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1.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147744

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common disorder characterized by multiple café-au-lait macules. Most individuals with this autosomal dominant disorder also have other features, such as skinfold freckling, iris Lisch nodules and benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Legius syndrome is a less frequent autosomal dominant disorder with similar multiple café-au-lait macules and skinfold freckling. Legius syndrome is not characterized by an increased risk of tumours, and a correct diagnosis is important. In young children with a sporadic form of multiple café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and no other manifestations of NF1 these 2 conditions cannot be differentiated based on clinical examination. Molecular analysis of the NF1 and SPRED1 genes is usually needed to differentiate the 2 conditions. Other less frequent conditions with café-au-lait macules are Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency and McCune-Albright syndrome.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103875, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058062

RESUMO

The application of next-generation sequencing to fetal pathology has proved to increase the diagnostic yield in fetuses with abnormal ultrasounds. We retrospectively reviewed genetic data of 30 selected cases studied through targeted resequencing of OMIM genes. In our experience, clinical data proved to be essential to support diagnostic reasoning and enhance variants' assessment. The molecular diagnosis was reached in 19/30 (63%) cases. Only in 7/19 cases the molecular diagnosis confirmed the initial diagnostic hypothesis, showing the relevance of the genotype-first approach. According to the genotype-phenotype correlation, we were able to divide the solved cases into three groups: i) the correlation is well established but it was missed due to lack of specificity, unusual presentation or recent description; ii) the clinical presentation is much more severe than currently known for the underlying condition; iii) the correlation does not recapitulate the entire phenotype, possibly due to the fetal presentation or multiple coexisting conditions. Moreover, we found a higher proportion of recessive diagnosis in abnormal fetuses compared to cohorts of individuals with developmental delay. Our findings suggest that fetal pathology may be enriched in rare alleles and/or in unusual combinations, counter-selected in postnatal genomes and thus contributing to both phenotypic extremeness and atypical presentation.

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whereas noninvasive prenatal screening for aneuploidies is widely implemented, there is an increasing need for universal approaches for noninvasive prenatal screening for monogenic diseases. Here, we present a cost-effective, generic cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) haplotyping approach to scan the fetal genome for the presence of inherited monogenic diseases. METHODS: Families participating in the preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders (PGT-M) program were recruited for this study. Two hundred fifty thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) captured from maternal plasma DNA along with genomic DNA from family members were massively parallel sequenced. Parental genotypes were phased via an available genotype from a close relative, and the fetal genome-wide haplotype and copy number were determined using cffDNA haplotyping analysis based on estimation and segmentation of fetal allele presence in the maternal plasma. RESULTS: In all families tested, mutational profiles from cffDNA haplotyping are consistent with embryo biopsy profiles. Genome-wide fetal haplotypes are on average 97% concordant with the newborn haplotypes and embryo haplotypes. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that genome-wide targeted capture and sequencing of polymorphic SNPs from maternal plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) allows haplotyping and copy-number profiling of the fetal genome during pregnancy. The method enables the accurate reconstruction of the fetal haplotypes and can be easily implemented in clinical practice.

4.
Genet Med ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with cognitive deficits. The NF1 cognitive phenotype is generally considered to be highly variable, possibly due to the observed T2-weighted hyperintensities, loss of heterozygosity, NF1-specific genetic modifiers, or allelic imbalance. METHODS: We investigated cognitive variability and assessed the contribution of genetic factors by performing a retrospective cohort study and a monozygotic twin case series. We included data of 497 children with genetically confirmed NF1 and an IQ assessment, including 12 monozygotic twin and 17 sibling sets. RESULTS: Individuals carrying an NF1 chromosomal microdeletion showed significant lower full-scale IQ (FSIQ) scores than individuals carrying intragenic pathogenic NF1 variants. For the intragenic subgroup, the variability in cognitive ability and the correlation of IQ between monozygotic NF1 twin pairs or between NF1 siblings is similar to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The variance and heritability of IQ in individuals with NF1 are similar to that of the general population, and hence mostly driven by genetic background differences. The only factor that significantly attenuates IQ in NF1 individuals is the NF1 chromosomal microdeletion genotype. Implications for clinical management are that individuals with intragenic NF1 variants that score <1.5-2 SD below the mean of the NF1 population should be screened for additional causes of cognitive disability.

