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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19223, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154477

RESUMO

The atherogenic process begins already in childhood and progresses to symptomatic condition with age. We investigated the association of cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and vascular markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, young adults. CEC was determined in 2282 participants of the Young Finns study using cAMP treated 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 cells. The CEC was correlated to baseline and 6-year follow-up data of cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurements of arterial structure and function. CEC was higher in women, correlated with total cholesterol, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A-I, but not with LDL-C or apolipoprotein B. Compared to the lowest CEC quartile, the highest CEC quartile was significantly associated with high CRP levels and inversely associated with adiponectin. At baseline, high CEC was associated with decreased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery distensibility, as well as an increased Young's modulus of elasticity, indicating adverse changes in arterial structure, and function. The association reversed with follow-up FMD data, indicating the interaction of preclinical parameters over time. A higher CEC was directly associated with a lower risk of subclinical atherosclerosis at follow-up. In young and healthy subjects, CEC was associated with important lipid risk parameters at baseline, as in older patients and CAD patients, but inversely with early risk markers for subclinical atherosclerosis.

2.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084551

RESUMO

We investigated (a) whether psychosocial factors (experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, sleeping disturbances, alcohol use) predict the course of paranoid ideation between the ages of 24 to 50 years and (b) whether the predictive relationships are more likely to proceed from the psychosocial factors to paranoid ideation, or vice versa. The participants (N = 1534-1553) came from the population-based Young Finns study. Paranoid ideation and psychosocial factors were assessed by reliable self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011/2012. The data were analyzed using growth curve and structural equation models. High experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, frequent sleeping disturbances, and frequent alcohol use predicted more paranoid ideation. More risk factors predicted increasing paranoid ideation. There were bidirectional predictive relationships of paranoid ideation with experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The link between alcohol use and paranoid ideation was only correlative. In conclusion, paranoid ideation increases by reciprocal interactions with stress, worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The findings support the threat-anticipation model of paranoid ideation, providing important implications for treatment of paranoia.

3.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(5): 326-333, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: TCF7L2 is a repressor and transactivator of genes, and its variants are strongly associated with diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the sex-specific relationship between the most common TCF7L2 gene variants (-98368G>T, rs12255372 and -47833C>T, rs7903146) with diabetes and coronary heart disease in Turkish Adult Risk Factor (TARF) Study. METHODS: Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) have been genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in 2,024 (51.3% in women, age: 55±11.8) Turkish adults participating in the TARF study. Statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of genotypes with clinical and biochemical measurements. RESULTS: Among the TARF study participants, 11.7%, 24.3%, 14.1%, and 38.3% had diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and obesity, respectively. The frequencies of T allele for -47833C>T and -98368G>T in Turkish adults were determined to be 0.35 and 0.33, respectively. -47833C>T was significantly associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations in all participants, especially in men. Both SNVs were significantly associated with diabetes and CHD in all participants (p<0.05). When study population was stratified according to sex, -98368G>T was associated with diabetes in women (p=0.041) and -47833C>T was associated with diabetes and CHD in men (p=0.018 and p=0.032, respectively). Also, both SNVs and the diplotypes of common haplotype (H1) remained strongly associated with type 2 diabetes after risk factors were adjusted (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: T allele homozygosity of two SNVs as well as the diplotype H1-/H1- reflects risk of diabetes primarily in men. Enhanced CHD risk is determined by the presence of diplotype H1-/H1- among nondiabetic participants.

4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may promote atherosclerosis, whereas the reverse transport of oxidized lipids by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may contribute to atheroprotection. To provide insights into the associations of lipoprotein lipid oxidation markers with lipoprotein subclasses at the population level, we investigated the associations of oxidized HDL lipids (oxHDLlipids) and oxidized LDL lipids (oxLDLlipids) with lipoprotein subclasses in a population-based cross-sectional study of 1395 Finnish adults ages 24-39 years. METHODS: The analysis of oxidized lipids was based on the determination of the baseline level of conjugated dienes in lipoprotein lipids. A high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) platform was used to quantify circulating lipoprotein subclass concentrations and analyze their lipid compositions. RESULTS: OxHDLlipids were mainly not associated with lipoprotein subclass lipid concentrations and lipid composition after adjustment for Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), waist circumference and age. OxLDLlipids were associated with several markers of lipoprotein subclass lipid concentrations and composition after adjustment for Apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B), age and waist circumference. Several measures of HDL and LDL subclasses, including phospholipid and triglyceride composition, associated directly with oxLDLlipids. Cholesterol ester and free cholesterol composition in HDL and LDL associated inversely with oxLDLlipids. CONCLUSION: We conclude that these results do not support the idea that HDL's particle size or composition would reflect its functional capacity in the reverse transport of oxidized lipids. On the contrary, oxLDLlipids were associated with the entire lipoprotein subclass profile, including numerous associations with the compositional descriptors of the particles. This is in line with the suggested role of LDL oxidation in atherogenesis.

