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1.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to produce a prognostic model to help predict post-transplantation survival in patients transplanted with grade-3 acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF-3). METHODS: Patients with ACLF-3 who underwent liver transplantation between 2007 and 2017 in 5 transplant centers were included (n = 152). Predictors of one-year mortality were retrospectively screened and tested on a single center training cohort and subsequently tested on an independent multicenter cohort comprised of the 4 other centers. RESULTS: Four independent pre-transplantation risk factors were associated with one-year mortality after transplantation in the training cohort: age ≥53 years (p = 0.044), pre-LT arterial lactate level ≥4mml/l (p = 0.013), mechanical ventilation with PaO2 /FiO2 ≤200mmHg (p = 0.026) and pre-LT leukocyte count ≤10G/l (p = 0.004). A simplified version of the model was derived by assigning 1 point to each risk factor: the transplantation for Aclf-3 model (TAM) score. A cut-off at 2 points distinguished a high-risk group (score >2) from a low-risk group (score ≤2) with one-year survival of 8.3% vs. 83.9% respectively (p <0.001). This model was subsequently validated in the independent multicenter cohort. CONCLUSION: The TAM score can help stratify post-transplantation survival.

2.
J Sleep Res ; : e12993, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048384

RESUMO

French general practitioners (GPs) are known to widely prescribe medications to treat insomnia despite their negative effects. GPs' easy access to self-medication may affect their mental representation of sleep and hypnotics, and subsequently their professional behaviour. Our aim was to examine the association between GPs' personal hypnotic drug consumption habits and their management of patients with sleep disturbances. A randomized sample of Alsatian GPs participated in a survey based on questionnaires including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in 10 questions to characterize sleep, and an evaluation of their management strategies regarding sleep for both patients and themselves. Two-hundred and forty-nine GPs were included (response rate of 51%). Demographics of the GPs' samples were representative of those of the Alsatian GP population. Fifteen percent of the survey respondents met insomnia criteria. For the management of their own sleep disturbances, 14.3% of GPs were taking hypnotic drugs and 8.7% were taking anxiolytics, with greater drug consumption in the insomnia group. In a multivariate analysis, GPs who personally consumed these medications prescribed significantly more of them to patients, whereas their insomnia status had less impact. Other factors such as gender and type of practice were not associated with a higher prescription rate. Our results indicate that GPs' personal drug consumption can have a significant impact on the management of their patients, therefore suggesting that actions towards GPs' health improvement may also benefit their patients and the public.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2638, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060316

RESUMO

Nocturnal Legs Cramps are a frequent disorder, which have a negative impact on quality of life, particularly among patients over 60 years old. Lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption have been shown to be associated with Nocturnal Leg Cramps. This study aimed to explore the association between nocturnal leg cramps and a sedentary lifestyle among elderly patients. A case-control study was conducted with a Bayesian approach for sensitivity analysis. Patients over 60 years old consulting their family doctor were recruited in the Alsace region, France. Cases were matched with controls free from cramps for age, sex, medical history and medications known to trigger cramps. The level of physical activity was assessed using the Dijon Physical Activity Score (DPAS). We performed univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for alcohol consumption. 272 participants were matched into 136 pairs. 11% of all were sedentary persons. Adjusting for alcohol consumption, we observed an association between Nocturnal Leg Cramps and a sedentary lifestyle OR = 9.84 (95% credibility interval [1.74; 101.9]; posterior probability 99.68%). Our findings represent an additional argument to promote physical activity to patients over 60 years old. They also highlight the need to develop and evaluate physical activity interventions in the treatment of Nocturnal Legs Cramps.

