gestation, and lactation and its adverse effects were assessed in adult rats and their offspring on postnatal day (PND) 21. There were no effects on implantation but post-implantation fetotoxicity was observed in the 2.5 mg/kg dose group, corresponding to a calculated dose of 167.0 µg/kg bw/day in dams. Adverse effects on body and kidney weights and on clinical parameters indicative of renal toxicity were significant in adult rats exposed to 1.0 mg OTA/kg diet (55.2 and 73.3 µg/kg bw/day in adult males and females, respectively) and in PND21 rats at the 0.4 mg/kg dose (33.9 µg/kg bw/day in dams), suggesting that weanling rats were more sensitive to OTA than adults. Overall, nephrotoxicity was the primary effect of OTA in weanling rats exposed throughout gestation and lactation at sub-fetotoxic concentrations in diet.


Assuntos
Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Envenenamento/patologia , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Insuficiência Renal/patologia , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/patologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ocratoxinas/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente
12.
Vaccine ; 36(16): 2193-2198, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544690

RESUMO

Vaccination is a key element in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The majority of the antigenic sites that induce protective immune responses are localized on the FMD virus (FMDV) capsid that is formed by four virus-encoded structural proteins, VP1 to VP4. In the present study, recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2)-based FMD vaccines, Cav-P1/3C R° and Cav-VP1 R°, respectively expressing the structural P1 precursor protein along with the non-structural 3C protein or expressing the structural VP1 protein of the FMDV strain O/FRA/1/2001, were evaluated as novel vaccines against FMD. A strong humoral immune response was elicited in guinea pigs (GP) following immunization with Cav-P1/3C R°, while administration of Cav-VP1 R° did not induce a satisfying antibody response in GP or mice. GP were then used as an experimental model for the determination of the protection afforded by the Cav-P1/3C R° vaccine against challenge with the FMDV strain O1 Manisa/Turkey/1969. The Cav-P1/3C R° vaccine protected GP from generalized FMD to a similar extent as a high potency double-oil emulsion O1 Manisa vaccine. The results of the present study show that CAV2-based vector vaccines can express immunogenic FMDV antigens and offer protection against generalized FMD in GP. This suggest that Cav-P1/3C R° FMDV vaccine may protect natural host species from FMD. In combination with an appropriate diagnostic test, the Cav-P1/3C R° FMDV vaccine may also serve as a marker vaccine to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals.


Assuntos
Adenovirus Caninos/genética , Adenovirus Caninos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Cobaias , Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Camundongos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
13.
Genome Announc ; 6(7)2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449384

RESUMO

The complete genome sequences of 5 foot-and-mouth disease viruses of serotype A are reported here. These viruses originate from outbreaks in northern Nigeria in 2013 to 2015 and belong to the A/AFRICA/G-IV lineage.

14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 110: 395-401, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107027

RESUMO

The chemical amaranth (AM) is permitted as a colouring agent in a variety of foods. Safety was established based on chronic rodent studies. AM and its metabolite naphthionic acid (NA) can be absorbed through the intestine, exposing circulating immune cells including splenocytes. An AM feeding study in rats demonstrated an increase in blood lymphocytes. Yet, in contrast, AM inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigen. DO11.10 mice express a T Cell Receptor specific for ovalbumin323-339 peptide (OVAp) presented by I-Ad MHCII. DO11.10 splenocytes were cultured to evaluate mechanisms by which AM and NA modulate immune cell function in vitro. Exposure to OVAp alone for 72 h induced cell proliferation, and combination with 2 or 20 µg/mL AM increased IFN-γ. Cytotoxicity was evident at higher concentrations of AM (200 and 2000 µg/mL) and NA (2000 µg/mL) in combination with OVAp, as both cell number and cytokine secretion decreased. At 200 µg/mL AM with OVAp, immunotoxicity gene expression was modified and OVAp-specific KJ1-26+ CD28+ cells became enriched. The equivalent dose of NA did not modify those parameters. Using an antigen-specific model in vitro, lower concentrations of AM potentiated pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and higher concentrations of AM and NA demonstrated cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/farmacologia , Corantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Naftalenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Genome Announc ; 5(42)2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051242

RESUMO

The complete genome sequences of four foot-and-mouth disease viruses of South African territories 1 (SAT 1) serotype are reported. These viruses originate from an outbreak in Nigeria in 2015 and belong to the novel SAT 1 topotype X from the west and central African virus pool.