5.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intragenic NRXN1 deletions are susceptibility variants for neurodevelopmental disorders; however, their clinical interpretation is often unclear. Therefore, a literature study and an analysis of 43 previously unpublished deletions are provided. METHODS: The literature cohort covered 629 heterozygous NRXN1 deletions: 148 in controls, 341 in probands and 140 in carrier relatives, and was used for clinical hypothesis testing. Exact breakpoint determination was performed for 43 in-house deletions. RESULTS: The prevalence of exonic NRXN1 deletions in controls was ~1/3000 as compared with ~1/800 in patients with neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders. The differential distribution of deletions across the gene between controls and probands allowed to distinguish distinct areas within the gene. Exon 6-24 deletions appeared only twice in over 100000 control individuals, had an estimated penetrance for neurodevelopmental disorders of 32.43%, a de novo rate of 50% and segregated mainly with intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. In contrast, exon 1-5 deletions appeared in 20 control individuals, had an estimated penetrance of 12.59%, a de novo rate of 32.5% and were reported with a broad range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Exact breakpoint determination revealed six recurrent intron 5 deletions. CONCLUSION: Exon 6-24 deletions have a high penetrance and are mainly associated with ID and schizophrenia. In contrast, the actual contribution of exon 1-5 deletions to a neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorder in an individual patient and family remains very difficult to assess. To enhance the clinical interpretation, this study provides practical considerations for counselling and an interactive table for comparing a deletion of interest with the available literature data.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(4): 866-876, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913576

RESUMO

RASopathies caused by germline pathogenic variants in genes that encode RAS pathway proteins. These disorders include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC), and Costello syndrome (CS), and others. RASopathies are characterized by heterogenous manifestations, including congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, and increased risk of cancers. Previous work led by the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch has altered the natural course of one of the key manifestations of the RASopathy NF1. Through the conduct of a longitudinal cohort study and early phase clinical trials, the MEK inhibitor selumetinib was identified as the first active therapy for the NF1-related peripheral nerve sheath tumors called plexiform neurofibromas (PNs). As a result, selumetinib was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA for the treatment of PN. Other RASopathy manifestations may also benefit from RAS targeted therapies. The overall goal of Advancing RAS/RASopathy Therapies (ART), a new NCI initiative, is to develop effective therapies and prevention strategies for the clinical manifestations of the non-NF1 RASopathies and for tumors characterized by somatic RAS mutations. This report reflects discussions from a February 2019 initiation meeting for this project, which had broad international collaboration from basic and clinical researchers and patient advocates.

7.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(1): 157-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664505

RESUMO

In Neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1 gene mutations in Schwann cells (SC) drive benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), and no additional SC changes explain patient-to-patient variability in tumor number. Evidence from twin studies suggests that variable expressivity might be caused by unidentified modifier genes. Whole exome sequencing of SC and fibroblast DNA from the same resected PNFs confirmed biallelic SC NF1 mutations; non-NF1 somatic SC variants were variable and present at low read number. We identified frequent germline variants as possible neurofibroma modifier genes. Genes harboring variants were validated in two additional cohorts of NF1 patients and by variant burden test. Genes including CUBN, CELSR2, COL14A1, ATR and ATM also showed decreased gene expression in some neurofibromas. ATM-relevant DNA repair defects were also present in a subset of neurofibromas with ATM variants, and in some neurofibroma SC. Heterozygous ATM G2023R or homozygous S707P variants reduced ATM protein expression in heterologous cells. In mice, genetic Atm heterozygosity promoted Schwann cell precursor self-renewal and increased tumor formation in vivo, suggesting that ATM variants contribute to neurofibroma initiation. We identify germline variants, rare in the general population, overrepresented in NF1 patients with neurofibromas. ATM and other identified genes are candidate modifiers of PNF pathogenesis.