5.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12799, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inverted T waves in the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. The pathophysiology and prognostic significance of T-wave inversion may differ between different anatomical lead groups, but scientific data related to this issue is scarce. METHODS: A representative sample of Finnish subjects (n = 6,354) aged over 30 years underwent a health examination including a 12-lead ECG in the Health 2000 survey. ECGs with T-wave inversions were divided into three anatomical lead groups (anterior, lateral, and inferior) and were compared to ECGs with no pathological T-wave inversions in multivariable-adjusted Fine-Gray and Cox regression hazard models using CHD and mortality as endpoints. RESULTS: The follow-up for both CHD and mortality lasted approximately fifteen years (median value with interquartile ranges between 14.9 and 15.3). In multivariate-adjusted models, anterior and lateral (but not inferior) T-wave inversions associated with increased risk of CHD (HR: 2.37 [95% confidence interval 1.20-4.68] and 1.65 [1.27-2.15], respectively). In multivariable analyses, only lateral T-wave inversions associated with increased risk of mortality in the entire study population (HR 1.51 [1.26-1.81]) as well as among individuals with no CHD at baseline (HR 1.59 [1.29-1.96]). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic information of inverted T waves differs between anatomical lead groups. T-wave inversion in the anterior and lateral lead groups is independently associated with the risk of CHD, and lateral T-wave inversion is also associated with increased risk of mortality. Inverted T wave in the inferior lead group proved to be a benign phenomenon.

6.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The influence of dietary calcium intake in childhood on adult cardiovascular health is unknown, particularly in those with long-term high intake. To examine both linear and non-linear associations of childhood and long-term (between childhood and adulthood) dietary calcium intake with adult cardiovascular risk outcomes. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study in Finland (n = 1029, aged 3-18 years at baseline). Dietary calcium intake was assessed in childhood (1980, baseline) and adulthood (mean of available data from 2001, 2007 and 2011). Long-term dietary calcium intake was calculated as the mean between childhood and adulthood. Outcomes were measured in 2001, 2007, and/or 2011, and the latest available data were used for analyses, including high carotid intima-media thickness, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery compliance (CAC), Young's elastic modulus (YEM), and stiffness index (SI). RESULTS: There were no significant non-linear or linear associations between childhood or long-term dietary calcium intake with any adult cardiovascular outcomes, after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood and adulthood confounders (e.g., body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood or long-term dietary calcium intake that is higher than the recommended level is not associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood.

7.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(1): 115197, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977117

RESUMO

Automated assays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics have recently come available. We compared the performance of the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG tests. The seroconversion panel comprised of 120 samples from 13 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. For the sensitivity and specificity testing, samples from COVID-19 outpatients >15 days after positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) result (n = 35) and serum control samples collected before the COVID-19 era (n = 161) were included in the material. Samples for the detection of possible cross-reactions were also tested. Based on our results, the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can be quite reliably detected 2 weeks after NAAT positivity and 3 weeks after the symptom onset with both tests. However, since some COVID-19 patients were positive only with Elecsys®, the antibodies should be screened against N-antigen (Elecsys®) and reactive samples confirmed with S antigen (LIAISON®), but both results should be reported. In some COVID-19 patients, the serology can remain negative.

8.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12788, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous population studies have presented conflicting results regarding the prognostic impact of intraventricular conduction delays (IVCD). METHODS: We studied long-term prognostic impact and the association with comorbidities of eight IVCDs in a random sample of 6,299 Finnish subjects (2,857 men and 3,442 women, mean age 52.8, SD 14.9 years) aged 30 or over who participated in the health examination including 12-lead ECG. For left bundle branch block (LBBB) and non-specific IVCD (NSIVCD), two different definitions were used. RESULTS: During 16.5 years' follow-up, 1,309 of the 6,299 subjects (20.8%) died and of these 655 (10.4%) were cardiovascular (CV) deaths. After controlling for known clinical risk factors, the hazard ratio for CV death, compared with individuals without IVCD, was 1.55 for the Minnesota definition of LBBB (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.31, p = .032) and 1.27 (95% confidence interval 0.80-2.02, p = .308) for the Strauss' definition of LBBB. Subjects with NSIVCD were associated with twofold to threefold increase in CV mortality depending on the definition. While right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block and incomplete bundle branch blocks were associated with seemingly higher mortality, this was no longer the case after adjustment for age and sex. The presence of R-R' pattern was not associated with any adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In a population study with long-term follow-up, NSIVCD and Minnesota definition of LBBB were independently associated with CV mortality. Other IVCDs had no significant impact on prognosis. The prognostic impact of LBBB and NSIVCD was affected by the definition of the conduction disorder.