16.
J Virol Methods ; 246: 90-94, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457784

RESUMO

The 3D and 5UTR real-time RT-PCR assays (RT-qPCR) from Callahan et al. (2002) and Reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). For an optimal detection of FMDV in clinical samples, it is advised to use both assays simultaneously (King et al., 2006). Recently, Vandenbussche et al. (2016) showed that the addition of 5'-tails to the FMDV-specific primers enhances the detection of FMDV in both the 3D and the 5UTR RT-qPCR assay. To validate the 3D and 5UTR RT-qPCR assays with 5'-tailed primers for diagnostic purposes, both assays were run in parallel in a triplex one-step RT-qPCR protocol with beta-actin as an internal control and synthetic RNA as an external control. We obtained low limits of detection and high linearity's, high repeatability and reproducibility, near 100% analytical specificity and >99% diagnostic accuracy for both assays. It was concluded that the 3D and 5UTR RT-qPCR assays with 5'-tailed primers are particularly suited for the detection of FMDV as well as to exclude the presence of FMDV.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Primers do DNA , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Animais , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos/virologia , Suínos/virologia
17.
Toxicology ; 377: 1-13, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932249

RESUMO

The brominated flame retardant TBECH is used as an additive to delay ignition and inhibit fires in construction materials and consumer goods. Trends in human exposure are not clear, although humans may be exposed to TBECH via indoor dust and air. In birds and fish there is some evidence of disruption in endocrine and reproductive parameters due to TBECH. In vitro studies indicate that TBECH is an androgen receptor agonist. In this study rats were exposed to 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250 or 5000mg/kg technical TBECH for 28days in diet, corresponding to 0, 0.9, 4.2, 21.3, 98.0 or 328.9mg TBECH/kg bw/d in males and 0, 0.8, 3.9, 19.4, 91.7 or 321.4mg TBECH/kg bw/d in females. Dose-dependent increases in α- and ß- TBECH were detected in serum, liver and adipose. Rats in the 5000mg/kg group lost weight rapidly and were euthanized after 15-18days. At study termination rats displayed dose-dependent clinical and histopathological changes consistent with mild hepatic and renal inflammation. In male rats, evidence of gender-specific alpha2u-globulin nephropathy was not considered predictive of renal toxicity in humans. Frank immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation were not apparent, nor was there a primary effect of TBECH on adaptive immunity. Some evidence of hormone disruption was observed, including changes in serum testosterone levels in males and changes in serum T3 and T4 levels in females. Apparent increases in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in male and female rats were not statistically significant. Benchmark dose (BMD) modelling indicated that clinical changes indicative of mild nephrotoxicity and increased blood monocyte numbers indicative of inflammation and tissue damage were the most sensitive outcomes of TBECH exposure that could be modelled. Preliminary evidence of hormone disruption supports the need for rodent studies using more sensitive models of growth, development and reproduction.


Assuntos
Cicloexanos/administração & dosagem , Cicloexanos/toxicidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/administração & dosagem , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cicloexanos/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
18.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164463, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723800

RESUMO

Non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5'-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. Despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. To address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RT-qPCR assays using an FMDV reference panel. Tailing of the panFMDV-5UTR primers mainly affected the shape of the amplification curves. Modelling of the raw fluorescence data suggested a reduction of the amplification efficiency due to the accumulation of inhibitors. In depth analysis of PCR products indeed revealed the rapid accumulation of forward-primer derived artefacts. More importantly, tailing of the forward primer delayed artefacts formation and concomitantly restored the sigmoidal shape of the amplification curves. Our analysis also showed that primer tailing can alter utilisation patterns of degenerate primers and increase the number of primer variants that are able to participate in the reaction. The impact of tailed primers was less pronounced in the panFMDV-3D assay with only 5 out of 50 isolates showing a clear shift in Cq values. Sequence analysis of the target region of these 5 isolates revealed several mutations in the inter-primer region that extend an existing hairpin structure immediately downstream of the forward primer binding site. Stabilisation of the forward primer with either a tail sequence or cationic spermine units restored the sensitivity of the assay, which suggests that the enhancing effect in the panFMDV-3D assay is due to a more efficient extension of the forward primer. ur results show that primer tailing can alter amplification through various mechanisms that are determined by both the assay and target region. These findings expand our understanding of primer tailing and should enable a more targeted and efficient use of tailed primers.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/química , Primers do DNA/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Humanos
19.
Nanotoxicology ; 10(10): 1422-1430, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534448

