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1.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 435, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709205

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation currently remains the only curative treatment of primary forms of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Rapid diagnosis, efficient primary treatment of hyperinflammation, and conditioning regimens tailored to this demanding condition have substantially improved prognosis in the past 40 years. However, refractory hyperinflammation, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, unavailability of matched donors, susceptibility to conditioning-related toxicities, and a high frequency of mixed chimaerism remain a challenge in a substantial proportion of patients. Gene therapeutic approaches for several genetic defects of primary HLH are being developed at pre-clinical and translational levels.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108316, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770611

RESUMO

Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been linked to poly-autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Here we studied the impact of 17 different STAT3 GOF mutations on the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway and correlated the molecular results with clinical manifestations. The mutations clustered in three groups. Group 1 mutants showed altered STAT3 phosphorylation kinetics and strong basal transcriptional activity. They were associated with the highest penetrance of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Group 2 mutants showed a strongly inducible transcriptional reporter activity and were clinically less penetrant. Group 3 mutants were mostly located in the DNA binding domain and showed the strongest DNA binding affinity despite a poor transcriptional reporter response. Thus, the GOF effect of STAT3 mutations is determined by a heterogeneous response pattern at the molecular level. The correlation of response pattern and clinical penetrance indicates a significant contribution of mutation-determined effects on disease manifestations.

6.
Cancer ; 125(6): 963-971, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the presence of abnormal CD1a-positive (CD1a+ )/CD207+ histiocytes. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a spectrum of hyperinflammatory syndromes typified by the dysregulated activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Patients with LCH, particularly those with multisystem (MS) involvement, can develop severe hyperinflammation mimicking that observed in HLH. Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the prevalence, timing, risk factors for development, and outcomes of children and young adults who develop HLH within the context of MS-LCH (hereafter referred to LCH-associated HLH). METHODS: To gain further insights, the authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter study and collected data regarding all patients diagnosed with MS-LCH between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: Of 384 patients with MS-LCH, 32 were reported by their primary providers to have met the diagnostic criteria for HLH, yielding an estimated 2-year cumulative incidence of 9.3% ± 1.6%. The majority of patients developed HLH at or after the diagnosis of MS-LCH, and nearly one-third (31%) had evidence of an intercurrent infection. Patient age <2 years at the time of diagnosis of LCH; female sex; LCH involvement of the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system; and a lack of bone involvement each were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of LCH-associated HLH. Patients with MS-LCH who met the criteria for HLH had significantly poorer 5-year survival compared with patients with MS-LCH who did not meet the criteria for HLH (69% vs 97%; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Given its inferior prognosis, further efforts are warranted to enhance the recognition and optimize the treatment of patients with LCH-associated HLH.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1508-1517, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201097

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome requiring aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. Following 2 large international studies mainly targeting pediatric patients with familial disease and patients without underlying chronic or malignant disease, the HLH-94 protocol is recommended as the standard of care when using etoposide-based therapy by the Histiocyte Society. However, in clinical practice, etoposide-based therapy has been widely used beyond the study inclusion criteria, including older patients and patients with underlying diseases (secondary HLH). Many questions remain around these extended indications and published reports do not address several practical issues. To tackle these concerns, the HLH Steering Committee of the Histiocyte Society decided to issue guidance for use of the HLH-94 protocol. The group convened in a structured consensus finding process to define recommendations that are based largely on expert opinion backed up by available data from the literature. The recommendations address all main elements of HLH-94 including corticosteroids, cyclosporin, etoposide, intrathecal therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and consider various forms of HLH and all age groups. Aspects covered include indications, applications, dosing, side effects, duration of therapy, salvage therapy, and HSCT. These recommendations aim to provide a framework to guide treatment decisions in this severe disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Histiócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Consenso , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Sociedades Médicas
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(11): e27344, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070073

RESUMO

In this report, we evaluate the hypothesis that hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in patients with defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity is usually triggered by infections. We show that in the majority of patients, extensive virus PCR panels performed in addition to routine microbiological investigations remain negative and summarize 25 patients with onset of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in utero or within the first 10 days of life, in none of which an associated bacterial or viral infection was reported. These observations, even though preliminary, invite to consider a key role of lymphocyte cytotoxicity in controlling T-cell homeostasis also in the absence of apparent infectious stimuli.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Blood ; 132(19): 2088-2096, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104219

