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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: JARID2, located on chromosome 6p22.3, is a regulator of histone methyltransferase complexes that is expressed in human neurons. So far, 13 individuals sharing clinical features including intellectual disability (ID) were reported with de novo heterozygous deletions in 6p22-p24 encompassing the full length JARID2 gene (OMIM 601594). However, all published individuals to date have a deletion of at least one other adjoining gene, making it difficult to determine if JARID2 is the critical gene responsible for the shared features. We aim to confirm JARID2 as a human disease gene and further elucidate the associated clinical phenotype. METHODS: Chromosome microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and an online matching platform (GeneMatcher) were used to identify individuals with single-nucleotide variants or deletions involving JARID2. RESULTS: We report 16 individuals in 15 families with a deletion or single-nucleotide variant in JARID2. Several of these variants are likely to result in haploinsufficiency due to nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay. All individuals have developmental delay and/or ID and share some overlapping clinical characteristics such as facial features with those who have larger deletions involving JARID2. CONCLUSION: We report that JARID2 haploinsufficiency leads to a clinically distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome, thus establishing gene-disease validity for the purpose of diagnostic reporting.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 104024, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical diagnostic genome-wide (exome or genome) sequencing (GWS) in British Columbia requires funding approval by a provincial agency on a case-by-case basis. The CAUSES Clinic was a pediatric translational trio-based GWS study at BC Children's and Women's Hospitals. Referrals to the CAUSES Clinic were made through a Genomic Consultation Service (GCS), a multidisciplinary team led by genetic counsellors that provided advice regarding genomic testing for physicians considering GWS for their patients. Here we review the outcomes of the GCS, focusing on patients not recommended for the CAUSES Study. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and testing data were abstracted from patient charts. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations between demographic and clinical variables and two outcomes: the type of recommendation and referring physicians' decisions to follow the recommendation. RESULTS: Of 972 GCS referrals, 248 patients were not referred to the CAUSES Study. GWS (vs. a targeted test; e.g. multi-gene panel) was more likely to be recommended to physicians of patients with ID than physicians of patients without ID (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.46 to 6.27; n = 149). In total, 40% of physicians who were recommended to pursue clinical genomic testing submitted an application for funding approval; 71% of applications were approved for funding. Among approved tests, 50% resulted in a diagnosis, including 33% of targeted tests and 82% of GWS tests (χ2 (1) = 5.0, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The GCS provided an effective model in which physicians can interface with genetic specialists, including genetic counsellors, to facilitate appropriate genomic test selection.

3.
Mitochondrion ; 53: 194-202, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502631

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest that decreased vascular mitochondrial DNA copy number can promote hypertension. We conducted a chart review of blood pressure and hemodynamics in patients with either mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS, n = 36) or individuals with variants in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG, n = 26). The latter included both pathogenic variants and variants of unknown significance (VUS). Hypertension rates (MELAS 50%, POLG 50%) were elevated relative to Canadian norms in 20-39 (MELAS) and 40-59 (MELAS and POLG) years of age groups. Peripheral resistance was high in the hypertensive versus normotensive patients, potentially indicative of microvascular disease. Despite antihypertensive treatment, systolic blood pressure remained elevated in the POLG versus MELAS group. The risk of hypertension was not associated with MELAS heteroplasmy. Hypertension rates were not different between individuals with known pathogenic POLG variants and those with VUS, including common variants. Hypertension (HT) also did not differ between patients with POLG variants with (n = 17) and without chronic progressive external opthalmoplegia (n = 9) (CPEO). HT was associated with variants in all three functional domains of POLG. These findings suggest that both pathogenic variants and several VUS in the POLG gene may promote human hypertension and extend our past reports that increased risk of HT is associated with MELAS.

