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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 987-998, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904228

RESUMO

Primary amines are an important structural motif in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and intermediates thereof, as well as members of ligand libraries for either biological or catalytic applications. Many chemical methodologies exist for amine synthesis, but the direct synthesis of primary amines with a fully substituted α carbon center is an underdeveloped area. We report a method which utilizes photoredox catalysis to couple readily available O-benzoyl oximes with cyanoarenes to synthesize primary amines with fully substituted α-carbons. We also demonstrate that this method enables the synthesis of amines with α-trifluoromethyl functionality. Based on experimental and computational results, we propose a mechanism where the photocatalyst engages in concurrent tandem catalysis by reacting with the oxime as a triplet sensitizer in the first catalytic cycle and a reductant toward the cyanoarene in the second catalytic cycle to achieve the synthesis of hindered primary amines via heterocoupling of radicals from readily available oximes.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 468-478, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849221

RESUMO

Accessing hindered amines, particularly primary amines α to a fully substituted carbon center, is synthetically challenging. We report an electrochemical method to access such hindered amines starting from benchtop-stable iminium salts and cyanoheteroarenes. A wide variety of substituted heterocycles (pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, purine, azaindole) can be utilized in the cross-coupling reaction, including those substituted with a halide, trifluoromethyl, ester, amide, or ether group, a heterocycle, or an unprotected alcohol or alkyne. Mechanistic insight based on DFT data, as well as cyclic voltammetry and NMR spectroscopy, suggests that a proton-coupled electron-transfer mechanism is operational as part of a hetero-biradical cross-coupling of α-amino radicals and radicals derived from cyanoheteroarenes.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(42): 13843-13853, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244565

RESUMO

We report the use of LED-NMR spectroscopy to study the reaction mechanism of a newly discovered photoinduced iron-catalyzed cycloisomerization of alkynols to cyclic enol ethers. By understanding on/off ligand binding to the catalyst, we were able to appropriately design reaction conditions to balance catalyst activity and stability. LED-NMR was demonstrated to be a powerful tool in elucidating reaction mechanisms of photochemical reactions. Temporal NMR spectroscopic data under visible light illumination (1) revealed the pre-catalyst activation mechanism, (2) proved that photon flux provides a unique external control of the equilibrium distribution between the pre-catalyst and active catalyst, and ultimately the rate of reaction, (3) provided information about the reaction driving forces and the turnover-limiting step, and (4) enabled both real-time structural and kinetic insights into elusive species (e.g., dissolved gases).

4.
Acc Chem Res ; 50(11): 2776-2788, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112367

RESUMO

Aromatic compounds and polymers are integrated into organic field effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and redox-flow batteries. These compounds and materials feature increasingly complex designs, and substituents influence energy levels, bandgaps, solution conformation, and crystal packing, all of which impact performance. However, many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of interest are difficult to prepare because their substitution patterns lie outside the scope of current synthetic methods, as strategies for functionalizing benzene are often unselective when applied to naphthalene or larger systems. For example, cross-coupling and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions rely on prefunctionalized arenes, and even directed metalation methods most often modify positions near Lewis basic sites. Similarly, electrophilic aromatic substitutions access single regioisomers under substrate control. Cycloadditions provide a convergent route to densely functionalized aromatic compounds that compliment the above methods. After surveying cycloaddition reactions that might be used to modify the conjugated backbone of poly(phenylene ethynylene)s, we discovered that the Asao-Yamamoto benzannulation reaction is notably efficient. Although this reaction had been reported a decade earlier, its scope and usefulness for synthesizing complex aromatic systems had been under-recognized. This benzannulation reaction combines substituted 2-(phenylethynyl)benzaldehydes and substituted alkynes to form 2,3-substituted naphthalenes. The reaction tolerates a variety of sterically congested alkynes, making it well-suited for accessing poly- and oligo(ortho-arylene)s and contorted hexabenzocoronenes. In many cases in which asymmetric benzaldehyde and alkyne cycloaddition partners are used, the reaction is regiospecific based on the electronic character of the alkyne substrate. Recognizing these desirable features, we broadened the substrate scope to include silyl- and halogen-substituted alkynes. Through a combined experimental and computational approach, we have elucidated mechanistic insight and key principles that govern the regioselectivity outcome of the benzannulation of structurally diverse alkynes. We have applied these methods to prepare sterically hindered, shape-persistent aromatic systems, heterocyclic aromatic compounds, functionalized 2-aryne precursors, polyheterohalogenated naphthalenes, ortho-arylene foldamers, and graphene nanoribbons. As a result of these new synthetic avenues, aromatic structures with interesting properties were uncovered such as ambipolar charge transport in field effect transistors based on our graphene nanoribbons, conformational aspects of ortho-arylene architectures resulting from intramolecular π-stacking, and modulation of frontier molecular orbitals via protonation of heteroatom containing aromatic systems. Given the availability of many substituted 2-(phenylethynyl)benzaldehydes and the regioselectivity of the benzannulation reaction, naphthalenes can be prepared with control of the substitution pattern at seven of the eight substitutable positions. Researchers in a range of fields are likely to benefit directly from newly accessible molecular and polymeric systems derived from polyfunctionalized naphthalenes.