9.
Biomark Med ; 14(8): 629-638, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613848

RESUMO

Electronic noses (eNoses) are an emerging class of experimental diagnostic tools. They are based on the detection of volatile organic compounds. Urine is used as sample medium in several publications but neither the effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the analysis nor the potential to detect CKD has been explored. Materials & methods: We utilized an eNose based on field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) technology to classify urine samples from CKD patients and controls. Results: We were able to differentiate extremes of kidney function with an accuracy of 81.4%. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, applying eNose technology we were able to distinguish the patients with impaired kidney function from those with normal kidney function.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12016, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694638

RESUMO

Prostate cancer patients using cholesterol-lowering statins have 30% lower risk of prostate cancer death compared to non-users. The effect is attributed to the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, statin use causes lipoprotein metabolism changes in the serum. Statin effect on serum or intraprostatic lipidome profiles in prostate cancer patients has not been explored. We studied changes in the serum metabolomic and prostatic tissue lipidome after high-dose 80 mg atorvastatin intervention to expose biological mechanisms causing the observed survival benefit. Our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial consisted of 103 Finnish men with prostate cancer. We observed clear difference in post-intervention serum lipoprotein lipid profiles between the study arms (median classification error 11.7%). The atorvastatin effect on intraprostatic lipid profile was not as clear (median classification error 44.7%), although slightly differing lipid profiles by treatment arm was observed, which became more pronounced in men who used atorvastatin above the median of 27 days (statin group median classification error 27.2%). Atorvastatin lowers lipids important for adaptation for hypoxic microenvironment in the prostate suggesting that prostate cancer cell survival benefit associated with statin use might be mediated by both, local and systemic, lipidomic/metabolomic profile changes.

11.
Biosci Rep ; 40(7)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583859

RESUMO

Smoking as a major risk factor for morbidity affects numerous regulatory systems of the human body including DNA methylation. Most of the previous studies with genome-wide methylation data are based on conventional association analysis and earliest threshold-based gene set analysis that lacks sensitivity to be able to reveal all the relevant effects of smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of active smoking on DNA methylation at three biological levels: 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) sites, genes and functionally related genes (gene sets). Gene set analysis was done with mGSZ, a modern threshold-free method previously developed by us that utilizes all the genes in the experiment and their differential methylation scores. Application of such method in DNA methylation study is novel. Epigenome-wide methylation levels were profiled from Young Finns Study (YFS) participants' whole blood from 2011 follow-up using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified three novel smoking related CpG sites and replicated 57 of the previously identified ones. We found that smoking is associated with hypomethylation in shore (genomic regions 0-2 kilobases from CpG island). We identified smoking related methylation changes in 13 gene sets with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05, among which is olfactory receptor activity, the flagship novel finding of the present study. Overall, we extended the current knowledge by identifying: (i) three novel smoking related CpG sites, (ii) similar effects as aging on average methylation in shore, and (iii) a novel finding that olfactory receptor activity pathway responds to tobacco smoke and toxin exposure through epigenetic mechanisms.

12.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.

13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(8): 1733-1742, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of genetic risk scores associated with adult body mass index (BMI) on BMI levels across the life course is unclear. We examined if a 97 single nucleotide polymorphism weighted genetic risk score (wGRS97) associated with age-related progression in BMI at different life stages and distinct developmental trajectories of BMI across the early life course. METHODS: 2188 Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study participants born pre-1980 who had genotype data and objective measurements of height and weight collected up to 8 times from age 6 to 49 years. Associations were examined using Individual Growth Curve analysis, Latent Class Growth Mixture Modelling, and Poisson modified regression. RESULTS: The wGRS97 associated with BMI from age 6 years with peak effect sizes observed at age 30 years (females: 1.14 kg/m2; males: 1.09 kg/m2 higher BMI per standard deviation increase in wGRS97). The association between wGRS97 and BMI became stronger with age in childhood but slowed in adolescence, especially in females, and weakened at age 35-40 years. A higher wGRS97 associated with an increased BMI velocity in childhood and adulthood, but not with BMI change in adulthood. Compared with belonging to a 'normal stable' life-course trajectory group (normal BMI from childhood to adulthood), a one standard deviation higher wGRS97 associated with a 13-127% increased risk of belonging to a less favourable life-course BMI trajectory group. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with genetic susceptibility to higher adult BMI have higher levels and accelerated rates of increase in BMI in childhood/adolescence, and are at increased risk of having a less favourable life-course BMI trajectory.