4.
Clin Genet ; 98(2): 126-137, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378186

RESUMO

Congenital uterine anomalies (CUA) may have major impacts on the health and social well-being of affected individuals. Their expressivity is variable, with the most severe end of the spectrum being the absence of any fully or unilaterally developed uterus (aplastic uterus), which is a major feature in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH). So far, etiologies of CUA remain largely unknown. As reports of familial occurrences argue for strong genetic contributors in some cases, we performed whole exome sequencing in nine multiplex families with recurrence of uterine and kidney malformations, a condition called hereditary urogenital adysplasia. Heterozygous likely causative variants in the gene GREB1L were identified in four of these families, confirming GREB1L as an important gene for proper uterine and kidney development. The apparent mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance. The four families included fetuses with uterovaginal aplasia and bilateral renal agenesis, highlighting the importance to investigate GREB1L in such phenotypes. Subsequent sequencing of the gene in a cohort of 68 individuals with MRKH syndrome or uterine malformation (mostly sporadic cases) identified six additional variants of unknown significance. We therefore conclude that heterozygous GREB1L variants contribute to MRKH syndrome and this probably requires additional genetic or environmental factors for full penetrance.

5.
Genet Med ; 22(7): 1215-1226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Somatic variants in tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7) cause meningioma, while germline variants have recently been identified in seven patients with developmental delay and cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies. We aimed to define the clinical and mutational spectrum associated with TRAF7 germline variants in a large series of patients, and to determine the molecular effects of the variants through transcriptomic analysis of patient fibroblasts. METHODS: We performed exome, targeted capture, and Sanger sequencing of patients with undiagnosed developmental disorders, in multiple independent diagnostic or research centers. Phenotypic and mutational comparisons were facilitated through data exchange platforms. Whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed on RNA from patient- and control-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous missense variants in TRAF7 as the cause of a developmental delay-malformation syndrome in 45 patients. Major features include a recognizable facial gestalt (characterized in particular by blepharophimosis), short neck, pectus carinatum, digital deviations, and patent ductus arteriosus. Almost all variants occur in the WD40 repeats and most are recurrent. Several differentially expressed genes were identified in patient fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: We provide the first large-scale analysis of the clinical and mutational spectrum associated with the TRAF7 developmental syndrome, and we shed light on its molecular etiology through transcriptome studies.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(6): 770-782, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005960

RESUMO

TBR1, a T-box transcription factor expressed in the cerebral cortex, regulates the expression of several candidate genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although TBR1 has been reported as a high-confidence risk gene for ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in functional and clinical reports since 2011, TBR1 has only recently been recorded as a human disease gene in the OMIM database. Currently, the neurodevelopmental disorders and structural brain anomalies associated with TBR1 variants are not well characterized. Through international data sharing, we collected data from 25 unreported individuals and compared them with data from the literature. We evaluated structural brain anomalies in seven individuals by analysis of MRI images, and compared these with anomalies observed in TBR1 mutant mice. The phenotype included ID in all individuals, associated to autistic traits in 76% of them. No recognizable facial phenotype could be identified. MRI analysis revealed a reduction of the anterior commissure and suggested new features including dysplastic hippocampus and subtle neocortical dysgenesis. This report supports the role of TBR1 in ID associated with autistic traits and suggests new structural brain malformations in humans. We hope this work will help geneticists to interpret TBR1 variants and diagnose ASD probands.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 143-152, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032513

RESUMO

Advances in genomics have transformed our ability to identify the genetic causes of rare diseases (RDs), yet we have a limited understanding of the mechanistic roles of most genes in health and disease. When a novel RD gene is first discovered, there is minimal insight into its biological function, the pathogenic mechanisms of disease-causing variants, and how therapy might be approached. To address this gap, the Canadian Rare Diseases Models and Mechanisms (RDMM) Network was established to connect clinicians discovering new disease genes with Canadian scientists able to study equivalent genes and pathways in model organisms (MOs). The Network is built around a registry of more than 500 Canadian MO scientists, representing expertise for over 7,500 human genes. RDMM uses a committee process to identify and evaluate clinician-MO scientist collaborations and approve 25,000 Canadian dollars in catalyst funding. To date, we have made 85 clinician-MO scientist connections and funded 105 projects. These collaborations help confirm variant pathogenicity and unravel the molecular mechanisms of RD, and also test novel therapies and lead to long-term collaborations. To expand the impact and reach of this model, we made the RDMM Registry open-source, portable, and customizable, and we freely share our committee structures and processes. We are currently working with emerging networks in Europe, Australia, and Japan to link international RDMM networks and registries and enable matches across borders. We will continue to create meaningful collaborations, generate knowledge, and advance RD research locally and globally for the benefit of patients and families living with RD.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/terapia , Sistema de Registros/normas , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840929