5.
Chem Sci ; 8(8): 5675-5681, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989606

RESUMO

Aryne intermediates are versatile and important reactive intermediates for natural product and polymer synthesis. 2-Naphthynes are relatively unexplored because few methods provide precursors to these intermediates, especially for those bearing additional substituents. Here we report a general synthetic strategy to access 2-naphthyne precursors through an Asao-Yamamoto benzannulation of ortho-(phenylethynyl)benzaldehydes with halo-silylalkynes. This transformation provides 2-halo-3-silylnaphthalenes with complete regioselectivity. These naphthalene products undergo desilylation/dehalogenation in the presence of F- to generate the corresponding 2-naphthyne intermediate, as evidenced by furan trapping experiments. When these 2-naphthynes are generated in the presence of a copper catalyst, ortho-naphthalene oligomers, trinaphthalene, or binaphthalene products are formed selectively by varying the catalyst loading and reaction temperature. The efficiency, mild conditions, and versatility of the naphthalene products and naphthyne intermediates will provide efficient access to many new functional aromatic systems.

6.
J Org Chem ; 82(4): 2004-2010, 2017 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103020

RESUMO

Functionalized diazatetracenes are prepared using a new two-step sequence. The use of a dichlorobenzaldehyde in a Cu-catalyzed benzannulation of acetylenes provides functionalized dichloronaphthalenes that afford diazatetracenes using Buchwald-Hartwig aminations. This approach provides unique substitution patterns and rapid access to covalently linked dimeric diazatetracenes. Their electronic properties are characterized by UV-vis absorption/emission and cyclic voltammetry, revealing strong effects from both external stimuli by acid and internal substituent effects.

7.
Chemistry ; 23(25): 6111-6117, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786375

RESUMO

Two new 6,13-disubstituted pentacene derivatives, 1 c and 1 d, with alkyl and triisopropylsilylethynyl substitution have been synthesized and characterized experimentally and computationally. The alkyl substituted 1 c and 1 d represent the first 6-alkyl-substituted pentacene derivative where the fully aromatic species dominates over the corresponding tautomer. Indeed, no tautomerization product is found for either 1 c or 1 d upon heating or in the presence of catalytic amounts of acid. On the other hand, an unexpected dimer (3 c) is formed from 1 c. A plausible mechanism for this new dimerization process of the 6-methyl-substituted pentacene derivative 1 c is proposed, which involves first a bimolecular hydrogen atom transfer followed by an intramolecular [4+2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition. In the case of 6-butyl substitution, neither tautomerization nor dimerization is observed. Computations support the proposed 1 c dehydrodimerization pathway, explain why 1 d does not dimerize, and show the importance of the nature of the group at C-13 in controlling the relative stability of 6-alkyl-substituted pentacene tautomers.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(41): 13525-13528, 2016 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704810

RESUMO

We describe the rational design of a linked, bis-thiourea catalyst with enhanced activity relative to monomeric analogues in a representative enantioselective anion-abstraction reaction. Mechanistic insights guide development of this linking strategy to favor substrate activation though the intramolecular cooperation of two thiourea subunits while avoiding nonproductive aggregation. The resulting catalyst platform overcomes many of the practical limitations that have plagued hydrogen-bond-donor catalysis and enables use of catalyst loadings as low as 0.05 mol %. Computational analyses of possible anion-binding modes provide detailed insight into the precise mechanism of anion-abstraction catalysis with this pseudo-dimeric thiourea.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(25): 7860-7863, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276389

RESUMO

Chiral, neutral H-bond donors have found widespread use as catalysts in enantioselective reactions involving ion-pair intermediates. Herein, a systematic mechanistic study of a prototypical anion-binding reaction, the thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of α-chloroethers, is detailed. This study reveals that the catalyst resting state is an inactive dimeric aggregate that must dissociate and then reassemble to form a 2:1 catalyst-substrate complex in the rate-determining transition structure. Insight into this mode of catalyst cooperativity sheds light on the practical limitations that have plagued many of the H-bond donor-catalyzed reactions developed to date and suggests design strategies for new, highly efficient catalyst structures.


Assuntos
Ânions , Catálise , Química Orgânica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Éter/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Tioureia/química
10.
Org Lett ; 18(13): 3214-7, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294369

RESUMO

While aryl pyrrolidinoamido-thioureas derived from α-amino acids are effective catalysts in a number of asymmetric transformations, they exist as mixtures of slowly interconverting amide rotamers. Herein, the compromising role of amide bond isomerism is analyzed experimentally and computationally. A modified catalyst structure that exists almost exclusively as a single amide rotamer is introduced. This modification is shown to result in improved reactivity and enantioselectivity by minimizing competing reaction pathways.


