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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 100: 87-91, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intellectual disability (ID) results from a heterogeneous group of disorders and affects 1% to 2% of children. ID frequently occurs in association with other clinical features such as seizures or malformations. We suspected that strabismus might also be unusually frequent in this population and that it might be associated with ID groups affecting motor control. METHODS: We reviewed phenotypic descriptors, extracted from medical records, for a heterogeneous series of 222 probands with ID who had been enrolled in a study of clinical application of exome sequencing. We estimated the frequency of strabismus and other common clinical features and explored statistical associations between them. Data from Population Data British Columbia and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man were also examined for confirmation of our observations. RESULTS: Strabismus had a higher prevalence among probands with ID than in the general population (odds ratio = 5.46). Moreover, probands with both ID and strabismus were more likely to have problems affecting motor control than those with ID and no strabismus (odds ratio = 2.84). Hypotonia was one of the most common motor control subgroups affecting the ID probands, and a frequent co-occurrence of strabismus and hypotonia was also observed (odds ratio = 2.51) and supported by related gene literature review. There was no evidence for associations between strabismus and other frequent clinical features. CONCLUSION: Strabismus is a frequent feature in individuals with ID. The frequent co-occurrence of strabismus and motor control phenotypes, in particular hypotonia, suggests that a common cerebellar mechanism or pathway may underlie these phenotypes.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(8): 1207-1218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172278

RESUMO

Genetic disorders are one of the leading causes of infant mortality and are frequent in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Rapid genome-wide sequencing (GWS; whole genome or exome sequencing (ES)), due to its diagnostic capabilities and immediate impacts on medical management, is becoming an appealing testing option in the NICU setting. RAPIDOMICS was a trio-based rapid ES pilot study of 25 babies with suspected genetic disorders in the BC Women's Hospital NICU. ES and bioinformatic analysis were performed after careful patient ascertainment. Trio analysis was performed using an in-house pipeline reporting variants in known disease-causing genes. Variants interpreted by the research team as definitely or possibly causal of the infant's phenotype were Sanger validated in a clinical laboratory. The average time to preliminary diagnosis was 7.2 days. Sanger validation was pursued in 15 patients for 13 autosomal dominant and 2 autosomal recessive disorders, with an overall diagnostic rate (partial or complete) of 60%.Conclusion: In total, 72% of patients enrolled had a genomic diagnosis achieved through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis. Among these, there was an 83% rate of significant and immediate impact on medical decision-making directly related to new knowledge of the diagnosis. Health service implementation challenges and successes are discussed. What is Known: • Rapid genome-wide sequencing in the neonatal intensive care setting has a greater diagnostic hit rate and impact on medical management than conventional genetic testing. However, the impact of consultation with genetics and patient ascertainment requires further investigation. What is New: • This study demonstrates the importance of genetic consultation and careful patient selection prior to pursuing exome sequencing (ES). • In total, 15/25 (60%) patients achieved a diagnosis through ES and 18/25 (72%) through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis with 83% of those having immediate effects on medical management.

5.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 202-212, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938469

RESUMO

Increased application of next generation sequencing has led to the discovery of a multitude of new neurodevelopmental syndromes, contributing to an increased diagnostic rate for exome sequencing from 25% originally to 40% currently. Owing to the recent recognition of these syndromes, as well as the types of large-scale studies (with limited phenotype information) often making these discoveries, these disorders may be poorly characterized clinically. As a result there is very limited information and disorder-specific support available to patients and families. We used a qualitative approach to explore how families experience a diagnosis of a new syndrome. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with parents and adult siblings of children who received a diagnosis of a new syndrome after whole exome sequencing (WES) performed through a translational research study. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Analysis of the 12 interviews revealed that a lack of information about the child's condition continues to play a large role in these families' experiences even after diagnosis. Almost all (92%) participants expressed ongoing uncertainty about their child's health and future. Most (83%) participants were interested in identifying other families with the same syndrome, which was related to both social support and seeking of information. Interestingly, 33% of participants worried about the child's risk for cancer due to their syndrome. Our results highlight some of the needs of families of children with new syndromes, and emphasize important issues care providers should address in pre- and post-test genetic counseling for WES and whole genome sequencing.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

