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2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449299

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 3500 donated kidneys are discarded in the United States each year, drawing concern from Medicare and advocacy groups. Objective: To estimate the effects of more aggressive allograft acceptance practices on the donor pool and allograft survival for the population of US wait-listed kidney transplant candidates. Design, Setting, and Participants: A nationwide study using validated registries from the United States and France comprising comprehensive cohorts of deceased donors with organs offered to kidney transplant centers between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014. Data were analyzed between September 1, 2018, and April 5, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was kidney allograft discard. The secondary outcome was allograft failure after transplantation. We used logistic regression to model organ acceptance and discard practices in both countries. We then quantified using computer simulation models the number of kidneys discarded in the United States that a more aggressive system would have instead used for transplantation. Finally, based on actual survival data, we quantified the additional years of allograft life that a redesigned US system would have saved. Findings: In the United States, 156 089 kidneys were recovered from deceased donors between 2004 and 2014, of which 128 102 were transplanted, and 27 987 (17.9%) were discarded. In France, among the 29 984 kidneys recovered between 2004 and 2014, 27 252 were transplanted, and 2732 (9.1%, P < .001 vs United States) were discarded. The mean (SD) age of kidneys transplanted in the United States was 36.51 (17.02) years vs 50.91 (17.34) years in France (P < .001). Kidney quality showed little change in the United States over time (mean [SD] kidney donor risk index [KDRI], 1.30 [0.48] in 2004 vs 1.32 [0.46] in 2014), whereas a steadily rising KDRI in France reflected a temporal trend of more aggressive organ use (mean [SD] KDRI, 1.37 [0.47] in 2004 vs 1.74 [0.72] in 2014; P < .001). We applied the French-based allocation model to the population of US deceased donor kidneys and found that 17 435 (62%) of kidneys discarded in the United States would have instead been transplanted under the French system. We further determined that a redesigned system with more aggressive organ acceptance practices would generate an additional 132 445 allograft life-years in the United States over the 10-year observation period. Conclusions and Relevance: Greater acceptance of kidneys from deceased donors who are older and have more comorbidities could provide major survival benefits to the population of US wait-listed patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03723668.

3.
Transplantation ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the immunosuppressive regimens and graft rejection rates in living-related HLA-identical (LR HLAid) renal transplantation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter analysis of the French national database for LR HLAid renal transplantations performed between 2002 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine risk factors for graft rejection in LR HLAid recipients. RESULTS: 27.218 renal transplantations were performed of whom 163 had a LR HLAid donor. Concerning immunosuppressive treatment, less than 60% of the cohort had induction therapy with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, 28% did not receive calcineurin inhibitors and 36% did not receive steroids in maintenance. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was diagnosed in 21 patients (12.9%). Rejection occurred on an average of 24 months after transplantation, in 28.5% of the cases after minimization of immunosuppression. Factors associated with rejection were age of recipient (OR = 0.91[0.84-0.96], p=0.003), the body mass index of donors (OR = 1.22[1.04-1.46], p=0.01) and minimization of immunosuppression (OR = 26.2[5.48-166.6], p < 0.001). Overall and graft survival rates were not statistically different according to rejection at 1, 5 and 10 years post transplantation. CONCLUSION: Minimization of immunosuppression should be done with caution in LR HLAid renal transplantations.

4.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dearth of relevant tumor models reflecting the heterogeneity of human central nervous system metastasis (CM) has hindered development of novel therapies. METHODS: We established 39 CM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models representing the histological spectrum, and performed phenotypic and multi-omic characterization of PDXs and their original patient tumors. PDX clonal evolution was also reconstructed using allele-specific copy number and somatic variants. RESULTS: PDXs retained their metastatic potential, with flank-implanted PDXs forming spontaneous metastases in multiple organs, including brain, and CM subsequent to intra-cardiac injection. PDXs also retained the histological and molecular profiles of the original patient tumors, including retention of genomic aberrations and signaling pathways. Novel modes of clonal evolution involving rapid expansion by a minor clone were identified in two PDXs, including CM13, which was highly aggressive in vivo forming multiple spontaneous metastases, including to brain. These PDXs had little molecular resemblance to the patient donor tumor, including reversion to a copy number neutral genome, no shared non-synonymous mutations, and no correlation by gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: We generated a diverse and novel repertoire of PDXs that provides a new set of tools to enhance our knowledge of CM biology and improve preclinical testing. Furthermore, our study suggests that minor clone succession may confer tumor aggressiveness and potentiate brain metastasis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377099