Assuntos
Tioureia/química , Catálise , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Soluções , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Nanoscale ; 8(19): 10113-23, 2016 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27122097

RESUMO

We show unambiguous and compelling evidence by means of pump-probe experiments, which are complemented by calculations using ab initio multireference perturbation theory, for intramolecular singlet fission (SF) within two synthetically tailored pentacene dimers with cross-conjugation, namely XC1 and XC2. The two pentacene dimers differ in terms of electronic interactions as evidenced by perturbation of the ground state absorption spectra stemming from stronger through-bond contributions in XC1 as confirmed by theory. Multiwavelength analysis, on one hand, and global analysis, on the other hand, confirm that the rapid singlet excited state decay and triplet excited state growth relate to SF. SF rate constants and quantum yields increase with solvent polarity. For example, XC2 reveals triplet quantum yields and rate constants as high as 162 ± 10% and (0.7 ± 0.1) × 10(12) s(-1), respectively, in room temperature solutions.

12.
ACS Catal ; 6(7): 4616-4620, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754547

RESUMO

We provide here a detailed mechanistic characterization of the electrophile-activation step in a representative thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective reaction proposed to involve generation of ion-pair intermediates. Comparison of catalyst-promoted substrate epimerization with catalytic alkylation points to the participation of a common intermediate in both pathways and provides conclusive evidence for anion abstraction via an SN1-like pathway involving the cooperative action of two catalyst molecules.

13.
Chem Sci ; 7(10): 6357-6364, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567248

RESUMO

A Cu-catalyzed benzannulation reaction transforms ortho(arylene ethynylene) oligomers into ortho-arylenes. This approach circumvents iterative Suzuki cross-coupling reactions previously used to assemble hindered ortho-arylene backbones. These derivatives form helical folded structures in the solid-state and in solution, as demonstrated by X-ray crystallography and solution-state NMR analysis. DFT calculations of misfolded conformations are correlated with variable-temperature 1H and EXSY NMR to reveal that folding is cooperative and more favorable in halide-substituted naphthalenes. Helical ortho-arylene foldamers with specific aromatic sequences organize functional π-electron systems into arrangements ideal for ambipolar charge transport and show preliminary promise for the surface-mediated synthesis of structurally defined graphene nanoribbons.

14.
Chemistry ; 21(50): 18122-7, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515732

RESUMO

Independent control of halide substitution at six of the seven naphthalene positions of 2-arylnaphthalenes is achieved through the regioselective benzannulation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoalkynes. The modularity of this approach is demonstrated through the preparation of 44 polyheterohalogenated naphthalene products, most of which are difficult to access through known naphthalene syntheses. The outstanding regioselectivity of the reaction is both predictable and proven unambiguously by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for many examples. This synthetic method enables the rapid preparation of complex aromatic systems poised for further derivatization using established cross-coupling methods. The power and versatility of this approach makes substituted naphthalenes highly attractive building blocks for new organic materials and diversity-oriented synthesis.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(17): 5325-30, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858954

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) has the potential to supersede the traditional solar energy conversion scheme by means of boosting the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies beyond the 30% Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show unambiguous and compelling evidence for unprecedented intramolecular SF within regioisomeric pentacene dimers in room-temperature solutions, with observed triplet quantum yields reaching as high as 156 ± 5%. Whereas previous studies have shown that the collision of a photoexcited chromophore with a ground-state chromophore can give rise to SF, here we demonstrate that the proximity and sufficient coupling through bond or space in pentacene dimers is enough to induce intramolecular SF where two triplets are generated on one molecule.

16.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 10: 1692-705, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25161729

RESUMO

A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films), thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA), cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives). X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

17.
Org Lett ; 14(14): 3660-3, 2012 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22746993

RESUMO

The synthesis of isomerically pure syn-anthradithiophene derivatives (syn-ADTs) is described. X-ray crystallography is used to compare the solid-state arrangement of syn-ADT derivatives 2a,b to the analogous mixture of syn- and anti-ADTs. Single-crystal OFETs based on isomerically pure syn-ADTs 2a,b display device performance comparable to those based on a mixture of ADT isomers syn/anti-2a,b with mobilities as high as 1 cm(2)/(V s).

18.
Org Lett ; 14(1): 62-5, 2012 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22126701

RESUMO

The synthesis of three heptacyclic heteroacenes is described, namely anthra[2,3-b:7,6-b']bis[1]benzothiophenes (ABBTs). A stepwise sequence of aldol reactions provides regiochemical control, affording only the syn-isomer. The ABBTs are characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetry. Field effect transistors based on solution-cast thin films of ABBT derivatives exhibit charge-carrier mobilities of as high as 0.013 cm(2)/(V s).

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