RESUMO

Asymptomatic carriers (ACs) of pathogenic biallelic mutations in causative genes for primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are at high risk of developing life-threatening HLH, which requires allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to be cured. There are no guidelines on the management of these asymptomatic patients. We analyzed the outcomes of pairs of index cases (ICs) and subsequently diagnosed asymptomatic family members carrying the same genetic defect. We collected data from 22 HSCT centers worldwide. Sixty-four children were evaluable. ICs presented with HLH at a median age of 16 months. Seven of 32 ICs died during first-line therapy, and 2 are alive after chemotherapy only. In all, 23/32 underwent HSCT, and 16 of them are alive. At a median follow-up of 36 months from diagnosis, 18/32 ICs are alive. Median age of ACs at diagnosis was 5 months. Ten of 32 ACs activated HLH while being observed, and all underwent HSCT: 6/10 are alive and in complete remission (CR). 22/32 ACs remained asymptomatic, and 6/22 have received no treatment and are in CR at a median follow-up of 39 months. Sixteen of 22 underwent preemptive HSCT: 15/16 are alive and in CR. Eight-year probability of overall survival (pOS) in ACs who did not have activated HLH was significantly higher than that in ICs (95% vs 45%; P = .02), and pOS in ACs receiving HSCT before disease activation was significantly higher than in ACs receiving HSCT after HLH activation (93% vs 64%; P = .03). Preemptive HSCT in ACs proved to be safe and should be considered.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(6): 1956-1967.e6, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monogenic autoinflammatory disorders are characterized by dysregulation of the innate immune system, for example by gain-of-function mutations in inflammasome-forming proteins, such as NOD-like receptor family CARD-containing 4 protein (NLRC4). OBJECTIVE: Here we investigate the mechanism by which a novel mutation in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of NLRC4 (c.G1965C, p.W655C) contributes to autoinflammatory disease. METHODS: We studied 2 unrelated patients with early-onset macrophage activation syndrome harboring the same de novo mutation in NLRC4. In vitro inflammasome complex formation was quantified by using flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) specks. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 techniques and lentiviral transduction were used to generate THP-1 cells with either wild-type or mutant NLRC4 cDNA. Cell death and release of IL-1ß/IL-18 were quantified by using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The p.W655C NLRC4 mutation caused increased ASC speck formation, caspase-1-dependent cell death, and IL-1ß/IL-18 production. ASC contributed to p.W655C NLRC4-mediated cytokine release but not cell death. Mutation of p.W655 activated the NLRC4 inflammasome complex by engaging with 2 interfaces on the opposing LRR domain of the oligomer. One key set of residues (p.D1010, p.D1011, p.L1012, and p.I1015) participated in LRR-LRR oligomerization when triggered by mutant NLRC4 or type 3 secretion system effector (PrgI) stimulation of the NLRC4 inflammasome complex. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a mutation in the LRR domain of NLRC4 causing autoinflammatory disease. c.G1965C/p.W655C NLRC4 increased inflammasome activation in vitro. Data generated from various NLRC4 mutations provides evidence that the LRR-LRR interface has an important and previously unrecognized role in oligomerization of the NLRC4 inflammasome complex.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Inflamassomos/genética , Leucina , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamassomos/química , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Células THP-1
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 904-913.e3, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the perforin 1 (PRF1) gene account for up to 58% of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndromes. The resulting defects in effector cell cytotoxicity lead to hypercytokinemia and hyperactivation with inflammation in various organs. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether autologous gene-corrected T cells can restore cytotoxic function, reduce disease activity, and prevent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) symptoms in in vivo models. METHODS: We developed a gammaretroviral vector to transduce murine CD8 T cells in the Prf-/- mouse model. To verify functional correction of Prf-/- CD8 T cells in vivo, we used a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) epitope-transfected murine lung carcinoma cell tumor model. Furthermore, we challenged gene-corrected and uncorrected mice with LCMV. One patient sample was transduced with a PRF1-encoding lentiviral vector to study restoration of cytotoxicity in human cells. RESULTS: We demonstrated efficient engraftment and functional reconstitution of cytotoxicity after intravenous administration of gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells into Prf-/- mice. In the tumor model infusion of Prf-/- gene-corrected CD8 T cells eliminated the tumor as efficiently as transplantation of wild-type CD8 T cells. Similarly, mice reconstituted with gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells displayed complete protection from the HLH phenotype after infection with LCMV. Patients' cells showed correction of cytotoxicity in human CD8 T cells after transduction. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the potential application of T-cell gene therapy in reconstituting cytotoxic function and protection against HLH in the setting of perforin deficiency.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/terapia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Perforina/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 770-780, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936583