RESUMO

Renpenning syndrome (OMIM: 309500) is a rare X-linked disorder that causes intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, a variety of eye anomalies, and characteristic craniofacial features. This condition results from pathogenic variation of PQBP1, a polyglutamine-binding protein involved in transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. Renpenning syndrome has only been reported in affected males. Carrier females do not usually have clinical features, and in reported families with Renpenning syndrome, most female carriers exhibit favorable skewing of X-chromosome inactivation. We describe a female with syndromic features typical of Renpenning syndrome. She was identified by exome sequencing to have a de novo heterozygous c.459_462delAGAG mutation in PQBP1 (Xp11.23), affecting the AG hexamer in exon 4, which is the most common causative mutation in this syndrome. Streaky hypopigmentation of the skin was observed, supporting a hypothesized presence of an actively expressed, PQBP1 mutation-bearing X-chromosome in some cells. X-inactivation studies on peripheral blood cells demonstrated complete skewing in both the proband and her mother with preferential inactivation of the maternal X chromosome in the child. We demonstrated expression of the PQBP1 mutant transcript in leukocytes of the affected girl. Therefore, it is highly likely that the PQBP1 mutation arose from the paternal X chromosome.

9.
Pediatr Neurol ; 100: 87-91, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intellectual disability (ID) results from a heterogeneous group of disorders and affects 1% to 2% of children. ID frequently occurs in association with other clinical features such as seizures or malformations. We suspected that strabismus might also be unusually frequent in this population and that it might be associated with ID groups affecting motor control. METHODS: We reviewed phenotypic descriptors, extracted from medical records, for a heterogeneous series of 222 probands with ID who had been enrolled in a study of clinical application of exome sequencing. We estimated the frequency of strabismus and other common clinical features and explored statistical associations between them. Data from Population Data British Columbia and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man were also examined for confirmation of our observations. RESULTS: Strabismus had a higher prevalence among probands with ID than in the general population (odds ratio = 5.46). Moreover, probands with both ID and strabismus were more likely to have problems affecting motor control than those with ID and no strabismus (odds ratio = 2.84). Hypotonia was one of the most common motor control subgroups affecting the ID probands, and a frequent co-occurrence of strabismus and hypotonia was also observed (odds ratio = 2.51) and supported by related gene literature review. There was no evidence for associations between strabismus and other frequent clinical features. CONCLUSION: Strabismus is a frequent feature in individuals with ID. The frequent co-occurrence of strabismus and motor control phenotypes, in particular hypotonia, suggests that a common cerebellar mechanism or pathway may underlie these phenotypes.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HeLa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/enzimologia , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(8): 1207-1218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172278

RESUMO

Genetic disorders are one of the leading causes of infant mortality and are frequent in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Rapid genome-wide sequencing (GWS; whole genome or exome sequencing (ES)), due to its diagnostic capabilities and immediate impacts on medical management, is becoming an appealing testing option in the NICU setting. RAPIDOMICS was a trio-based rapid ES pilot study of 25 babies with suspected genetic disorders in the BC Women's Hospital NICU. ES and bioinformatic analysis were performed after careful patient ascertainment. Trio analysis was performed using an in-house pipeline reporting variants in known disease-causing genes. Variants interpreted by the research team as definitely or possibly causal of the infant's phenotype were Sanger validated in a clinical laboratory. The average time to preliminary diagnosis was 7.2 days. Sanger validation was pursued in 15 patients for 13 autosomal dominant and 2 autosomal recessive disorders, with an overall diagnostic rate (partial or complete) of 60%.Conclusion: In total, 72% of patients enrolled had a genomic diagnosis achieved through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis. Among these, there was an 83% rate of significant and immediate impact on medical decision-making directly related to new knowledge of the diagnosis. Health service implementation challenges and successes are discussed. What is Known: • Rapid genome-wide sequencing in the neonatal intensive care setting has a greater diagnostic hit rate and impact on medical management than conventional genetic testing. However, the impact of consultation with genetics and patient ascertainment requires further investigation. What is New: • This study demonstrates the importance of genetic consultation and careful patient selection prior to pursuing exome sequencing (ES). • In total, 15/25 (60%) patients achieved a diagnosis through ES and 18/25 (72%) through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis with 83% of those having immediate effects on medical management.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos Piloto
13.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 202-212, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938469