14.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(5): 370-374, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491935

RESUMO

Coronary artery and peripheral artery diseases represent different clinical outcomes of atherosclerosis and despite sharing common risk factors the ultimate reasons determining disease presentation are still unclear. The present study sought to define and compare the serum lipid and apolipoprotein profiles of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and those treated invasively for symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease. Altogether 218 coronary and 280 peripheral artery disease patients treated between 2013 and 2014 in the Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland, with available lipid measurements within two years prior to the intervention were retrospectively analysed. The Extended Friedewald formula neural network model was used to obtain apolipoprotein and lipoprotein subfraction values. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery had a clear male predominance (82% versus 53%, p < 0.001), lower median age (69 versus 74 years, p < 0.001) and a lower prevalence of smoking (18% versus 32%, p = 0.001) and pulmonary disease (12% versus 20%, p = 0.023) compared to peripheral artery disease patients. There were some differences in the serum lipid profiles between the study groups in the univariable analyses. When controlling for the statistically significant differences in age, sex, urgency of treatment and comorbidities between the groups in a multivariable logistic regression model, higher serum concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I were significantly and independently associated with coronary artery disease (OR 1.11 for 0.01 g/L increase, p = 0.044). In conclusion, patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting appear to have higher apolipoprotein A-I levels when compared to patients treated for peripheral artery disease.

15.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597238

RESUMO

Purpose: To study whether systemic hemodynamics, especially systemic vascular resistance, predicts the development of hypertension and improves the risk prediction of incident hypertension beyond common risk factors in the risk models in young adults.Materials and methods: Typical risk factors for hypertension in the risk prediction models (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, parental history of hypertension, age, sex, body-mass index, smoking), laboratory values (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein), heart rate (HR), stroke index (SI), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) calculated by whole-body impedance cardiography were evaluated in 2007 and blood pressure in 2011 in 1293 Finnish adults (aged 30-45 years; females 56%; n = 1058 normotensive in 2007).Results: Of hemodynamic variables, SVRI and HR evaluated in 2007 were independently associated with systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001 and p = 0.047, respectively) and SVRI with diastolic blood pressure measured in 2011 (p = 0.014), and SVRI and HR were independent predictors of incident hypertension (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively). SVRI was the most significant predictor of incident hypertension independently of other risk factors (odds ratio 2.73 per 1 standard deviation increase, 95% confidence interval 1.93-3.94, p < 0.001). The extended prediction model (including SVRI) improved the incident hypertension risk prediction beyond other risk factors, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.846 versus 0.817 (p = 0.042) and a continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.734 (p < 0.001).Conclusions: These findings suggest that systemic vascular resistance index predicts the incidence of hypertension in young adults and that the evaluation of systemic hemodynamics could provide an additional tool for hypertension risk prediction.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 12376-12392, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575070

RESUMO

Telomeres are short segments in chromosome ends, the length of which is reduced during cell lifecycles. We examined the association of mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and short telomere proportion (STP) with hemodynamic variables in normotensive and never-treated hypertensive volunteers (n=566, 19-72 years). STP and mean LTL were determined using Southern blotting, and supine hemodynamics recorded using continuous tonometric pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography. The analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, smoking, plasma chemistry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In univariate analyses, mean LTL and STP both correlated with age, BMI, eGFR, aortic blood pressure, augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (p<0.05 for all). Mean LTL also correlated with systemic vascular resistance (p<0.05). In linear regression analyses of all hemodynamic variables, mean LTL was only an independent explanatory factor for augmentation index (Beta -0.006, p=0.032), while STP was not an explanatory factor for any of the hemodynamic variables, in contrast to age, BMI and several cardiovascular risk factors. To conclude, augmentation index was predominantly related with chronological aging, but also with mean LTL, suggesting that this variable of central wave reflection is a modest marker of vascular biological aging.