4.
Transplant Proc ; 51(10): 3375-3384, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study patient survival and glycemic control before and after lung transplantation (LTx) according to the diabetes status in patients submitted to an organized management of diabetes mellitus (DM) at the Strasbourg University Hospital, France. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-seven LTx recipients were included retrospectively and analyzed according to diabetes status: pretransplant diabetes, new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT) or no diabetes. Organized DM management was coordinated by a diabetologist trained in DM management before and after transplantation and included pretransplant screening, a close monitoring of glycemia after transplant and optimized treatment before and after LTx. RESULTS: DM was well-controlled after transplantation: mean glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels after LTx were 5.8 ± 0.2% and 5.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L respectively, in pretransplant DM patients and 5.7 ± 0.1% and 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L respectively, in NODAT patients. The overall median survival time was 8.3 ± 1.9 years. Pretransplant DM increased the risk of mortality (1.82-fold increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.06; P = .02) in LTx recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Organized management of diabetes achieved very satisfactory glycemic control in both pretransplant DM and NODAT patients. However, no specific protocols have been created for managing DM following LTx. As DM continues to become an increasing comorbidity in LTx, there exist a significant need of studies in this area.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(9): ofz308, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660397

RESUMO

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a severe disease with a high mortality rate. Therefore, guidelines encourage the setup of a multidisciplinary group in reference centers. The present study evaluated the impact of this "Endocarditis Team" (ET). Methods: We conducted a monocentric observational study at Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France, between 2012 and 2017. The primary end point was in-hospital mortality. Secondary end points were 6-month and 1-year mortality, surgery rate, time to surgical procedure, duration of effective antibiotic therapy, length of in-hospital stay, and sequelae. We also assessed predictors of in-hospital mortality. Results: We analyzed 391 episodes of IE. In the post-ET period, there was a nonsignificant decrease in in-hospital mortality (20.3% vs 14.7%, respectively; P = .27) and sequelae, along with a significant reduction in time to surgery (16.4 vs 10.3 days, respectively; P = .049), duration of antibiotic therapy (55.2 vs 47.2 days, respectively; P < .001), and length of in-hospital stay (40.6 vs 31.9 days, respectively; P < .01). In a multivariate analysis, the post-ET period was positively associated with survival (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.96; P = .048). Conclusions: This multidisciplinary approach exerted a positive impact on the management of IE and should be considered in all hospitals managing IE.

6.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(6): 1137-1141, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471259

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In routine practice, it is often necessary to use shorter screws in L5 than L4. The present study measured L5 versus L4 vertebral pedicles, to guide surgical strategy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: CT or MRI scans for 95 patients were analyzed. Radiographic measurements (anteroposterior diameter (APD), pedicle length (PL) and pedicle width (PW)) were taken by a spine surgeon. Statistical analysis used R 3.4.3 software. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients were included: 48 female (50.53%), 47 male (49.47%); mean age, 57 years (range, 19-85 years). Univariate analysis found a strong correlation between right and left PL values in L4 and L5. Right and left values were pooled, obtaining a mean L4 PL of 55.34mm (range, 54.23-56.45mm) and L5 PL of 51.80mm (44.81-58.80) and L4 PW of 10.48mm (10.06-10.91) and L5 PW of 9.90mm (7.43-12.39). Multivariate analysis disclosed significant effects of age and gender, with greater age and male gender associated with greater anteroposterior vertebral diameter. Mean anteroposterior vertebral length was significantly shorter in L5 than L4 by 3.57mm (range, 4.08-3.06mm). DISCUSSION: Anteroposterior pedicle length was shorter in L5 than L4, in line with the literature. This answers the surgeon's question: "Should pedicle screws be shorter in L5 than L4?". From these results, it seems logical to use an L5 screw that is 5mm shorter than in L4, to secure good intra-body screw fixation.