7.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568043

RESUMO

Sialic acids are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids essential for cellular communication, infection, and metastasis. The importance of sialic acid biosynthesis in human physiology is well illustrated by the severe metabolic disorders in this pathway. However, the biological role of sialic acid catabolism in humans remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that sialic acid catabolism is important for heart and skeletal muscle function and development in humans and zebrafish. In two siblings, presenting with sialuria, exercise intolerance/muscle wasting, and cardiac symptoms in the brother, compound heterozygous mutations [chr1:182775324C>T (c.187C>T; p.Arg63Cys) and chr1:182772897A>G (c.133A>G; p.Asn45Asp)] were found in the N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase gene (NPL). In vitro, NPL activity and sialic acid catabolism were affected, with a cell-type-specific reduction of N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc). A knockdown of NPL in zebrafish resulted in severe skeletal myopathy and cardiac edema, mimicking the human phenotype. The phenotype was rescued by expression of wild-type human NPL but not by the p.Arg63Cys or p.Asn45Asp mutants. Importantly, the myopathy phenotype in zebrafish embryos was rescued by treatment with the catabolic products of NPL: N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) and ManNAc; the latter also rescuing the cardiac phenotype. In conclusion, we provide the first report to our knowledge of a human defect in sialic acid catabolism, which implicates an important role of the sialic acid catabolic pathway in mammalian muscle physiology, and suggests opportunities for monosaccharide replacement therapy in human patients.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

9.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 27(4): 116-121, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912011

RESUMO

We report on a family with three siblings, male and female, affected by congenital bilateral limitation of vocal cord abduction, with the additional finding of clubfeet in two. The paternal family history suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. The siblings and father also have mild craniofacial features, which may be an expression of variability or may be unrelated. The association between congenital vocal cord paralysis and clubfeet has been reported with additional major features or in the context of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, the two in isolation have only been reported in one other family previously. Genomic analyses of the family, including chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing, showed neither a likely pathogenic variant in a known disease gene nor a compelling candidate gene variant. We propose that the association of these two findings constitutes a novel recognizable phenotype, for which a genetic cause remains undetermined.


Assuntos
Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pé Torto Equinovaro/etiologia , Pé Torto Equinovaro/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/genética , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to clinical diagnostic genome-wide sequencing (GWS; exome or whole genome sequencing) is limited in British Columbia. The establishment of a translational research initiative (CAUSES) to provide diagnostic genome-wide sequencing for 500 children necessitated the development of a genomic consultation service, a clinical service established to provide consultation for physicians considering GWS for their pediatric patients throughout British Columbia. The Genomic Consultation Service provides patient-specific genomic advice that may include: GWS, multi-gene panel, single gene test, referral to medical genetics for clinical evaluation, or no genetic testing. Here, we describe and evaluate this service. METHODS: We analyzed referral patterns, patient demographics, clinical indications, and genomic advice provided during the first year of this service. Comparison of outcomes from the first 6 months versus the last 6 months was performed. RESULTS: A total of 407 referrals (238 males and 169 females [p = .0006]) were processed in the first year. Only children were eligible for referral and average patient age was 8 years. Medical genetics was the most frequent referring discipline, followed by biochemical disease and pediatric neurology, respectively. Most patients (68%) had syndromic intellectual disability. There was a significant difference in the frequency of referrals not appropriate for GWS in the first versus the second 6 months of the service (75/220 vs. 42/187; p = .01) suggesting increasing awareness of testing criteria by referring physicians. CONCLUSION: This triage service is utilized throughout the province and appears to be an important factor in the high diagnostic rate (>40%) achieved in our GWS program.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 1014-1023, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688601

