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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

2.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.AimsTo determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.Declaration of interestNone.

4.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(6): 477-486, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its worldwide use is still limited because of its complex titration protocols. While the discovery of pharmacogenomic variants of clozapine metabolism may improve clinical management, no robust findings have yet been reported. This study is the first to adopt the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to discover genetic markers of clozapine plasma concentrations in a large sample of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used mixed-model regression to combine data from multiple assays of clozapine metabolite plasma concentrations from a clozapine monitoring service and carried out a genome-wide analysis of clozapine, norclozapine, and their ratio on 10,353 assays from 2,989 individuals. These analyses were adjusted for demographic factors known to influence clozapine metabolism, although it was not possible to adjust for all potential mediators given the available data. GWAS results were used to pinpoint specific enzymes and metabolic pathways and compounds that might interact with clozapine pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The authors identified four distinct genome-wide significant loci that harbor common variants affecting the metabolism of clozapine or its metabolites. Detailed examination pointed to coding and regulatory variants at several CYP* and UGT* genes as well as corroborative evidence for interactions between the metabolism of clozapine, coffee, and tobacco. Individual effects of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fine-mapped from these loci were large, such as the minor allele of rs2472297, which was associated with a reduction in clozapine concentrations roughly equivalent to a decrease of 50 mg/day in clozapine dosage. On their own, these single SNPs explained from 1.15% to 9.48% of the variance in the plasma concentration data. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants with large effects on clozapine metabolism exist and can be found via genome-wide approaches. Their identification opens the way for clinical studies assessing the use of pharmacogenomics in the clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

6.
Pharmacogenomics ; 20(4): 279-290, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767710

RESUMO

Clozapine is the only effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia but remains widely under prescribed, at least in part due to its potential to cause agranulocytosis and neutropenia. In this article, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the genetics of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis and neutropenia. We now know that the genetic etiology of clozapine-associated neutropenia is complex and is likely to involve variants from several genes including HLA-DQB1, HLA-B and SLCO1B3/SLCO1B7. We describe recent findings relating to the Duffy-null genotype and its association with benign neutropenia in individuals with African ancestry. Further advances will come from sequencing studies, large, cross-population studies and in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(3): 328-337, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647433

RESUMO

Individuals of African ancestry in the United States and Europe are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia and have poorer clinical outcomes. The antipsychotic clozapine, the only licensed medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is under-prescribed and has high rates of discontinuation in individuals of African ancestry, due in part to increased rates of neutropenia. The genetic basis of lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry has not previously been investigated in the context of clozapine treatment. We sought to identify risk alleles in the first genome-wide association study of neutrophil levels during clozapine treatment, in 552 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and robustly inferred African genetic ancestry. Two genome-wide significant loci were associated with low neutrophil counts during clozapine treatment. The most significantly associated locus was driven by rs2814778 (ß = -0.9, P = 4.21 × 10-21), a known regulatory variant in the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1) gene. Individuals homozygous for the C allele at rs2814778 were significantly more likely to develop neutropenia and have to stop clozapine treatment (OR = 20.4, P = 3.44 × 10-7). This genotype, also termed "Duffy-null", has previously been shown to be associated with lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry. Our results indicate the relevance of the rs2814778 genotype for those taking clozapine and its potential as a pharmacogenetic test, dependent on the outcome of additional safety studies, to assist decision making in the initiation and on-going management of clozapine treatment.

8.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(4): 245-253, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are well-established features of schizophrenia, but there is ongoing debate about the nature and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that there is a spectrum of increasing impairment from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizoaffective disorder depressive type and schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery between participants with schizophrenia (n = 558), schizoaffective disorder depressive type (n = 112), schizoaffective disorder type (n = 76), bipolar disorder (n = 78) and healthy participants (n = 103) using analysis of covariance with post hoc comparisons. We conducted an ordinal logistic regression to examine whether cognitive impairments followed the hypothesized spectrum from bipolar disorder (least severe) to schizophrenia (most severe). In addition to categorical diagnoses, we addressed the influence of symptom domains, examining the association between cognition and mania, depression and psychosis. RESULTS: Cognitive impairments increased in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type. Participants with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type showed equivalent performance (d = 0.07, p = 0.90). The results of the ordinal logistic regression were consistent with a spectrum of deficits from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder depressive type (odds ratio = 1.98, p < 0.001). In analyses of the associations between symptom dimensions and cognition, higher scores on the psychosis dimension were associated with poorer performance (B = 0.015, standard error = 0.002, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: There were fewer participants with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Despite this, our analyses were robust to differences in group sizes, and we were able to detect differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments represent a symptom dimension that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries.