7.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472169

RESUMO

In the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, a large size range exists in natural populations within which males and females could potentially mate. Because of continuous growth far beyond sexual maturity, the largest individuals can be nearly ten times the live mass of the smallest sexually mature individuals. In this study, we explored the influence of male and female body mass on the mating behaviour and success. Starting with a representative panel of males and females in which females are significantly larger than males in average, we followed the sexual behaviour of 23 groups of 20 mixed-sex virgin animals under conditions comparable with natural field situation during the early breeding season. We found a correlation between paired individuals showing an assortative pairing. During pairing male stimulates female and duration of stimulation is determinant for pairing follow-up: efficient stimulation is correlated with female size and not with male size. In consequence, pairs in mating show a reversed size dimorphism between male and female where female are about 20% smaller. Largest females were not mated. During copulation behaviour, the quantity of sperm transferred is positively correlated with copulation duration. Stored sperm can be used for immediate breeding by the female and stored in the spermatheca for future breeding. The last option allows to largest females in the field to continue breeding without additional mating, avoiding the lack of availability of large males able to stimulate them efficiently.


Assuntos
Tatus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Impulso (Psicologia) , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides
8.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): e209-e215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421945

RESUMO

AIM: Identified Palliative Care Beds (Lits Identifiés Soins Palliatifs - LISPs) is a French specificity. Primarily created to integrate palliative care culture into conventional hospital units, the relevance of this measure became a controversial issue. Nowadays, hospital teams continue to frequently encounter complex situations regarding medical care for palliative patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one study, a quantitative one, bridging the gap about that subject. It showed failure in practicing palliative care work around LISP. Our study is based on a qualitative method that complements the quantitative study. It aimed to describe difficulties that limit palliative care practices in managing adult patients in LISP. METHOD: This qualitative exploratory survey was conducted with a sample of health service professionals (n=20), from senior physicians to caregivers. Each semi-structured interview included open questions regarding their experiences, feelings and difficulties with palliative care practices on LISP. It also included closed questions concerning interviewee's demographics and career course. The data for this research were submitted to a two-stage analysis: first, a global review of each interview was performed to identify trends. Then, a detailed breakdown, question by question, was implemented. RESULTS: From a quantitative perspective, the interviews revealed 305 difficulties, indicating the gaps and barriers limiting the implementation of a palliative approach in these services. From a qualitative perspective, five topics raised our attention by their recurrence in discourses: (1) partial knowledge about palliative care definition and legislation mostly due to a lack of training; (2) need for time; (3) need for human resources; (4) need for communication; (5) hard time in transitioning from curative to palliative care. PERSPECTIVE: This survey gives the opportunity to understand health service professionals' difficulties in practicing palliative care in conventional medical services. It raises the central issue of the pricing reform on the health institutes activity. It also provides angles of inquiry to improve LISP effectiveness. This qualitative and descriptive study was designed to explore difficulties in practicing palliative care around LISP. Nevertheless, according to the size of the sample, results will need to be confirmed by a more extensive qualitative survey.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/organização & administração , Cuidadores/normas , Barreiras de Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/normas , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Unidades Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Satisfação no Emprego , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 48(8): 657-662, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and identify risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS), and to determine the prevalence of episiotomy and whether it is protective for the posterior perineum. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective case-control study carried out in a level 2 maternity unit and a level 3 maternity unit between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015. The sample population included all vaginal deliveries at term of a living singleton foetus in cephalic presentation. The case group comprised patients with an OASIS. The control group comprised patients without OASIS. Statistical analysis was subdivided into descriptive and inferential parts. RESULTS: 42,626 patients were included in the study of whom 496 were cases of OASIS, i.e. a rate of 1.2%. The overall episiotomy rate was 10.0%, which reflects a restrictive practice. Episiotomy doesn't appear to be a statistically significant protective factor for OASIS (OR=0.89-95%CI [0.68-1.16]). The principal independent risk factors for OASIS were nulliparity (ORa=4.19-95%CI [3.03-5.84] - p<0.001), previous caesarean (ORa=5.59-95%CI [3.68-8.44] - p<0.001), uterine fundal height greater than 32cm (ORa=1.35-95%CI [1.03-1.77] - p=0.03), gestational or pre-pregnancy diabetes (ORa=1.76-95%CI [1.22-2.46] - p=0.002), birthweight of more than 3500g (ORa=1.48-95%CI [1.17-1.87] - p=0.001), assisted delivery (ORa=1.81-95%CI [1.18-2.86] - p=0.007), and use of a second instrument or obstetrical manoeuvre (ORa=1.93-95%CI [1.05-3.30] - p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Episiotomy doesn't appear to be a statistically significant protective factor on the perineal prognosis. A deeper understanding of the factors which promote OASIS and greater awareness of them would improve the perineal prognosis of parturient women.