RESUMO

The role of disturbed chromatin remodeling in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability (ID) is well established and illustrated by de novo mutations found in a plethora of genes encoding for proteins of the epigenetic regulatory machinery. We describe mutations in the "SET nuclear proto-oncogene" (SET), encoding a component of the "inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases" (INHAT) complex, involved in transcriptional silencing. Using whole exome sequencing, four patients were identified with de novo mutations in the SET gene. Additionally, an affected mother and child were detected who carried a frameshift variant in SET. Four patients were found in literature. The de novo mutations in patients affected all four known SET mRNA transcripts. LoF mutations in SET are exceedingly rare in the normal population and, if present, affect only one transcript. The pivotal role of SET in neurogenesis is evident from in vitro and animal models. SET interacts with numerous proteins involved in histone modification, including proteins encoded by known autosomal dominant ID genes, that is, EP300, CREBBP, SETBP1, KMT2A, RAC1, and CTCF. Our study identifies SET as a new component of epigenetic regulatory modules underlying human cognitive disorders, and as a first member of the Nucleosome Assembly Protein (NAP) family implicated in ID.

12.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 1013-1021, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to generate benchmark estimates for the cost, diagnostic yield, and cost per positive diagnosis of diagnostic exome sequencing (ES) in heterogeneous pediatric patient populations and to illustrate how the design of an ES service can influence its cost and yield. METHODS: A literature review and Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate benchmark estimates for singleton and trio ES. A cost model for the Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service (CAUSES) study, which is testing a proposed delivery model for diagnostic ES in British Columbia, is used to illustrate the potential effects of changing the service design. RESULTS: The benchmark diagnostic yield was 34.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.2-46.5) for trio ES and 26.5% (95% CI: 12.9-42.9) for singleton ES. The benchmark cost of delivery was C$6,437 (95% CI: $5,305-$7,704) in 2016 Canadian dollars (US$4,859; 4,391€) for trio ES and C$2,576 (95% CI: $1,993-$3,270) (US$1,944; 1,757€) for singleton ES. Scenario models for CAUSES suggest that alternative service designs could reduce costs but might lead to a higher cost per diagnosis due to lower yields. CONCLUSION: Broad conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of ES should be drawn with caution when relying on studies that use cost or yield assumptions that lie at the extremes of the benchmark ranges.

13.
J Mov Disord ; 11(1): 45-48, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316780

RESUMO

Mutations in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report a Canadian-Vietnamese family carrying a PSEN1 p.Met233Val mutation with an exceptionally early and severe presentation that includes a wide range of atypical symptoms, including prominent ataxia, Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, action tremor, myoclonus, bulbar symptoms, seizures, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the affected proband after many assessments over several years proved diagnostically inconclusive. The results were analyzed using the AnnEx "Annotated Exomes" browser (http://annex.can.ubc.ca), a web-based platform that facilitates WES variant annotation and interpretation. High-throughput sequencing can be especially informative for complex neurological disorders, and WES warrants consideration as a first-line clinical test. Data analyses facilitated by web-based bioinformatics tools have great potential for novel insight, although confirmatory, diagnostically accredited Sanger sequencing is recommended prior to reporting.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 175-187, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276005

RESUMO

Histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) underpin gene regulation. Here we demonstrate that variants causing haploinsufficiency of KMTs and KDMs are frequently encountered in individuals with developmental disorders. Using a combination of human variation databases and existing animal models, we determine 22 KMTs and KDMs as additional candidates for dominantly inherited developmental disorders. We show that KMTs and KDMs that are associated with, or are candidates for, dominant developmental disorders tend to have a higher level of transcription, longer canonical transcripts, more interactors, and a higher number and more types of post-translational modifications than other KMT and KDMs. We provide evidence to firmly associate KMT2C, ASH1L, and KMT5B haploinsufficiency with dominant developmental disorders. Whereas KMT2C or ASH1L haploinsufficiency results in a predominantly neurodevelopmental phenotype with occasional physical anomalies, KMT5B mutations cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability. We further expand the phenotypic spectrum of KMT2B-related disorders and show that some individuals can have severe developmental delay without dystonia at least until mid-childhood. Additionally, we describe a recessive histone lysine-methylation defect caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous KDM5B variants and resulting in a recognizable syndrome with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and camptodactyly. Collectively, these results emphasize the significance of histone lysine methylation in normal human development and the importance of this process in human developmental disorders. Our results demonstrate that systematic clinically oriented pathway-based analysis of genomic data can accelerate the discovery of rare genetic disorders.