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus, in combination with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), has been demonstrated in clinical trials to have comparable efficacy in low-to-moderate immunological risk kidney transplant recipients to the Standard of Care, mycophenolic acid (MPA) in combination with standard-exposure CNI. Current treatment guidelines consider mTOR inhibitors to be a second-line therapy in the majority of cases; however, given that everolimus-based regimens are associated with a reduced rate of viral infections after transplantation, their wider use could have great benefits for kidney transplant patients. In this evidence-based practice guideline, we consider the de novo use of everolimus in kidney transplant recipients. The main outcomes of our consideration of the available evidence are that: 1. Everolimus, in combination with reduced-exposure CNI and low dose steroids, is a suitable regimen for the prophylaxis of kidney transplant rejection in the majority of low-to-moderate immunological risk adult patients, with individualized management; 2. Induction with either basiliximab or rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin is an effective therapy for kidney transplant recipients when initiating an everolimus-based, reduced-exposure CNI regimen; and 3. An individualized approach should be adopted when managing kidney transplant recipients on everolimus-based therapy.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(7): 1282-1293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have an impaired ability to dilute urine but seldom develop baseline hyponatremia before ESRD. Although hyponatremia is a risk factor for adverse events in CKD and in kidney transplant recipients, it remains unclear whether subtler alterations in osmoregulation performance are associated with outcome. METHODS: We studied a single-center prospective cohort of 1258 kidney transplant recipients who underwent a water-loading test 3 months after transplant to determine osmoregulation performance. Measured GFR (mGFR) was performed at the same visit. A group of 164 healthy candidates for kidney donation served as controls. We further evaluated the association of osmoregulation performance with transplantation outcomes and subsequent kidney function. RESULTS: Unlike controls, most kidney transplant recipients failed to maintain plasma sodium during water loading (plasma sodium slope of -0.6±0.4 mmol/L per hour in transplant recipients versus -0.12±0.3 mmol/L per hour in controls; P<0.001). Steeper plasma sodium reduction during the test independently associated with the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and allograft loss (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73 per 1 mmol/L per hour decrease in plasma sodium; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23 to 2.45; P=0.002) and allograft loss alone (HR, 2.04 per 1 mmol/L per hour decrease in plasma sodium; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.51; P=0.01). The association remained significant in a prespecified sensitivity analysis excluding patients with hyperglycemia. In addition, a steeper plasma sodium slope 3 months after transplantation independently correlated with lower mGFR at 12 months (ß=1.93; 95% CI, 0.46 to 3.41; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced osmoregulation performance occurs frequently in kidney transplant recipients and is an independent predictor of renal outcome.

8.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152476

RESUMO

TRANSFORM was a 24-month, prospective, open-label trial in 2037 de novo renal transplant recipients (RTxRs) randomized (1:1) within 24 hours of transplantation to receive everolimus (EVR) with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (EVR+rCNI) or mycophenolate with standard-exposure CNI (MPA+sCNI). Consistent with previously reported 12-month findings, noninferiority of the EVR+rCNI regimen for the primary endpoint of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <50 mL/min/1.73 m2 was achieved at Month 24 (47.9% vs 43.7%; difference = 4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.3, 8.7; P = 0.006). Mean eGFR was stable up to Month 24 (52.6 vs 54.9 mL/min/1.73m2 ) in both arms. The incidence of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) was lower in the EVR+rCNI arm (12.3% vs 17.6%) among on-treatment patients. Although discontinuation rates due to adverse events were higher with EVR+rCNI (27.2% vs 15.0%), rates of cytomegalovirus (2.8% vs 13.5%) and BK virus (5.8% vs 10.3%) infections were lower. Cytomegalovirus infection rates were significantly lower with EVR+rCNI even in the D+/R- high-risk group (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the EVR+rCNI regimen offers comparable efficacy and graft function with low tBPAR and dnDSA rates and significantly lower incidence of viral infections relative to standard-of-care up to 24 months. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10899-10904, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085644