RESUMO

We report our experience in using flow cytometry-based immunological screening prospectively as a decision tool for the use of genetic studies in the diagnostic approach to patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We restricted genetic analysis largely to patients with abnormal immunological screening, but included whole exome sequencing (WES) for those with normal findings upon Sanger sequencing. Among 290 children with suspected HLH analyzed between 2010 and 2014 (including 17 affected, but asymptomatic siblings), 87/162 patients with "full" HLH and 79/111 patients with "incomplete/atypical" HLH had normal immunological screening results. In 10 patients, degranulation could not be tested. Among the 166 patients with normal screening, genetic analysis was not performed in 107 (all with uneventful follow-up), while 154 single gene tests by Sanger sequencing in the remaining 59 patients only identified a single atypical CHS patient. Flow cytometry correctly predicted all 29 patients with FHL-2, XLP1 or 2. Among 85 patients with defective NK degranulation (including 13 asymptomatic siblings), 70 were Sanger sequenced resulting in a genetic diagnosis in 55 (79%). Eight patients underwent WES, revealing mutations in two known and one unknown cytotoxicity genes and one metabolic disease. FHL3 was the most frequent genetic diagnosis. Immunological screening provided an excellent decision tool for the need and depth of genetic analysis of HLH patients and provided functionally relevant information for rapid patient classification, contributing to a significant reduction in the time from diagnosis to transplantation in recent years.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Doenças Assintomáticas , Degranulação Celular , Criança , Citometria de Fluxo , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Transplante de Órgãos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Irmãos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Blood ; 130(25): 2728-2738, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935695

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome comprising familial/genetic HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH. In the HLH-94 study, with an estimated 5-year probability of survival (pSu) of 54% (95% confidence interval, 48%-60%), systemic therapy included etoposide, dexamethasone, and, from week 9, cyclosporine A (CSA). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was indicated in patients with familial/genetic, relapsing, or severe/persistent disease. In HLH-2004, CSA was instead administered upfront, aiming to reduce pre-HSCT mortality and morbidity. From 2004 to 2011, 369 children aged <18 years fulfilled HLH-2004 inclusion criteria (5 of 8 diagnostic criteria, affected siblings, and/or molecular diagnosis in FHL-causative genes). At median follow-up of 5.2 years, 230 of 369 patients (62%) were alive (5-year pSu, 61%; 56%-67%). Five-year pSu in children with (n = 168) and without (n = 201) family history/genetically verified FHL was 59% (52%-67%) and 64% (57%-71%), respectively (familial occurrence [n = 47], 58% [45%-75%]). Comparing with historical data (HLH-94), using HLH-94 inclusion criteria, pre-HSCT mortality was nonsignificantly reduced from 27% to 19% (P = .064 adjusted for age and sex). Time from start of therapy to HSCT was shorter compared with HLH-94 (P =020 adjusted for age and sex) and reported neurological alterations at HSCT were 22% in HLH-94 and 17% in HLH-2004 (using HLH-94 inclusion criteria). Five-year pSu post-HSCT overall was 66% (verified FHL, 70% [63%-78%]). Additional analyses provided specific suggestions on potential pre-HSCT treatment improvements. HLH-2004 confirms that a majority of patients may be rescued by the etoposide/dexamethasone combination but intensification with CSA upfront, adding corticosteroids to intrathecal therapy, and reduced time to HSCT did not improve outcome significantly.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Pediatr ; 189: 72-78.e3, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a diagnostic score that assists in discriminating primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pHLH) from macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) related to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features of 362 patients with MAS and 258 patients with pHLH were collected in a multinational collaborative study. Eighty percent of the population was assessed to develop the score and the remaining 20% constituted the validation sample. Variables that entered the best fitted model of logistic regression were assigned a score, based on their statistical weight. The MAS/HLH (MH) score was made up with the individual scores of selected variables. The cutoff in the MH score that discriminated pHLH from MAS best was calculated by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Score performance was examined in both developmental and validation samples. RESULTS: Six variables composed the MH score: age at onset, neutrophil count, fibrinogen, splenomegaly, platelet count, and hemoglobin. The MH score ranged from 0 to 123, and its median value was 97 (1st-3rd quartile 75-123) and 12 (1st-3rd quartile 11-34) in pHLH and MAS, respectively. The probability of a diagnosis of pHLH ranged from <1% for a score of <11 to >99% for a score of ≥123. A cutoff value of ≥60 revealed the best performance in discriminating pHLH from MAS. CONCLUSION: The MH score is a powerful tool that may aid practitioners to identify patients who are more likely to have pHLH and, thus, could be prioritized for functional and genetic testing.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 426, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458669