15.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 52(6): 570-577, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and genotype of subjects with aniridia with a particular focus on foveal hypoplasia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three Canadian participants with aniridia and of various ethnic backgrounds residing in British Columbia. METHODS: Full ophthalmic examinations and posterior segment spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging were performed. Foveal hypoplasia was graded independently by 2 staff ophthalmologists. PAX6 sequencing was performed and chromosomal 11p anomalies investigated. Candidate gene and single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing in genes functionally related to PAX6 were also studied. RESULTS: Best corrected visual acuities in the cohort ranged from 0.0 logMAR to no light perception. Total absence of iris tissue was seen in the majority (42 of 66 eyes). In those in whom SD-OCT was possible, foveal hypoplasia was seen in the majority (45 of 56 eyes, 80%). Molecular genetic defects involving PAX6 were identified in 30 participants (91%), including 4 novel PAX6 mutations (Gly18Val; Ser65ProfsX14; Met337ArgfsX18; Ser321CysfsX34) and 4 novel chromosome 11p deletions inclusive of PAX6 or a known PAX6 regulatory region. CONCLUSIONS: The number of PAX6 mutations associated with aniridia continues to increase. Variable foveal architecture despite nearly identical anterior segment disease in 4 participants with an Ex9 ELP4-Ex4 DCDC1 deletion suggested that molecular cues causing variation in disease in the posterior segment differ from those at play in the anterior segment. Results in 3 patients without identifiable PAX6 mutations and a review of the literature suggest that such cases be described as phenocopies rather than actual cases of the syndrome of aniridia.


Assuntos
Aniridia/diagnóstico , Aniridia/genética , Fóvea Central/anormalidades , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Brain ; 140(10): 2610-2622, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969385

RESUMO

Mutations of genes within the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-MTOR pathway are well known causes of brain overgrowth (megalencephaly) as well as segmental cortical dysplasia (such as hemimegalencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia and polymicrogyria). Mutations of the AKT3 gene have been reported in a few individuals with brain malformations, to date. Therefore, our understanding regarding the clinical and molecular spectrum associated with mutations of this critical gene is limited, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlations. We sought to further delineate this spectrum, study levels of mosaicism and identify genotype-phenotype correlations of AKT3-related disorders. We performed targeted sequencing of AKT3 on individuals with these phenotypes by molecular inversion probes and/or Sanger sequencing to determine the type and level of mosaicism of mutations. We analysed all clinical and brain imaging data of mutation-positive individuals including neuropathological analysis in one instance. We performed ex vivo kinase assays on AKT3 engineered with the patient mutations and examined the phospholipid binding profile of pleckstrin homology domain localizing mutations. We identified 14 new individuals with AKT3 mutations with several phenotypes dependent on the type of mutation and level of mosaicism. Our comprehensive clinical characterization, and review of all previously published patients, broadly segregates individuals with AKT3 mutations into two groups: patients with highly asymmetric cortical dysplasia caused by the common p.E17K mutation, and patients with constitutional AKT3 mutations exhibiting more variable phenotypes including bilateral cortical malformations, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia and diffuse megalencephaly without cortical dysplasia. All mutations increased kinase activity, and pleckstrin homology domain mutants exhibited enhanced phospholipid binding. Overall, our study shows that activating mutations of the critical AKT3 gene are associated with a wide spectrum of brain involvement ranging from focal or segmental brain malformations (such as hemimegalencephaly and polymicrogyria) predominantly due to mosaic AKT3 mutations, to diffuse bilateral cortical malformations, megalencephaly and heterotopia due to constitutional AKT3 mutations. We also provide the first detailed neuropathological examination of a child with extreme megalencephaly due to a constitutional AKT3 mutation. This child has one of the largest documented paediatric brain sizes, to our knowledge. Finally, our data show that constitutional AKT3 mutations are associated with megalencephaly, with or without autism, similar to PTEN-related disorders. Recognition of this broad clinical and molecular spectrum of AKT3 mutations is important for providing early diagnosis and appropriate management of affected individuals, and will facilitate targeted design of future human clinical trials using PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Megalencefalia/patologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Transfecção
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3172-3181, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884888