9.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(3): 170076, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are well-established features of schizophrenia, but there is ongoing debate about the nature and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that there is a spectrum of increasing impairment from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizoaffective disorder depressive type and schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery between participants with schizophrenia (n = 558), schizoaffective disorder depressive type (n = 112), schizoaffective disorder type (n = 76), bipolar disorder (n = 78) and healthy participants (n = 103) using analysis of covariance with post hoc comparisons. We conducted an ordinal logistic regression to examine whether cognitive impairments followed the hypothesized spectrum from bipolar disorder (least severe) to schizophrenia (most severe). In addition to categorical diagnoses, we addressed the influence of symptom domains, examining the association between cognition and mania, depression and psychosis. RESULTS: Cognitive impairments increased in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type. Participants with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type showed equivalent performance (d = 0.07, p = 0.90). The results of the ordinal logistic regression were consistent with a spectrum of deficits from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder depressive type (odds ratio = 1.98, p < 0.001). In analyses of the associations between symptom dimensions and cognition, higher scores on the psychosis dimension were associated with poorer performance (B = 0.015, standard error = 0.002, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: There were fewer participants with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Despite this, our analyses were robust to differences in group sizes, and we were able to detect differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments represent a symptom dimension that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 381-389, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483656

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric condition often associated with poor quality of life and decreased life expectancy. Lack of progress in improving treatment outcomes has been attributed to limited knowledge of the underlying biology, although large-scale genomic studies have begun to provide insights. We report a new genome-wide association study of schizophrenia (11,260 cases and 24,542 controls), and through meta-analysis with existing data we identify 50 novel associated loci and 145 loci in total. Through integrating genomic fine-mapping with brain expression and chromosome conformation data, we identify candidate causal genes within 33 loci. We also show for the first time that the common variant association signal is highly enriched among genes that are under strong selective pressures. These findings provide new insights into the biology and genetic architecture of schizophrenia, highlight the importance of mutation-intolerant genes and suggest a mechanism by which common risk variants persist in the population.

11.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 37(2): 148-154, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine remains the only evidence-based treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and prediction of clozapine response is important in developing stratified treatment. We studied potential predictors of clozapine response, applying functional assessments as well as service use. PROCEDURES: We performed a nationwide cohort study among all individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Denmark after 1995 (age, ≥18 years) who initiated clozapine treatment between 2004 and 2011 with a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F) score registered at clozapine initiation. During up to 2-year follow-up, clinical response was defined as (a) no further hospitalization with schizophrenia or (b) improvement in GAF-F score (moderate improvement: increase, ≥10; substantial improvement: increase, ≥20; and GAF-F, ≥50). We performed Cox regression analysis and report adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). RESULTS: Among 502 clozapine users with a registered GAF-F score, 232 (46.2%) remained out of hospital, 96 (19.1%) achieved moderate functional improvement, and 29 (5.8%) substantial functional improvement. Of all potential predictors, voluntary status at clozapine initiation showed borderline statistical significance with nonhospitalization (HRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.97-2.67). Regarding functional improvement, living with a partner was the strongest predictor with an almost threefold increased HRR (2.78; 95% CI, 1.07-7.23). Female sex was only nonsignificantly associated with functional improvement, whereas the chance of substantial improvement decreased by 15% (HRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00) for each year delay in clozapine initiation among females. CONCLUSIONS: Living with a partner was the strongest predictor of functioning after clozapine initiation in this study. Although potentially indicating better premorbid functioning, this finding stresses the need and importance of social support during the course of the treatment independent of clinical factors.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Apoio Social , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(9): 963-969, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602560