8.
Clin Genet ; 97(2): 264-275, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573083

RESUMO

Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) may exhibit an incomplete clinical presentation, making difficult to reach a clinical diagnosis. A phenotypic overlap may exist in children with other RASopathies or with other genetic conditions if only multiple café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are present. The syndromes that can converge in these inconclusive phenotypes have different clinical courses. In this context, an early genetic testing has been proposed to be clinically useful to manage these patients. We present the validation and implementation into diagnostics of a custom NGS panel (I2HCP, ICO-IMPPC Hereditary Cancer Panel) for testing patients with a clinical suspicion of a RASopathy (n = 48) and children presenting multiple CALMs (n = 102). We describe the mutational spectrum and the detection rates identified in these two groups of individuals. We identified pathogenic variants in 21 out of 48 patients with clinical suspicion of RASopathy, with mutations in NF1 accounting for 10% of cases. Furthermore, we identified pathogenic mutations mainly in the NF1 gene, but also in SPRED1, in more than 50% of children with multiple CALMs, exhibiting an NF1 mutational spectrum different from a group of clinically diagnosed NF1 patients (n = 80). An NGS panel strategy for the genetic testing of these two phenotype-defined groups outperforms previous strategies.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2723-2733, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum ofCTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2774-2780, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) using genome sequencing also reveals maternal copy-number variations (CNVs). Those CNVs can be clinically actionable or harmful to the fetus if inherited. CNVs in the DMD gene potentially causing dystrophinopathies are among the most commonly observed maternal CNVs. We present our experience with maternal DMD gene CNVs detected by NIPS. METHODS: We analyzed the data of maternal CNVs detected in the DMD gene revealed by NIPS. RESULTS: Of 26,123 NIPS analyses, 16 maternal CNVs in the DMD gene were detected (1/1632 pregnant women). Variant classification regarding pathogenicity and phenotypic severity was based on public databases, segregation analysis in the family, and prediction of the effect on the reading frame. Ten CNVs were classified as pathogenic, four as benign, and two remained unclassified. CONCLUSION: NIPS leverages CNV screening in the general population of pregnant women. We implemented a strategy for the interpretation and the return of maternal CNVs in the DMD gene detected by NIPS.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1760-1767, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066482

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting approximately 1 in 2,000 newborns. Up to 5% of NF1 patients suffer from pseudarthrosis of a long bone (NF1-PA). Current treatments are often unsatisfactory, potentially leading to amputation. To gain more insight into the pathogenesis we cultured cells from PA tissue and normal-appearing periosteum of the affected bone for NF1 mutation analysis. PA cells were available from 13 individuals with NF1. Biallelic NF1 inactivation was identified in all investigated PA cells obtained during the first surgery. Three of five cases sampled during a later intervention showed biallelic NF1 inactivation. Also, in three individuals, we examined periosteum-derived cells from normal-appearing periosteum proximal and distal to the PA. We identified the same biallelic NF1 inactivation in the periosteal cells outside the PA region. These results indicate that NF1 inactivation is required but not sufficient for the development of NF1-PA. We observed that late-onset NF1-PA occurs and is not always preceded by congenital bowing. Furthermore, the failure to identify biallelic inactivation in two of five later interventions and one reintervention with a known somatic mutation indicates that NF1-PA can persist after the removal of most NF1 negative cells.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1098-1106, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908866

RESUMO

The neurofibromatoses are inherited, tumor suppressor disorders that are characterized by multiple, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors and other nervous system tumors. Each disease is associated with a distinct genetic mutation and with a different pathogenesis and clinical course. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is common and epitomized by multiple neurofibromas with widespread complications. NF2 and schwannomatosis are rare diseases that are typified by multiple schwannomas that are particularly painful in people with schwannomatosis. Since 1985, the Children's Tumor Foundation (formerly the National Neurofibromatosis Foundation) has hosted an international Neurofibromatosis Conference, bringing together international participants who are focused on NF research and clinical care. The 2017 Conference, held in Washington, DC, was among the largest gatherings of NF researchers to date and included presentations from clinicians and basic scientists, highlighting new data regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying each of these diseases as well as results from clinical studies and clinical trials. This article summarizes the findings presented at the meeting and represents the current state-of-the art for NF research.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1091-1097, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908877