RESUMO

Increased application of next generation sequencing has led to the discovery of a multitude of new neurodevelopmental syndromes, contributing to an increased diagnostic rate for exome sequencing from 25% originally to 40% currently. Owing to the recent recognition of these syndromes, as well as the types of large-scale studies (with limited phenotype information) often making these discoveries, these disorders may be poorly characterized clinically. As a result there is very limited information and disorder-specific support available to patients and families. We used a qualitative approach to explore how families experience a diagnosis of a new syndrome. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with parents and adult siblings of children who received a diagnosis of a new syndrome after whole exome sequencing (WES) performed through a translational research study. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Analysis of the 12 interviews revealed that a lack of information about the child's condition continues to play a large role in these families' experiences even after diagnosis. Almost all (92%) participants expressed ongoing uncertainty about their child's health and future. Most (83%) participants were interested in identifying other families with the same syndrome, which was related to both social support and seeking of information. Interestingly, 33% of participants worried about the child's risk for cancer due to their syndrome. Our results highlight some of the needs of families of children with new syndromes, and emphasize important issues care providers should address in pre- and post-test genetic counseling for WES and whole genome sequencing.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Família/psicologia , Aconselhamento Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apoio Social , Síndrome , Incerteza , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Homologia de Sequência , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurol Genet ; 5(1): e305, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842973

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical, radiologic, and molecular analysis of patients with genomic deletions upstream of the LMNB1 gene. Methods: Detailed neurologic, MRI examinations, custom array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, and expression analysis were performed in patients at different clinical centers. All procedures were approved by institutional review boards of the respective institutions. Results: Five patients from 3 independent families presented at ages ranging from 32 to 52 years with neurologic symptoms that included progressive hypophonia, upper and lower limb weakness and spasticity, and cerebellar dysfunction and MRIs characterized by widespread white matter alterations. Patients had unique nonrecurrent deletions upstream of the LMNB1, varying in size from 250 kb to 670 kb. Deletion junctions were embedded in repetitive elements. Expression analysis revealed increased LMNB1 expression in patient cells. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed the association between LMNB1 upstream deletions and leukodystrophy previously reported in a single family, expanding the phenotypic and molecular description of this condition. Although clinical and radiologic features overlapped with those of autosomal dominant leukodystrophy because of LMNB1 duplications, patients with deletions upstream of LMNB1 had an earlier age at symptom onset, lacked early dysautonomia, and appeared to have lesser involvement of the cerebellum and sparing of the spinal cord diameter on MRI. aCGH analysis defined a smaller minimal critical region required for disease causation and revealed that deletions occur at repetitive DNA genomic elements. Search for LMNB1 structural variants (duplications and upstream deletions) should be an integral part of the investigation of patients with autosomal dominant adult-onset leukodystrophy.

16.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568043

RESUMO

Sialic acids are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids essential for cellular communication, infection, and metastasis. The importance of sialic acid biosynthesis in human physiology is well illustrated by the severe metabolic disorders in this pathway. However, the biological role of sialic acid catabolism in humans remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that sialic acid catabolism is important for heart and skeletal muscle function and development in humans and zebrafish. In two siblings, presenting with sialuria, exercise intolerance/muscle wasting, and cardiac symptoms in the brother, compound heterozygous mutations [chr1:182775324C>T (c.187C>T; p.Arg63Cys) and chr1:182772897A>G (c.133A>G; p.Asn45Asp)] were found in the N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase gene (NPL). In vitro, NPL activity and sialic acid catabolism were affected, with a cell-type-specific reduction of N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc). A knockdown of NPL in zebrafish resulted in severe skeletal myopathy and cardiac edema, mimicking the human phenotype. The phenotype was rescued by expression of wild-type human NPL but not by the p.Arg63Cys or p.Asn45Asp mutants. Importantly, the myopathy phenotype in zebrafish embryos was rescued by treatment with the catabolic products of NPL: N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) and ManNAc; the latter also rescuing the cardiac phenotype. In conclusion, we provide the first report to our knowledge of a human defect in sialic acid catabolism, which implicates an important role of the sialic acid catabolic pathway in mammalian muscle physiology, and suggests opportunities for monosaccharide replacement therapy in human patients.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/genética , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema Cardíaco/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/uso terapêutico , Doença do Armazenamento de Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
17.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
18.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 27(4): 116-121, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912011