RESUMO

Humans could become exposed to carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in consumer products or an occupational setting. In rodent models, acute respiratory, subcutaneous, and direct immune cell exposure to CBNPs has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization to co-administered ovalbumin (OVA) protein from chicken egg. However, little is known about the effects of ingested CBNPs on immunological responses and oral tolerance to food antigens. We hypothesized that ingestion of CBNPs would enhance the development of food allergy to OVA. Allergy prone DO11.10 mice were orally exposed to CBNPs every second day for 2 weeks (total dose 10.8 (LOW) or 108 µg (HI)), with and without (±) co-administered OVA. Systemic immune parameters were measured at necropsy. Exposure to OVA resulted in significant increases in serum anti-OVA IgG1, anti-OVA IgM, and anti-OVA IgA antibodies relative to vehicle control. Immunophenotyping revealed a reduction in the number of OVA-specific CD4+ T helper cells upon OVA ± CBNPHI treatment in the spleen. Yet, secretion of the allergy-associated Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-9, and IL-13 was greater in OVA323-339 peptide-pulsed splenocytes from OVA + CBNPHI-treated mice compared with control. Transcriptome analysis at necropsy of splenocytes from OVA + CBNPHI dose mice compared with OVA mice revealed increases in the allergy associated genes Il4 and Stat6 and decreases in Csf3r and Retnlg. Although oral exposure to high-dose CBNPs did not impact OVA-specific antibody production relative to OVA, we did observe increased expression of genes and cytokines associated with allergy in peripheral splenocytes. This work suggests that CBNP gastrointestinal exposure may potentiate allergy pathways.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Fuligem/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ovalbumina/genética , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 11(3): e1004733, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799064

RESUMO

The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. Nucleoside-based inhibitors have broad-spectrum activity but often exhibit off-target effects. Most non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) target surface cavities, which are structurally more flexible than the nucleotide-binding pocket, and hence have a more narrow spectrum of activity and are more prone to resistance development. Here, we report a novel NNI, GPC-N114 (2,2'-[(4-chloro-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis(5-nitro-benzonitrile)) with broad-spectrum activity against enteroviruses and cardioviruses (another genus in the picornavirus family). Surprisingly, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus displayed a high genetic barrier to resistance against GPC-N114. By contrast, EMCV, a cardiovirus, rapidly acquired resistance due to mutations in 3Dpol. In vitro polymerase activity assays showed that GPC-N114 i) inhibited the elongation activity of recombinant CVB3 and EMCV 3Dpol, (ii) had reduced activity against EMCV 3Dpol with the resistance mutations, and (iii) was most efficient in inhibiting 3Dpol when added before the RNA template-primer duplex. Elucidation of a crystal structure of the inhibitor bound to CVB3 3Dpol confirmed the RNA-binding channel as the target for GPC-N114. Docking studies of the compound into the crystal structures of the compound-resistant EMCV 3Dpol mutants suggested that the resistant phenotype is due to subtle changes that interfere with the binding of GPC-N114 but not of the RNA template-primer. In conclusion, this study presents the first NNI that targets the RNA template channel of the picornavirus polymerase and identifies a new pocket that can be used for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors. Moreover, this study provides important new insight into the plasticity of picornavirus polymerases at the template binding site.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Cardiovirus/enzimologia , Enterovirus Humano B/enzimologia , Poliovirus/enzimologia , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HeLa , Humanos , /metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
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