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J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905


Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.

Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Etiópia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(3): 299-308, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447498


Background: Adherence is the most important factor in determining Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) treatment success and long-term viral suppression. Nonadherence to ART led to the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) related morbidity and mortality. Moreover, it intensifies the risk of the emerging drug resistant HIV strains. This study aimed to assess the level of ART adherence and to identify its predictive associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in Hara Town and its surroundings, North-Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: An institutional facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from April-May 2017. A total of 454 individuals were on ART follow-up in the selected ART-clinic, and only 418 patients were recruited. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify associated factors. Odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were calculated to determine the level of significance. Results: The level of ART adherence in the study setting was 300 (71.8%). Participants who had not disclosed their HIV status to their families were 88% less likely to adhere to their ART medication than those who had disclosed their HIV status ((Odds ratio (OR): 0.12, 95%CI:0.05-0.58; p<0.001). On the other hand, participants who had not encountered drug side effects were 2.69 times more likely to adhere to their ART medication than those who had ever encountered drug side effects (OR: 2.69, 95%CI:1.27-5.05; p<0.001). Conclusion: A very low level of ART adherence was shown in the study population. It was below the recommended good adherence standard. Therefore, patients should get adequate and comprehensive ART adherence counselling before initiation ART treatment and during the follow-up time.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 524, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064483


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the level of drug resistance by gram-negative bacteria isolated from selected sewage polluted urban rivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. RESULTS: From a total of 94 river water samples, 90 medically important gram-negative bacterial isolates were recovered to the species level. The predominant bacteria isolated were E. coli. 23 (26%) followed by K. pneumoniae 18 (20%), K. oxytoca 17 (19%). E. coli showed a high level of resistance to ampicillin 21 (91.3%), cefalotin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime 16 (70%). Both K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca showed high resistance to ampicillin 16 (94%) and 17 (95%) respectively. Among identified bacterial species, most of them showed a multidrug-resistant pattern. Providential retigerri showed 100% multidrug resistance followed by P. alkalificiens (90%), E. coli (78%), M. morgani (75%), and C. frundi (60%).

Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Etiópia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rios