RESUMO

At this time, pretransplant viral screening of donors and recipients is based on serological status and limited to certain viruses. After transplantation, patient follow-up is based on a monitoring strategy using ELISA or PCR. Such approaches exclude other emerging viruses that can affect the transplant outcome. Recently, a multiplex unbiased array, VirScan, was developed. This tool allows the detection of antibodies against viruses, using a synthetic human virome, with minimal serum and cost. We decided to test the value of VirScan in the follow-up of a cohort of transplant recipients. We enrolled 45 kidney transplant recipients and performed virus serological profiling at day 0 and day +365, using VirScan. We compared the results obtained with ELISA/PCR assays. We detected antibody responses to 39 of the 206 species of virus present in the VirScan library, with an average of 12 species of virus per sample. VirScan gave similar results to PCR/ELISA screening tests. Using VirScan, we found that anti-viral antibody responses were largely conserved in patients during the first year after transplantation, regardless of immunosuppressive treatment. Our study suggests VirScan offers an unprecedented opportunity to screen and monitor posttransplant virus infection in a cost-effective, easy, and unbiased manner.

10.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1471-1485, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955869

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching and minimization of immunosuppression are two major risk factors for the development of de novo donor-specific antibodies, which are associated with reduced kidney graft survival. Antibodies do not recognize whole HLA antigens but rather individual epitopes, which are short sequences of amino acids in accessible positions. However, compatibility is still assessed by the simple count of mismatched HLA antigens. We hypothesized that the number of mismatched epitopes, or ("epitope load") would identify patients at the highest risk of developing donor specific antibodies following minimization of immunosuppression. We determined epitope load in 89 clinical trial participants who converted from cyclosporine to everolimus 3 months after kidney transplantation. Twenty-nine participants (32.6%) developed de novo donor specific antibodies. Compared to the number of HLA mismatches, epitope load was more strongly associated with the development of donor specific antibodies. Participants with an epitope load greater than 27 had a 12-fold relative risk of developing donor-specific antibodies compared to those with an epitope load below that threshold. Using that threshold, epitope load would have missed only one participant who subsequently developed donor specific antibodies, compared to 8 missed cases based on a 6-antigen mismatch. DQ7 was the most frequent antigenic target of donor specific antibodies in our population, and some DQ7 epitopes appeared to be more frequently involved than others. Assessing epitope load before minimizing immunosuppression may be a more efficient tool to identify patients at the highest risk of allosensitization.

11.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012541

RESUMO

The presence of preformed donor-specific antibodies in transplant recipients increases the risk of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Results of an open-label single-arm trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of eculizumab in preventing acute AMR in recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplants with preformed donor-specific antibodies are reported. Participants received eculizumab as follows: 1200 mg immediately before reperfusion; 900 mg on posttransplant days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28; and 1200 mg at weeks 5, 7, and 9. All patients received thymoglobulin induction therapy and standard maintenance immunosuppression including steroids. The primary end point was treatment failure rate, a composite of biopsy-proved grade II/III AMR (Banff 2007 criteria), graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up, within 9 weeks posttransplant. Eighty patients received transplants (48 women); the median age was 52 years (range 24-70 years). Observed treatment failure rate (8.8%) was significantly lower than expected for standard care (40%; P < .001). By 9 weeks, 3 of 80 patients had experienced AMR, and 4 of 80 had experienced graft loss. At 36 months, graft and patient survival rates were 83.4% and 91.5%, respectively. Eculizumab was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified. Eculizumab has the potential to provide prophylaxis against injury caused by acute AMR in such patients (EudraCT 2010-019631-35).