17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(7): 679-689, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239174

RESUMO

The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and increased risk of depressive symptoms in adulthood is well established. We tested 1) the contribution of early exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage to later depressive symptoms throughout life, 2) the persistence of the potential association between early exposure and depressive symptoms, and 3) the contributions of other known risk factors to the association. Data were collected from the Young Finns Study, a prospective, population-based 32-year follow-up study that included participants aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. Participants were followed up with repeated measurements of depressive symptoms between 1992 and 2012 (n = 2,788) and linked to national grid data on neighborhood disadvantage via residential addresses. We examined the associations in mixed models separately for the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year follow-ups. Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood during childhood and adolescence was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms in adulthood during all follow-up periods (ß = 0.07, P = 0.001) than living in a nondisadvantaged area. Individual adulthood socioeconomic status mediated the associations. These findings suggest that living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area during childhood and adolescence has a long-lasting negative association with mental health irrespective of family-related risks, partially due to socioeconomic adversity later in life.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Blood Press ; 29(4): 256-263, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292083

RESUMO

Purpose: High pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of increased arterial stiffness, and an exaggerated exercise blood pressure (EEBP) response during an exercise test have both been related to an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular events. Contradictory results have been published about the association between these two parameters, and their relation in healthy young adults is unknown.Materials and methods: This study consisted of 209 young adults (mean age 38 years) who participated in the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study between 2007 and 2009. We measured resting PWV with impedance cardiography in 2007, and participants performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with blood pressure (BP) measurements at rest, during exercise and during recovery in 2008-2009.Results: High PWV (≥age- and sex-specific median) at baseline was associated with EEBP (SBP >210 mmHg for men and >190 mmHg for women) an average of 14 months later and with systolic BP during different stages of exercise from rest to peak and recovery (during peak exercise, ß ± SE was 4.1 ± 1.1, p < 0.001). The association between high PWV and systolic BP remained after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and other exercise parameters (during peak exercise, ß ± SE was 2.3 ± 1.1, p = 0.04).Conclusions: Increased arterial stiffness predicts EEBP during a maximal exercise test in young adults during all stages of exercise from rest to peak and recovery. PWV could provide an additional tool for EEBP risk evaluation.

19.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(5): 527-538, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated (i) whether compassion is associated with blood pressure or hypertension in adulthood and (ii) whether familial risk for hypertension modifies these associations. METHOD: The participants (N = 1112-1293) came from the prospective Young Finns Study. Parental hypertension was assessed in 1983-2007; participants' blood pressure in 2001, 2007, and 2011; hypertension in 2007 and 2011 (participants were aged 30-49 years in 2007-2011); and compassion in 2001. RESULTS: High compassion predicted lower levels of diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Additionally, high compassion was related to lower risk for hypertension in adulthood among individuals with no familial risk for hypertension (independently of age, sex, participants' and their parents' socioeconomic factors, and participants' health behaviors). Compassion was not related to hypertension in adulthood among individuals with familial risk for hypertension. CONCLUSION: High compassion predicts lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Moreover, high compassion may protect against hypertension among individuals without familial risk for hypertension. As our sample consisted of comparatively young participants, our findings provide novel implications for especially early-onset hypertension.


Assuntos
Empatia , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Finlândia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1280-1291, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242223

RESUMO

We studied whether exposure to parental smoking in childhood/adolescence is associated with midlife cognitive function, leveraging data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A population-based cohort of 3,596 children/adolescents aged 3-18 years was followed between 1980 and 2011. In 2011, cognitive testing was performed on 2,026 participants aged 34-49 years using computerized testing. Measures of secondhand smoke exposure in childhood/adolescence consisted of parental self-reports of smoking and participants' serum cotinine levels. Participants were classified into 3 exposure groups: 1) no exposure (nonsmoking parents, cotinine <1.0 ng/mL); 2) hygienic parental smoking (1-2 smoking parents, cotinine <1.0 ng/mL); and 3) nonhygienic parental smoking (1-2 smoking parents, cotinine ≥1.0 ng/mL). Analyses adjusted for sex, age, family socioeconomic status, polygenic risk score for cognitive function, adolescent/adult smoking, blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol level. Compared with the nonexposed, participants exposed to nonhygienic parental smoking were at higher risk of poor (lowest quartile) midlife episodic memory and associative learning (relative risk (RR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.75), and a weak association was found for short-term and spatial working memory (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.58). Associations for those exposed to hygienic parental smoking were nonsignificant (episodic memory and associative learning: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54; short-term and spatial working memory: RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.34). We conclude that avoiding childhood/adolescence secondhand smoke exposure promotes adulthood cognitive function.

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