10.
Nat Immunol ; 20(8): 1059-1070, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308541

RESUMO

Dysfunction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells in chronic human infections is poorly understood. We performed genome-wide transcriptional analyses and functional assays of CD4+ T cells specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from HIV-infected people before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A follicular helper T cell (TFH cell)-like profile characterized HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in viremic infection. HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from people spontaneously controlling the virus (elite controllers) robustly expressed genes associated with the TH1, TH17 and TH22 subsets of helper T cells. Viral suppression by ART resulted in a distinct transcriptional landscape, with a reduction in the expression of genes associated with TFH cells, but persistently low expression of genes associated with TH1, TH17 and TH22 cells compared to the elite controller profile. Thus, altered differentiation is central to the impairment of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells and involves both gain of function and loss of function.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th17/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Gigascience ; 8(6)2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the decreasing cost of sequencing and the rapid developments in genomics technologies and protocols, the need for validated bioinformatics software that enables efficient large-scale data processing is growing. FINDINGS: Here we present GenPipes, a flexible Python-based framework that facilitates the development and deployment of multi-step workflows optimized for high-performance computing clusters and the cloud. GenPipes already implements 12 validated and scalable pipelines for various genomics applications, including RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, DNA sequencing, methylation sequencing, Hi-C, capture Hi-C, metagenomics, and Pacific Biosciences long-read assembly. The software is available under a GPLv3 open source license and is continuously updated to follow recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics. The framework has already been configured on several servers, and a Docker image is also available to facilitate additional installations. CONCLUSIONS: GenPipes offers genomics researchers a simple method to analyze different types of data, customizable to their needs and resources, as well as the flexibility to create their own workflows.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Software , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(8): 1523-1532, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119578

RESUMO

Identifying an infection may be difficult in the ED. Neutrophilic leukocytosis is often used in the diagnosis of infection despite its lack of specificity in situations of stress. Our objective was to study the value of each parameter of the WBC count, in particular eosinopenia, to diagnose bacterial infections in the ED. We conducted a retrospective and observational study over a period of 6 months. All patients with one of the following diagnoses were eligible: pneumonia (9.9%), pyelonephritis (26.2%), prostatitis (8.4%), appendicitis (26.2%), cholecystitis (8.4%), and diverticular sigmoiditis (5%). A total of 466 infected patients were included for statistical analysis, and a control group of 466 uninfected patients was randomly selected in the same period of time. All leukocyte count parameters were significantly modified (p < 0.001) in the infected group compared with the control group. Neutrophils and total leukocytes remain the two most suitable parameters for the diagnosis of infections in the ED. Eosinopenia represented the most efficient parameter of the WBC count for the diagnosis of urinary and biliary tract infections. Deep eosinopenia presented a specificity of 94% for the diagnosis of infection. Any modification of the WBC count associated with an elevation of CRP (> 40 mg/L) or fever (> 38.5 °C) showed a high specificity for the diagnosis of infection. A careful analysis of the WBC count remains a valuable tool for the diagnosis of infection in the ED.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Eosinófilos/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Doenças Biliares/imunologia , Doenças Biliares/microbiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico
13.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 82: 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interval aerobic training programs with active recovery bouts (IATP-R) are reported as being more adapted to seniors while improving cardiorespiratory and endurance parameters. Report of benefits on vascular function is still limited. PURPOSE: To measure the impact of IATP-R on vascular function among seniors. METHODS: Sedentary volunteers (≥70 years of age) were randomly assigned to either IATP-R (n = 30) or control group (n = 30). The IATP-R consisted of 2 weekly sessions of 30-min (6 × 4-min at first ventilatory threshold (VT1) intensity + 1-min at 40% of VT1) cycling exercise over 9.5-week. Controls remained their sedentary life over the same period. In all participants, the endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in brachial artery and arterial stiffness through the carotid/radial and carotid/femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at baseline and 9.5 weeks later. RESULTS: Resulting from a planned interim analysis, IATP-R improved SBP (IATP-R: from 133.7 ± 9.8 to 122.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs. Controls: from 128.9 ± 12.5 to 132.6 ± 14.7 mmHg), DBP (IATP-R: from 80.2 ± 7.0 to 74.1 ± 6.7 mmHg vs. Controls: from 77.1 ± 6.8 to 80.3 ± 7.5 mmHg), and FMD (IATP-R: from 6.7 ± 2.0 to 7.5 ± 2.7% vs. Controls: from 7.9 ± 2.7 to 7.5 ± 2.5%). No significant impact on PWV was measured. CONCLUSION: Although these findings resulted from an interim analysis, IATP-R might be effective in regulating BP and improving endothelial function among sedentary seniors.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Exercício , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 863, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787294