RESUMO

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in LYST, resulting in enlarged lysosomal compartments in multiple cell types. CHS patients display oculocutaneous albinism and may develop life-threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). While NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported to be uniformly defective, variable defects in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been observed. The latter has been linked to the degree of HLH susceptibility. Since the discrepancies in NK cell- and T cell-mediated cellular cytotoxicity might result from differences in regulation of cytotoxic granule release, we here evaluated perforin-containing secretory lysosome size and number in freshly isolated lymphocytes from CHS patients and furthermore compared their exocytic capacities. Whereas NK cells from CHS patients generally contained a single, gigantic perforin-containing granule, cytotoxic T cells predominantly contained several smaller granules. Nonetheless, in a cohort of 21 CHS patients, cytotoxic T cell and NK cell granule exocytosis were similarly impaired upon activating receptor stimulation. Mechanistically, polarization of cytotoxic granules was defective in cytotoxic lymphocytes from CHS patients, with EEA1, a marker of early endosomes, mislocalizing to lysosomal structures. The results leads to the conclusion that lysosome enlargement corresponds to loss of distinct organelle identity in the endocytic pathway, which on a subcellular level more adversely affects NK cells than T cells. Hence, vesicular size or numbers do not per se dictate the impairment of lysosomal exocytosis in the two cell types studied.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 281-296, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132690

RESUMO

EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with a complete absence of T cells was observed in three families. EXTL3 was most abundant in hematopoietic stem cells and early progenitor T cells, which is in line with a SCID phenotype at the level of early T cell development in the thymus. To provide further support for the hypothesis that mutations in EXTL3 cause a neuro-immuno-skeletal dysplasia syndrome, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, we analyzed the localization of EXTL3 in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and determined glycosaminoglycan concentrations in these cells as well as in urine and blood. We observed abnormal glycosaminoglycan concentrations and increased concentrations of the non-sulfated chondroitin disaccharide D0a0 and the disaccharide D0a4 in serum and urine of all analyzed affected individuals. In summary, we show that biallelic mutations in EXTL3 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and thus lead to a recognizable syndrome characterized by variable expression of skeletal, neurological, and immunological abnormalities.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Alelos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Condroitina/sangue , Condroitina/urina , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
18.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 221(1): 39-42, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383044

RESUMO

We report on 3 male neonates with hereditary ADAMTS13 deficiency (Upshaw Schulman syndrome, USS), the inherited form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). 2 presented shortly after birth with thrombocytopenia followed by microangiopathic Coombs-negative haemolytic anaemia. Both initially received antibiotic treatment for suspected infection-associated thrombocytopenia. In one patient's brother, the first bout of incipient TTP did not occur before 6 months of age, despite the same genetic defect. ADAMTS13 activity was<5%, compound heterozygous mutations were found in all patients. USS constitutes a differential diagnosis to thrombocytopenia caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation in neonatal septicaemia. Administration of fresh frozen plasma usually resolves acute bouts of the disease. In some cases of thrombocytopenia of unknown origin in infancy, the resolution of signs and symptoms after infusion of plasma may point towards the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/complicações , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/terapia , Plasma , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 47(2): 364-373, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925643

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening inflammatory syndrome characterized by hyperactivation of lymphocytes and histiocytes. T cells play a key role in HLH pathogenesis, but their differentiation pattern is not well characterized in patients with active HLH. We compared T-cell activation patterns between patients with familial HLH (1°HLH), 2°HLH without apparent infectious trigger (2°HLH) and 2°HLH induced by a viral infection (2°V-HLH). Polyclonal CD8+ T cells are highly activated in 1°HLH and 2°V-HLH, but less in 2°HLH as assessed by HLA-DR expression and marker combination with CD45RA, CCR7, CD127, PD-1 and CD57. Absence of increased HLA-DR expression on T cells excluded active 1° HLH with high sensitivity and specificity. A high proportion of polyclonal CD127- CD4+ T cells expressing HLA-DR, CD57, and perforin is a signature of infants with 1°HLH, much less prominent in virus-associated 2°HLH. The similar pattern and extent of CD8+ T-cell activation compared to 2° V-HLH is compatible with a viral trigger of 1°HLH. However, in most 1°HLH patients no triggering infection was documented and the unique activation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells indicates that the overall T-cell response in 1°HLH is different. This may reflect different pathways of pathogenesis of these two HLH variants.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Antígenos CD57/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Masculino , Perforina/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/diagnóstico
20.
Haematologica ; 102(2): e52-e56, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789675
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