12.
Kidney Int ; 96(1): 189-201, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005275

RESUMO

Anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies have been associated with allograft rejection. We hypothesized that circulating AT1R antibodies might identify kidney transplant recipients at increased risk of allograft rejection and loss who are not identified by the HLA system. We prospectively enrolled 1845 kidney transplant recipients from two centers. Donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs) and AT1R antibodies were measured at the time of the first acute rejection episode or at 1 year post-transplant. Allograft biopsy was performed to evaluate the rejection phenotype and to assess for endothelial activation. Overall, 371 (20.1%) participants had AT1R antibodies, 334 (18.1%) had DSAs, and 133 (7.2%) had both. AT1R antibodies were associated with an increased risk of allograft loss (adjusted HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.06 for AT1R antibodies alone and 2.26, 95% CI 1.52-3.36 for AT1R antibodies and DSAs). Participants with AT1R antibodies had a higher incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) compared with participants without AT1R antibodies (25.0% vs. 12.9%). Among 77 participants with histological features of AMR but without DSAs, 51 (66.2%) had AT1R antibodies. Compared to participants with prototypical DSA-mediated rejection, those with AT1R antibody-associated rejection had a higher prevalence of hypertension, more vascular rejection with arterial inflammation, higher levels of endothelial-associated transcripts, and lack of complement deposition in allograft capillaries. Thus, AT1R antibodies may identify kidney transplant recipients at high risk of allograft rejection and loss, independent of the HLA system. Recognition of complement-independent AT1R antibody-mediated vascular rejection could lead to the development of new treatment strategies to improve allograft survival.

13.
Transplantation ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985736

RESUMO

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome after transplantation and is associated with an increased risk of allograft loss. MN may occur either as a recurrent or as a de novo disease. As in native kidneys, the pathophysiology of the MN recurrence is in most cases associated with anti-phospholipid A2 receptor antibodies (antiPLA2R). However, the post-transplant course has some distinct features when compared to primary MN, including a lower chance of spontaneous remission and a greater requirement for adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy to induce complete remission. Whereas the efficacy of rituximab in primary MN is now well established, no randomized studies have assessed its effectiveness in MN after transplant, and there are no specific recommendations for the management of these patients. This review aims to synthesize and update the pathophysiology of post-transplant MN, as well as to address unsolved issues specific to transplantation, including the prognostic value of antiPLA2R, the risk of living-related donation, the link between de novo MN and rejection, and different therapeutic strategies so far deployed in post-transplant MN. Lastly, we propose a management algorithm for patients with MN who are planning to receive a kidney transplant, including pre-transplant considerations, post-transplant monitoring and the clinical approach after the diagnosis of recurrence.