RESUMO

We report on a family with three siblings, male and female, affected by congenital bilateral limitation of vocal cord abduction, with the additional finding of clubfeet in two. The paternal family history suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. The siblings and father also have mild craniofacial features, which may be an expression of variability or may be unrelated. The association between congenital vocal cord paralysis and clubfeet has been reported with additional major features or in the context of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, the two in isolation have only been reported in one other family previously. Genomic analyses of the family, including chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing, showed neither a likely pathogenic variant in a known disease gene nor a compelling candidate gene variant. We propose that the association of these two findings constitutes a novel recognizable phenotype, for which a genetic cause remains undetermined.


Assuntos
Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pé Torto Equinovaro/etiologia , Pé Torto Equinovaro/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/genética , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to clinical diagnostic genome-wide sequencing (GWS; exome or whole genome sequencing) is limited in British Columbia. The establishment of a translational research initiative (CAUSES) to provide diagnostic genome-wide sequencing for 500 children necessitated the development of a genomic consultation service, a clinical service established to provide consultation for physicians considering GWS for their pediatric patients throughout British Columbia. The Genomic Consultation Service provides patient-specific genomic advice that may include: GWS, multi-gene panel, single gene test, referral to medical genetics for clinical evaluation, or no genetic testing. Here, we describe and evaluate this service. METHODS: We analyzed referral patterns, patient demographics, clinical indications, and genomic advice provided during the first year of this service. Comparison of outcomes from the first 6 months versus the last 6 months was performed. RESULTS: A total of 407 referrals (238 males and 169 females [p = .0006]) were processed in the first year. Only children were eligible for referral and average patient age was 8 years. Medical genetics was the most frequent referring discipline, followed by biochemical disease and pediatric neurology, respectively. Most patients (68%) had syndromic intellectual disability. There was a significant difference in the frequency of referrals not appropriate for GWS in the first versus the second 6 months of the service (75/220 vs. 42/187; p = .01) suggesting increasing awareness of testing criteria by referring physicians. CONCLUSION: This triage service is utilized throughout the province and appears to be an important factor in the high diagnostic rate (>40%) achieved in our GWS program.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 1014-1023, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688601

RESUMO

The role of disturbed chromatin remodeling in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability (ID) is well established and illustrated by de novo mutations found in a plethora of genes encoding for proteins of the epigenetic regulatory machinery. We describe mutations in the "SET nuclear proto-oncogene" (SET), encoding a component of the "inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases" (INHAT) complex, involved in transcriptional silencing. Using whole exome sequencing, four patients were identified with de novo mutations in the SET gene. Additionally, an affected mother and child were detected who carried a frameshift variant in SET. Four patients were found in literature. The de novo mutations in patients affected all four known SET mRNA transcripts. LoF mutations in SET are exceedingly rare in the normal population and, if present, affect only one transcript. The pivotal role of SET in neurogenesis is evident from in vitro and animal models. SET interacts with numerous proteins involved in histone modification, including proteins encoded by known autosomal dominant ID genes, that is, EP300, CREBBP, SETBP1, KMT2A, RAC1, and CTCF. Our study identifies SET as a new component of epigenetic regulatory modules underlying human cognitive disorders, and as a first member of the Nucleosome Assembly Protein (NAP) family implicated in ID.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Chaperonas de Histonas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Exoma/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Proteína 1 de Modelagem do Nucleossomo/genética
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