RESUMO

The RV144 vaccine trial showed reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition by 31.2%, although mechanisms that led to protection remain poorly understood. Here we identify transcriptional correlates for reduced HIV-1 acquisition after vaccination. We assess the transcriptomic profile of blood collected from 223 participants and 40 placebo recipients. Pathway-level analysis of HIV-1 negative vaccinees reveals that type I interferons that activate the IRF7 antiviral program and type II interferon-stimulated genes implicated in antigen-presentation are both associated with a reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition. In contrast, genes upstream and downstream of NF-κB, mTORC1 and host genes required for viral infection are associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition among vaccinees and placebo recipients, defining a vaccine independent association with HIV-1 acquisition. Our transcriptomic analysis of RV144 trial samples identifies IRF7 as a mediator of protection and the activation of mTORC1 as a correlate of the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(1): e13219, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interval aerobic training programme with active recovery bouts (IATP-R) has shown to improve tolerance to IATP among seniors. However, data concerning its benefits for seniors' health are still limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IATP-R on seniors' health status. METHODS: Sedentary volunteers (n = 60, aged ≥70 years) were randomly assigned to either IATP-R or maintained sedentary lifestyle for 9.5 weeks. IATP-R consisted of 30-minute cycling (6 × 4 minutes at first ventilatory threshold (VT1 ) intensity + 1 minute at 40% of VT1 ) twice a week. Cognitive and functional performances were assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT-A; TMT-B); Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); Timed Up and Go (TUG) test; 6-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT); one-leg balance test; and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) tests, respectively. QoL and anxiety/depression status were measured by the Short Form-12 and the Goldberg's Scale, respectively. All participants were assessed at baseline and 9.5 weeks later. RESULTS: Compared to controls, IATP-R improved cognitive functions (TMT-A: +1.5% vs -21.5%; TMT-B: +0.9% vs -13.3%; PASAT: +1.4% vs -14.6%; semantic fluency: -1.1% vs +11.7%), functional performance (TUG: +5.4% vs -16.5%; 6-MWT: -3.2% vs +11.5%; SPPB: -3.2% vs +14.6%; One-leg balance: -16.3% vs +25.0%); QoL (physical health: -13.3% vs +23.1%; mental health: -7.1% vs +8.2%); and depressive symptoms (+26.3% vs -42.8%). Significant impacts were measured neither on letter modality of fluency tasks nor on anxiety score. CONCLUSION: These data showed that IATP-R is an effective training programme to improve functional and cognitive performances, mental health and well-being in sedentary seniors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02263573. Registered October 1, 2014.