RESUMO

The neurofibromatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis, are a group of syndromes characterized by tumor growth in the nervous system. The RASopathies are a group of syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The RASopathies include NF1, Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Legius syndrome, capillary malformation arterio-venous malformation syndrome, and SYNGAP1 autism. Due to their common underlying pathogenetic etiology, all these syndromes have significant phenotypic overlap of which one common feature include a predisposition to tumors, which may be benign or malignant. Together as a group, they represent one of the most common multiple congenital anomaly syndromes estimating to affect approximately one in 1000 individuals worldwide. The subcontinent of India represents one of the largest populations in the world, yet remains underserved from an aspect of clinical genetics services. In an effort to bridge this gap, the First International Conference on RASopathies and Neurofibromatoses in Asia: Identification and Advances of New Therapeutics was held in Kochi, Kerala, India. These proceedings chronicle this timely and topical international symposium directed at discussing the best practices and therapies for individuals with neurofibromatoses and RASopathies.

15.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722027

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in NF1. NF1 patients have an 8-16% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly-aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, often arising from pre-existing benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and atypical neurofibromas (ANF). ANF are distinct from both PN and MPNST, representing an intermediate step in malignant transformation. Methods: In the first comprehensive genomic analysis of ANF originating from multiple patients, we performed tumor/normal whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 16 ANFs. In addition, we conducted WES of three MPNSTs, copy-number meta-analysis of 26 ANFs and 28 MPNSTs, and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis of five ANFs and five MPNSTs. Results: We identified a low number of mutations (median 1, range 0-5) in the exomes of ANFs (only NF1 somatic mutations were recurrent), and frequent deletions of CDKN2A/B (69%) and SMARCA2 (42%). We determined that polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) genes EED or SUZ12 were frequently mutated, deleted or downregulated in MPNSTs but not in ANFs. Our pilot gene expression study revealed upregulated NRAS, MDM2, CCND1/2/3 and CDK4/6 in ANFs and MPNSTs, and overexpression of EZH2 in MPNSTs only. Conclusions: The PN-ANF transition is primarily driven by the deletion of CDKN2A/B. Further progression from ANF to MPNST likely involves broad chromosomal rearrangements and frequent inactivation of the PRC2 genes, loss of the DNA repair genes, and copy-number increase of signal transduction, cell cycle and pluripotency self-renewal genes.

16.
J Med Genet ; 56(2): 53-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415209

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of four mismatch-repair genes. Besides very high tumour risks, CMMRD phenotypes are often characterised by the presence of signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Because NF1 signs may be present prior to tumour onset, CMMRD is a legitimate differential diagnosis in an otherwise healthy child suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a detectable underlying NF1/SPRED1 germline mutation. However, no guidelines indicate when to counsel and test for CMMRD in this setting. Assuming that CMMRD is rare in these patients and that expected benefits of identifying CMMRD prior to tumour onset should outweigh potential harms associated with CMMRD counselling and testing in this setting, we aimed at elaborating a strategy to preselect, among children suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a causative NF1/SPRED1 mutation and no overt malignancy, those children who have a higher probability of having CMMRD. At an interdisciplinary workshop, we discussed estimations of the frequency of CMMRD as a differential diagnosis of NF1 and potential benefits and harms of CMMRD counselling and testing in a healthy child with no malignancy. Preselection criteria and strategies for counselling and testing were developed and reviewed in two rounds of critical revisions. Existing diagnostic CMMRD criteria were adapted to serve as a guideline as to when to consider CMMRD as differential diagnosis of NF1/Legius syndrome. In addition, counselling and testing strategies are suggested to minimise potential harms.