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: At least 11 rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to be major risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). These CNVs also increase the risk for other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability. It is possible that additional intellectual disability-associated CNVs increase the risk for SZ but have not yet been implicated in SZ because of previous studies being underpowered. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether additional CNVs implicated in intellectual disability represent novel SZ risk loci. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to evaluate a set of 51 CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding the known SZ loci) in a large data set of patients with SZ and healthy persons serving as controls recruited in a variety of settings. We analyzed a new sample of 6934 individuals with SZ and 8751 controls and combined those data with previously published large data sets for a total of 20 403 cases of SZ and 26 628 controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Burden analysis of CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding known SZ CNVs) for association with SZ. Association of individual intellectual disability CNV loci with SZ. RESULTS: Of data on the 20 403 cases (6151 [30.15%] female) and 26 628 controls (14 252 [53.52%] female), 51 intellectual disability CNVs were analyzed. Collectively, intellectual disability CNVs were significantly enriched for SZ (P = 1.0 × 10-6; odds ratio [OR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.46-2.49]). Of the 51 CNVs tested, 19 (37%) were more common in SZ cases; only 4 (8%) were more common in controls (no observations were made for the remaining 28 [55%] loci). One novel locus, deletion at 16p12.1, was significantly associated with SZ after correction for multiple testing (rate in SZ, 33 [0.16%]; rate in controls, 12 [0.05%]; corrected P = .017; OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.61-7.05), and 2 loci reached nominal levels of significance (deletions at 2q11.2: 6 [0.03%] vs 1 [0.004%]; OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 1.03-447.76; corrected P > .99; and duplications at 10q11.21q11.23: 5 [0.2%] vs 0 [0.03%]; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 1.26-infinity; corrected P = .71). Our new data set also provided independent support for the 11 SZ risk loci previously reported to be associated with the disorder and for the protective effect of 22q11.2 duplication. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A large proportion of CNV loci implicated in intellectual disability are risk factors for SZ, but the available sample size precludes statistical confirmation for additional individual loci.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Valores de Referência , Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
13.
Schizophr Res ; 174(1-3): 113-119, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27211516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine is uniquely effective in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). However, a substantial proportion of patients discontinue treatment and this carries a poor prognosis. METHODS: We investigated the risk factors, reasons and timing of clozapine discontinuation in a two-year retrospective cohort study of 316 patients with TRS receiving their first course of clozapine. Reasons for discontinuation of clozapine and duration of treatment were obtained from case notes and Cox regression was employed to test the association of baseline clinical factors with clozapine discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 142 (45%) patients discontinued clozapine within two years. By studying the reasons for discontinuations due to a patient decision, we found that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) accounted for over half of clozapine discontinuations. Sedation was the most common ADR cited as a reason for discontinuation and the risk of discontinuation due to ADRs was highest in the first few months of clozapine treatment. High levels of deprivation in the neighbourhood where the patient lived were associated with increased risk of clozapine discontinuation (HR=2.12, 95% CI 1.30-3.47). CONCLUSIONS: Living in a deprived neighbourhood was strongly associated with clozapine discontinuation. Clinical management to reduce the burden of ADRs in the first few months of treatment may have a significant impact and help more patients experience the benefits of clozapine treatment.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Psychopharmacol ; 30(5): 436-43, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26905920