15.
Kidney Int ; 95(4): 896-904, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819555

RESUMO

While direct measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) provide the most accurate evaluation of pre-donation kidney function, guidelines do not systematically require the use of a reference method. We evaluated whether and to what extent relying upon creatinine-based estimating equations (eGFR) rather than direct measurement of GFR (mGFR) alters the selection of potential living donors. We compared the impact of 4 equations (the MDRD study equation, the CKD-EPI equation, the revised Lund-Malmö equation, and the full age spectrum [FAS] equation) on the evaluation of 2733 potential donors with GFR measured by reference methods. We also considered the impact of using either absolute or age-adapted GFR thresholds. The CKD-EPI and FAS equations had the best performances (P10 of 50.6% and 47.8%; P30 of 94.4% and 93.1%, respectively) and led to the lowest proportion of improperly evaluated candidates. Misclassification was more frequent when GFR adequacy was defined as an absolute threshold of 90 ml/min/1.73m2 as compared to an age-adapted definition (26% and 5%, respectively). Interpretation of eGFR according to an absolute threshold of 90 ml/min/1.73m2 identified 1804 candidates eligible to donate, compared to 2648 when mGFR was interpreted with age-adapted thresholds. We conclude that creatinine-based estimates cannot substitute for direct GFR measurement to evaluate candidates for kidney donation. When reference methods for direct GFR measurement are not available, our data suggest that a strategy based on age-adapted eGFR values estimated with either the CKD-EPI or FAS equation should be preferred.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(4): 692-709, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although anti-HLA antibodies (Abs) cause most antibody-mediated rejections of renal allografts, non-anti-HLA Abs have also been postulated to contribute. A better understanding of such Abs in rejection is needed. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide study to identify kidney transplant recipients without anti-HLA donor-specific Abs who experienced acute graft dysfunction within 3 months after transplantation and showed evidence of microvascular injury, called acute microvascular rejection (AMVR). We developed a crossmatch assay to assess serum reactivity to human microvascular endothelial cells, and used a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to identify non-HLA Abs. RESULTS: We identified a highly selected cohort of 38 patients with early acute AMVR. Biopsy specimens revealed intense microvascular inflammation and the presence of vasculitis (in 60.5%), interstitial hemorrhages (31.6%), or thrombotic microangiopathy (15.8%). Serum samples collected at the time of transplant showed that previously proposed anti-endothelial cell Abs-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), endothelin-1 type A and natural polyreactive Abs-did not increase significantly among patients with AMVR compared with a control group of stable kidney transplant recipients. However, 26% of the tested AMVR samples were positive for AT1R Abs when a threshold of 10 IU/ml was used. The crossmatch assay identified a common IgG response that was specifically directed against constitutively expressed antigens of microvascular glomerular cells in patients with AMVR. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses identified new targets of non-HLA Abs, with little redundancy among individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that preformed IgG Abs targeting non-HLA antigens expressed on glomerular endothelial cells are associated with early AMVR, and that in vitro cell-based assays are needed to improve risk assessments before transplant.

17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(2): 448-455, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic therapeutic management of post-transplant Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is mainly based on 3 axes: reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an overview of clinical strategies about the current treatment of KS. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study including 145 solid organ transplant recipients diagnosed with KS between 1985 and 2011 to collect data regarding first-line treatment and response at 6 months. RESULTS: Overall, 95%, 28%, and 16% of patients had reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to mTOR inhibitor, and chemotherapy, respectively. Patients treated with chemotherapy or mTOR inhibitor conversion were more likely to have visceral KS. At 6 months, 83% of patients had response, including 40% complete responses. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective design of the study. CONCLUSION: Currently available therapeutic options seem to be effective to control KS in most patients. Tapering down the immunosuppressive regimen remains the cornerstone of KS management.