Assuntos
Cognição , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur Radiol ; 29(4): 2107-2116, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the radiation dose exposure, image quality, and diagnostic performance of enhanced 100-kVp abdominopelvic single-energy CT protocol with tin filter (TF). METHODS: Ninety-three consecutive patients referred for a single-phase enhanced abdominopelvic CT were prospectively included after informed consent. They underwent in addition to a standard protocol (SP) an acquisition with TF. Both examinations were performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system (DSCT), in single energy, using automatic tube current modulation, identical pitch, and identical level of iterative reconstruction. Radiation metrics were compared. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and figure of merit (FOM) were calculated. Diagnostic confidence for the assessment of a predetermined list of abdominal lesions was rated by two independent readers. RESULTS: The mean dose of the TF protocol was significantly lower (CDTI 1.56 ± 0.43 mGy vs. 8.13 ± 3.32, p < 0.001; SSDE 9.94 ± 3.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.39, p < 0.001), with an effective dose close to 1 mSv (1.14 mSv ± 0.34; p < 0.001). TF group exhibited non-significant lower liver CNR (2.76 vs. 3.03, p = 0.56) and was more dose efficient (FOM 10.6 vs. 2.49/mSv, p < 0.001) in comparison to SP. The mean diagnostic confidence for visceral, bone, and peritoneal tumors was equivalent between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced 100-kVp abdominopelvic CT acquired after spectral shaping with tin filtration can achieve similar diagnostic performance and CNR compared to a standard CT protocol, while reducing the radiation dose by 81%. KEY POINTS: • 100-kVp spectral filtration enables enhanced abdominal CT with high-dose efficiency. • The radiation dose reaches the 1-mSv range. • Predetermined abdominopelvic lesions can be assessed without impairing on diagnostic confidence.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(5): 447-453, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess in maxillary canine impaction cases both the prevalence of root resorption of adjacent teeth among untreated children and adolescents, and its associated risk factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty subjects (mean age 12.2 years; SD 1.9; range 8-17 years) with 83 displaced maxillary canines and without any past or ongoing orthodontic treatment were included in this study. The presence of root resorption was evaluated on images from a single cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit. Potential risk factors were measured on the CBCT images and on panoramic reconstructions of the 3D data sets. The sample was characterized by descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions were performed to predict root resorption. RESULTS: Root resorption of at least one adjacent tooth was detected in 67.5 per cent of the affected quadrants. It was found that 55.7 per cent of the lateral incisors, 8.4 per cent of the central incisors, and 19.5 per cent of first premolars were resorbed. Of the detected resorptions, 71.7 per cent were considered slight, 14.9 per cent moderate, and 13.4 per cent severe. Contact between the displaced canine(s) and the adjacent teeth roots was the only identified statistically significant risk factor, all teeth being considered (odds ratio [OR] = 18.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.26-756, P < 0.01). An enlarged canine dental follicle, a peg upper lateral, or an upper lateral agenesis were not significantly associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth, nor were age nor gender. CONCLUSIONS: Root resorption of adjacent teeth was detected in more than two-thirds of a sample of sixty untreated children and adolescents.

18.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 16(4): 349-358, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451697

RESUMO

The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains difficult. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of age on the clinical presentation mode and the sensitivity of the diagnostic scores. METHODS: In retrospect, all patients discharged with a documented diagnosis of pulmonary embolism from the adult emergency service of the Regional university hospital of Strasbourg (France) over a year were considered. According to 4 age categories (<70, 70-74, 75-80 and >80 years) the data from the medical records were analyzed and compared. Diagnostic scores of Wells and modified Geneva were calculated. RESULTS: 117 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean age 71.8±13.8 years, women 54%). Chest pain was less common after 80 years; no difference was observed for syncope or dyspnea although the oxygen saturation is lower in old age. For diagnosis, 25% of patients had a lung scintigraphy with an increased recourse with age (<70 years: 10%, >80 years: 41%). Thoracic computed tomography angiography concerned 79% of patients with a significant decrease of his use in older. The sensitivity of the diagnostic scores was low but increased with age when the strong and intermediate probabilities of pulmonary embolism were combined. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the low specificity of the clinical signs of pulmonary embolism, whatever the age. It also shows the low sensitivity of the diagnostic scores in the 70 years or older.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Síncope/diagnóstico
19.
Behav Neurol ; 2018: 1671072, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410634