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is commonly used in schizophrenia despite a lack of robust evidence for efficacy, as well as evidence of increased rates of adverse drug reactions and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine APP and the use of other adjunctive medications in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenic disorders (ICD-10 diagnoses F20-F29) immediately prior to clozapine initiation, and to investigate clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with APP use in this setting. METHODS: Analysis of case notes from 310 patients receiving their first course of clozapine at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) was undertaken using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) case register. Medication taken immediately prior to clozapine initiation was recorded, and global clinical severity was assessed at time points throughout the year prior to medication assessment using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S). Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with APP. RESULTS: The point prevalence of APP prior to clozapine initiation was 13.6% (n=42), with 32.6% of subjects prescribed adjuvant psychotropic medications. APP was associated with increasing number of adjuvant medications (odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-3.06), concurrent depot antipsychotic prescription (OR 2.64, CI 1.24-5.62), concurrent antidepressant prescription (OR 4.40, CI 1.82-10.63) and a CGI-S over the previous year within the two middle quartiles (Quartile 2 vs 1 OR 6.19, CI 1.81-21.10; Quartile 3 vs 1 OR 4.45, CI 1.29-15.37; Quartile 4 vs 1 OR 1.88, CI 0.45-7.13). CONCLUSIONS: APP and augmentation of antipsychotics with antidepressants, mood stabilizers and benzodiazepines are being employed in treatment-resistant schizophrenia prior to clozapine. The conservative APP rate observed may have been influenced by an initiative within SLaM that reduced APP rates during the study window. Efforts to reduce the use of poorly evidenced prescribing should focus on adjuvant medications as well as APP.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 204(2): 108-14, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24311552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of copy number variants (CNVs) have been suggested as susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. For some of these the data remain equivocal, and the frequency in individuals with schizophrenia is uncertain. AIMS: To determine the contribution of CNVs at 15 schizophrenia-associated loci (a) using a large new data-set of patients with schizophrenia (n = 6882) and controls (n = 6316), and (b) combining our results with those from previous studies. METHOD: We used Illumina microarrays to analyse our data. Analyses were restricted to 520 766 probes common to all arrays used in the different data-sets. RESULTS: We found higher rates in participants with schizophrenia than in controls for 13 of the 15 previously implicated CNVs. Six were nominally significantly associated (P<0.05) in this new data-set: deletions at 1q21.1, NRXN1, 15q11.2 and 22q11.2 and duplications at 16p11.2 and the Angelman/Prader-Willi Syndrome (AS/PWS) region. All eight AS/PWS duplications in patients were of maternal origin. When combined with published data, 11 of the 15 loci showed highly significant evidence for association with schizophrenia (P<4.1×10(-4)). CONCLUSIONS: We strengthen the support for the majority of the previously implicated CNVs in schizophrenia. About 2.5% of patients with schizophrenia and 0.9% of controls carry a large, detectable CNV at one of these loci. Routine CNV screening may be clinically appropriate given the high rate of known deleterious mutations in the disorder and the comorbidity associated with these heritable mutations.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Impressão Genômica , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 75(5): 378-85, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23992924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia (SCZ), developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and various congenital malformations (CM). Their penetrance for SCZ has been estimated to be modest. However, comparisons between their penetrance for SCZ or DD/ASD/CM, or estimates of the total penetrance for any of these disorders have not yet been made. METHODS: We use data from the largest available studies on SCZ and DD/ASD/CM, including a new sample of 6882 cases and 6316 controls, to estimate the frequencies of 70 implicated CNVs in carriers with these disorders, healthy control subjects, and the general population. On the basis of these frequencies, we estimate their penetrance. We also estimate the strength of the selection pressure against CNVs and correlate this against their overall penetrance. RESULTS: The rates of nearly all CNVs are higher in DD/ASD/CM compared with SCZ. The penetrance of CNVs is at least several times higher for the development of a disorder from the group of DD/ASD/CM. The overall penetrance of SCZ-associated CNVs for developing any disorder is high, ranging between 10.6% and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs associated with SCZ have high pathogenicity. The majority of the increased risk conferred by CNVs is toward the development of an earlier-onset disorder, such as DD/ASD/CM, rather than SCZ. The penetrance of CNVs correlates strongly with their selection coefficients. The improved estimates of penetrance will provide crucial information for genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Penetrância , Esquizofrenia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(6): 1669-76, 2014 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24163246

RESUMO

Large and rare copy number variants (CNVs) at several loci have been shown to increase risk for schizophrenia. Aiming to discover novel susceptibility CNV loci, we analyzed 6882 cases and 11 255 controls genotyped on Illumina arrays, most of which have not been used for this purpose before. We identified genes enriched for rare exonic CNVs among cases, and then attempted to replicate the findings in additional 14 568 cases and 15 274 controls. In a combined analysis of all samples, 12 distinct loci were enriched among cases with nominal levels of significance (P < 0.05); however, none would survive correction for multiple testing. These loci include recurrent deletions at 16p12.1, a locus previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 0.0084 in the discovery sample and P = 0.023 in the replication sample). Other plausible candidates include non-recurrent deletions at the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1, a CNV locus recently suggested to be involved in schizophrenia through linkage analysis, and duplications at 1p36.33 and CGNL1. A burden analysis of large (>500 kb), rare CNVs showed a 1.2% excess in cases after excluding known schizophrenia-associated loci, suggesting that additional susceptibility loci exist. However, even larger samples are required for their discovery.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Esquizofrenia/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino
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