18.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 831-838, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Before antiviral therapy, kidney transplant recipients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) had poor outcomes. Since the 90s, nucleos(t)ide analogues have been widely used in HBV-infected patients, while interferon-based therapy was rarely used in HCV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HBV and HCV on patient and graft survival, according to viral replication status. METHODS: Data from January 1993 to December 2010 were extracted from the French national database CRISTAL. A total of 31,433 kidney transplant recipients were included, of whom 575, 1,060 and 29,798 had chronic hepatitis B, C, or were not infected, respectively. RESULTS: Ten-year survival was lower in HCV-infected (71.3%) than in HBV-infected (81.2%, p = 0.0004) or non-infected kidney transplant recipients (82.7%, p <0.0001). Ten-year kidney graft survival was lower in HCV-infected (50.6%) than in HBV-infected (62.3%, p <0.0001) or non-infected kidney transplant recipients (64.7%, p <0.0001). A random analysis of the medical records of 184 patients with HBV and 504 patients with HCV showed a control of viral replication in 94% and 35% of cases, respectively. Ten-year patient and graft survival in patients with detectable HCV RNA was lower than in their matching controls. Conversely, patients with HCV and undetectable HCV RNA had higher 10-year survival than their matched controls without significant differences in graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HBV infection does not impact 10-year patient and kidney graft survival thanks to control of viral replication with nucleos(t)ide analogues. In kidney transplant recipients infected with HCV, patients with detectable RNA had worse outcomes, whereas the outcomes of those with undetectable RNA were at least as good as non-infected patients. Thus, direct-acting antivirals should be systematically offered to HCV-infected patients. LAY SUMMARY: Previously, infections with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus led to poor outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. However, the outcomes of kidney transplants in patients with viral suppression are as good as those for kidney transplants in non-infected patients. Antiviral therapy should be systematically proposed to hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C-infected kidney transplant recipients or candidates to prevent the deleterious hepatic and extrahepatic impact of chronic viral replication. Recent access to direct-acting antivirals in patients with hepatitis C virus and renal dysfunction provides exciting new opportunities.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(4): 625-639, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplant glomerulopathy, a common glomerular lesion observed after kidney transplant that is associated with poor prognosis, is not a specific entity but rather the end stage of overlapping disease pathways. Its heterogeneity has not been precisely characterized to date. METHODS: Our study included consecutive kidney transplant recipients from three centers in France and one in Canada who presented with a diagnosis of transplant glomerulopathy (Banff cg score ≥1 by light microscopy), on the basis of biopsies performed from January of 2004 through December of 2014. We used an unsupervised archetype analysis of comprehensive pathology findings and clinical, immunologic, and outcome data to identify distinct groups of patients. RESULTS: Among the 8207 post-transplant allograft biopsies performed during the inclusion period, we identified 552 biopsy samples (from 385 patients) with transplant glomerulopathy (incidence of 6.7%). The median time from transplant to transplant glomerulopathy diagnosis was 33.18 months. Kidney allograft survival rates at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years after diagnosis were 69.4%, 57.1%, 43.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. An unsupervised learning method integrating clinical, functional, immunologic, and histologic parameters revealed five transplant glomerulopathy archetypes characterized by distinct functional, immunologic, and histologic features and associated causes and distinct allograft survival profiles. These archetypes showed significant differences in allograft outcomes, with allograft survival rates 5 years after diagnosis ranging from 88% to 22%. Based on those results, we built an online application, which can be used in clinical practice on the basis of real patients. CONCLUSIONS: A probabilistic data-driven archetype analysis approach applied in a large, well defined multicenter cohort refines the diagnostic and prognostic features associated with cases of transplant glomerulopathy. Reducing heterogeneity among such cases can improve disease characterization, enable patient-specific risk stratification, and open new avenues for archetype-based treatment strategies and clinical trials optimization.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informing kidney transplant recipients of their prognosis and disease progression is of primary importance in a patient-centred vision of care. By participating in decisions from the outset, transplant recipients may be more adherent to complex medical regimens due to their enhanced understanding. METHODS: We proposed to include repeated measurements of serum creatinine (SCr), in addition to baseline characteristics, in order to obtain dynamic predictions of the graft failure risk that could be updated continuously during patient follow-up. Adult recipients from the French Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation (DIVAT) cohort transplanted for the first or second time from a heart-beating or living donor and alive with a functioning graft at 1 year post-transplantation were included. RESULTS: The model was composed of six baseline parameters, in addition to the SCr evolution. We validated the dynamic predictions by evaluating both discrimination and calibration accuracy. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve varied from 0.72 to 0.76 for prediction times at 1 and 6 years post-transplantation, respectively, while calibration plots showed correct accuracy. We also provided an online application tool (https://shiny.idbc.fr/DynPG). CONCLUSION: We have created a tool that, for the first time in kidney transplantation, predicts graft failure risk both at an individual patient level and dynamically. We believe that this tool would encourage willing patients into participative medicine.

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