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare disabling sleep disorder mainly characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone. Patients have a selective degeneration of hypocretin-producing neurons in the dorsolateral posterior hypothalamus with growing evidence supporting the hypothesis of an autoimmune mechanism. Few case studies that reported intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) suggest the efficacy of IVIg when administered early after disease onset, but the results are controversial. In these retrospective case observations, IVIg cycles were initiated within one to four months after cataplexy onset in a twenty-seven-year-old man, a ten-year-old girl, and a seven-year-old boy, all three with early onset typical narcolepsy type 1. Efficacy of treatment (three IVIg cycles of 1 g/kg administered at four-week intervals) was evaluated based on clinical, polysomnographic, and multiple sleep latency test (mean latency and SOREM) follow-up. Two patients reported decreased cataplexy frequency and ameliorated daytime sleepiness, but no significant amelioration of polysomnographic parameters was observed. Given the possibility of spontaneous improvement of cataplexy frequency with self-behavioral adjustments, these observations would need to be confirmed by larger controlled studies. Based on the present study and current literature, proof of concept is still missing thus prohibiting the consideration of IVIg as an efficient treatment option.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Narcolepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia
20.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 7(6): 60, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with secondary/recurrent squamous cell head and neck cancer have poor prognoses. Re-irradiation is a treatment option. However, best technique to re-irradiate is not known. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of patients treated with curative-intent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) re-irradiation (re-RT) for head and neck (H&N) cancers. METHODS: Fifty patients with recurrent H&N cancers underwent fractionated IMRT re-RT. The median time between the two courses of radiotherapy was 22 months. The median dose of re-RT was 66 Gy. RESULTS: The median follow-up of surviving patients was 13.6 months. The median overall survival (OS) was 15.7 months, and the 1- and 2-year OS rates were 62.4% and 33.9%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, performance status (PS) 0-1 (HR, 0.518; 95% CI: 0.292-0.917; P=0.024) and 3D-RT use during the first irradiation course technique (HR, 0.415; 95% CI: 0.183-0.938; P=0.035) were favorable, independent of significant prognostic factors of OS. The median loco-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS) was 8.3 months, and, the 1- and 2-year LRPFS rates were 46.6% and 35.9%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, a surgical resection before re-RT (HR, 0.107; 95% CI: 0.027-0.428; P=0.002), a higher age (HR, 0.894; 95% CI: 0.833-0.960; P=0.002), a PS 0-1 (HR, 0.316; 95% CI: 0.140-0.715; P=0.006), and a long re-RT interval (HR, 0.970; 95% CI: 0.945-0.996; P=0.024) were favorable independent significant prognostic factors of LRPFS. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.0 months and, the 1- and 2-year PFS rates were 45.0% and 30.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, a surgical resection before re-RT (HR, 0.129; 95% CI: 0.036-0.466; P=0.002), a PS 0-1 (HR, 0.399; 95% CI: 0.208-0.764; P=0.006) and, a long re-RT interval (HR, 0.958; 95% CI: 0.927-0.989; P=0.009) were favorable, independent significant prognostic factors. The early and late toxicities rates were 28% and 34%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Re-RT for H&N cancers can be curative, and the complications can be manageable but patients need to be strictly selected. Surgery before re-RT could improve the patient outcome. Dose and irradiation schedules should be prospectively evaluated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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