17.
Hum Reprod ; 33(12): 2302-2311, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383227

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can genome-wide haplotyping increase success following preimplantation genetic testing for a monogenic disorder (PGT-M) by including zygotes with absence of pronuclei (0PN) or the presence of only one pronucleus (1PN)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Genome-wide haplotyping 0PNs and 1PNs increases the number of PGT-M cycles reaching embryo transfer (ET) by 81% and the live-birth rate by 75%. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although a significant subset of 0PN and 1PN zygotes can develop into balanced, diploid and developmentally competent embryos, they are usually discarded because parental diploidy detection is not part of the routine work-up of PGT-M. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This prospective cohort study evaluated the pronuclear number in 2229 zygotes from 2337 injected metaphase II (MII) oocytes in 268 cycles. PGT-M for 0PN and 1PN embryos developing into Day 5/6 blastocysts with adequate quality for vitrification was performed in 42 of the 268 cycles (15.7%). In these 42 cycles, we genome-wide haplotyped 216 good quality embryos corresponding to 49 0PNs, 15 1PNs and 152 2PNs. The reported outcomes include parental contribution to embryonic ploidy, embryonic aneuploidy, genetic diagnosis for the monogenic disorder, cycles reaching ETs, pregnancy and live birth rates (LBR) for unaffected offspring. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Blastomere DNA was whole-genome amplified and hybridized on the Illumina Human CytoSNP12V2.1.1 BeadChip arrays. Subsequently, genome-wide haplotyping and copy-number profiling was applied to investigate the embryonic genome architecture. Bi-parental, unaffected embryos were transferred regardless of their initial zygotic PN score. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A staggering 75.51% of 0PN and 42.86% of 1PN blastocysts are diploid bi-parental allowing accurate genetic diagnosis for the monogenic disorder. In total, 31% (13/42) of the PGT-M cycles reached ET or could repeat ET with an unaffected 0PN or 1PN embryo. The LBR per initiated cycle increased from 9.52 to 16.67%. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The clinical efficacy of the routine inclusion of 0PN and 1PN zygotes in PGT-M cycles should be confirmed in larger cohorts from multicenter studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Genome-wide haplotyping allows the inclusion of 0PN and 1PN embryos and subsequently increases the cycles reaching ET following PGT-M and potentially PGT for aneuploidy (PGT-A) and chromosomal structural rearrangements (PGT-SR). Establishing measures of clinical efficacy could lead to an update of the ESHRE guidelines which advise against the use of these zygotes. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): SymBioSys (PFV/10/016 and C1/018 to J.R.V. and T.V.), the Horizon 2020 WIDENLIFE: 692065 to J.R.V., T.V., E.D., A.D. and M.Z.E. M.Z.E., T.V. and J.R.V. co-invented haplarithmisis ('Haplotyping and copy-number typing using polymorphic variant allelic frequencies'), which has been licensed to Agilent Technologies. H.M. is fully supported by the (FWO) (ZKD1543-ASP/16). The authors have no competing interests to declare.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Testes Genéticos , Haplótipos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Zigoto
19.
Neurology ; 91(2 Suppl 1): S14-S20, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A group of experts in dermatology, genetics, neuroscience, and regenerative medicine collaborated to summarize current knowledge on the defined factors contributing to cutaneous neurofibroma (cNF) development and to provide consensus recommendations for future research priorities to gain an improved understanding of the biology of cNF. METHODS: The group members reviewed published and unpublished data on cNF and related diseases via literature search, defined a set of key topic areas deemed critical in cNF pathogenesis, and developed recommendations in a series of consensus meetings. RESULTS: Five specific topic areas were identified as being relevant to providing an enhanced understanding of the biology of cNF: (1) defining the human cells of origin; (2) understanding the role of the microenvironment, focusing on neurons, mast cells, and fibroblasts; (3) defining the genetic and molecular differences between the cNFs, focusing on size and number; (4) understanding if sex hormones are critical for cNF development or progression; and (5) identifying challenges in establishing in vitro and in vivo models representing human cNF. CONCLUSIONS: The complexity of cNF biology stems from its heterogeneity at multiple levels including genetic, spatial involvement, temporal development, and cellular composition. We propose a unified working model for cNF that builds a framework to address the key questions about cNF that, when answered, will provide the necessary understanding of cNF biology to allow meaningful development of therapies.


Assuntos
Neurofibroma/fisiopatologia , Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Humanos , Neurofibroma/complicações , Neurofibroma/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurologia , Pesquisa , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
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