RESUMO

The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans. Supporting this hypothesis, we describe two individuals with novel variants of FOXP1 (NM_032682.5:c.975-2A>C and NM_032682.5:c.1574G>A) and additional features. One had a lung disease resembling neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI), and the second had a skeletal disorder with undertubulation of the long bones and relapsing-remitting fevers associated with flushing and edema. Although attribution of these traits to mutation of FOXP1 requires ascertainment of additional patients, we hypothesize that the variable expression of these additional features might arise by means of stochastic developmental variation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 152(3): 117-121, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854430

RESUMO

A 41-year-old Asian woman with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AML) was incidentally identified to have a balanced translocation, 46,XX,t(11;12)(p15.4;q15). She had no other features or family history to suggest a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Her healthy daughter had the same translocation and no renal AML at the age of 3 years. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on genomic maternal DNA isolated from blood. A targeted de novo assembly was then conducted with ABySS for chromosomes 11 and 12. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the translocation breakpoints. As a result, genomic characterization of chromosomes 11 and 12 revealed that the 11p breakpoint disrupted the NUP98 gene in intron 1, causing a separation of the promoter and transcription start site from the rest of the gene. The translocation breakpoint on chromosome 12q was located in a gene desert. NUP98 has not yet been associated with renal AML pathogenesis, but somatic NUP98 alterations are recurrently implicated in hematological malignancies, most often following a gene fusion event. We also found evidence for complex structural events involving chromosome 12, which appear to disrupt the TDG gene. We identified a TDGP1 partially processed pseudogene at 12p12.1, which adds complexity to the de novo assembly. In conclusion, this is the first report of a germline constitutional structural chromosome rearrangement disrupting NUP98 that occurred in a generally healthy woman with bilateral renal AML.


Assuntos
Angiomiolipoma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Amniocentese , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pseudogenes , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 65-74, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669405

RESUMO

KCNQ5 is a highly conserved gene encoding an important channel for neuronal function; it is widely expressed in the brain and generates M-type current. Exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous missense mutations in four probands with intellectual disability, abnormal neurological findings, and treatment-resistant epilepsy (in two of four). Comprehensive analysis of this potassium channel for the four variants expressed in frog oocytes revealed shifts in the voltage dependence of activation, including altered activation and deactivation kinetics. Specifically, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ5 mutations, associated with increased excitability and decreased repolarization reserve, lead to pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Mutação/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/química , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Clin Med Insights Cardiol ; 11: 1179546817698134, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28469493

RESUMO

Cardiac ion channelopathies are an important cause of sudden death in the young and include long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, and short QT syndrome. Genes that encode ion channels have been implicated in all of these conditions, leading to the widespread implementation of genetic testing for suspected channelopathies. Over the past half-century, researchers have also identified systemic pathologies that extend beyond the arrhythmic phenotype in patients with ion channel gene mutations, including deafness, epilepsy, cardiomyopathy, periodic paralysis, and congenital heart disease. A coexisting phenotype, such as cardiomyopathy, can influence evaluation and management. However, prior to recent molecular advances, our understanding and recognition of these overlapping phenotypes were poor. This review highlights the systemic and structural heart manifestations of the cardiac ion channelopathies, including their phenotypic spectrum and molecular basis.

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