Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 172, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic disease with a high symptom burden and poor survival that influences patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to evaluate IPF patients' symptoms and HRQOL in a well-documented clinical cohort during their last two years of life. METHODS: In April 2015, we sent the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC), the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and a self-rating HRQOL questionnaire (RAND-36) to 300 IPF patients, of which 247 (82%) responded. Thereafter, follow-up questionnaires were sent every six months for two years. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients died by August 2017. Among these patients, HRQOL was found to be considerably low already two years before death. The most prominent declines in HRQOL occurred in physical function, vitality, emotional role and social functioning (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with MMRC scores ≥3 increased near death. Breathlessness and fatigue were the most severe symptoms. Symptom severity for the following symptoms increased significantly and reached the highest mean scores during the last six months of life (numeric rating scale/standard deviation): breathlessness (7.1/2.8), tiredness (7.0/2.3), dry mouth (6.0/3.0), cough (5.8/2.9), and pain with movement (5.0/3.5). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating, that IPF patients experience remarkably low HRQOL already two years before death, especially regarding physical role. In addition, they suffer from severe breathlessness and fatigue. Furthermore, physical, social and emotional wellbeing deteriorate, and symptom burden increases near death. Regular symptom and HRQOL measurements are essential to assess palliative care needs in patients with IPF.


Assuntos
Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 483: 334-342, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569516

RESUMO

The sorption of pentavalent neptunium, Np(V), on corundum (α-Al2O3) was investigated in the absence and presence of trivalent europium or gadolinium as a competing element under CO2-free conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate how a trivalent metal ion with a higher charge than that of the neptunyl(V) ion would affect the sorption of Np(V) when allowed to adsorb on the mineral surface before the addition of Np(V). Batch sorption experiments conducted as a function of pH (pH-edges) and as a function of Np(V) concentration (isotherms) in the absence and presence of 1×10(-5)M Eu(III) showed no sign of Eu being able to block Np sorption sites. Surface complexation modelling using the diffuse double layer model was applied to the batch data to obtain surface complexation constants for the formed Np(V) complexes on corundum. To account for potential changes occurring in the coordination environment of the neptunium ion in the presence of a trivalent lanthanide, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were carried out on the samples containing only Np(V) and Np(V)+Gd(III). The results reveal the presence of a bidentate Np(V) edge-sharing complex on the corundum surface in the absence of Gd(III), while the coordination environment of Np(V) on the corundum surface could be changed when Gd(III) is added to the sample before the sorption of Np(V).

3.
J Environ Radioact ; 147: 85-96, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26048060

RESUMO

(79)Se is among the most important long lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel and selenite, SeO3(2-), is its typical form in intermediate redox potential. The sorption behaviour of selenite and the bacterial impact on the selenite sorption in a 7-m-deep profile of a nutrient-poor boreal bog was studied using batch sorption experiments. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of selenite decreased as a function of sampling depth and highest Kd values, 6600 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay at 1700 L/kg DW. The overall maximum sorption was observed at pH between 3 and 4 and the Kd values were significantly higher in unsterilized compared to sterilized samples. The removal of selenite from solution by Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. strains isolated from the bog was affected by incubation temperature and time. In addition, the incubation of sterilized surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja samples with added bacteria effectively removed selenite from the solution and on average 65% of selenite was removed when Pseudomonas sp. or Burkholderia sp. strains were used. Our results demonstrate the important role of bacteria for the removal of selenite from the solution phase in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Adsorção , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Finlândia
4.
J Environ Radioact ; 147: 22-32, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010098

RESUMO

(135)Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3 My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium ((134)Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5-1.0 m peat layer (50 L/kg DW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of (133)Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040 L/kg DW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/metabolismo , Adsorção , Finlândia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Áreas Alagadas
5.
J Environ Radioact ; 143: 110-122, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752706

RESUMO

Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behaviour of iodide and the microbial impact on iodide sorption in the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja, and clay layers of a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of iodide decreased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, 4800 L/Kg dry weight (DW) (geometric mean), were observed in the fresh surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay (geometric mean 90 mL/g DW). In the surface moss, peat and gyttja layers, which have a high organic matter content (on average 97%), maximum sorption was observed at a pH between ∼ 4 and 5 and in the clay layer at pH 2. The Kd values were significantly lower in sterilized samples, being 20-fold lower than the values found for the unsterilized samples. In addition, the recolonization of sterilized samples with a microbial population from the fresh samples restored the sorption capacity of surface moss, peat and gyttja samples, indicating that the decrease in the sorption was due to the destruction of microbes and supporting the hypothesis that microbes are necessary for the incorporation of iodide into the organic matter. Anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of iodide in fresh, untreated samples, similarly to the effect of sterilization, which supports the hypothesis that iodide is oxidized into I2/HIO before incorporation into the organic matter. Furthermore, the Kd values positively correlated with peroxidase activity in surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja layers at +20 °C, and with the bacterial cell counts obtained from plate count agar at +4 °C. Our results demonstrate the importance of viable microbes for the sorption of iodide in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH.


Assuntos
Iodetos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos do Iodo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Adsorção , Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Argila , Finlândia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solo/química , Sphagnopsida/metabolismo , Água/química
6.
Child Care Health Dev ; 40(3): 419-25, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23594033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep duration is known to be associated with depression and attention deficits in children, though the majority of studies have focused on adolescents. Attention problems and depressive symptoms related to sleep factors have not been studied simultaneously in the non-clinical child population before. METHODS: Sleep quantity, adverse bedtime behaviour, daytime sleepiness, poor attention and symptoms of depression were assessed using self-report measures. The participants were 11 years old (n = 439). RESULTS: Short sleep duration during the school week is related to poor attention and high depression. It is not a significant predictor of low attention and high depression symptoms in logistic regression analyses. Instead, adverse bedtime behaviour and daytime sleepiness predict them highly significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration is related to poor attention and depressive symptoms as suggested by previous work. However, the significant role of other sleep-related factors calls for further research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 361(1): 252-8, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21669436

RESUMO

The specific sorption of Eu(III) and Y(III) on γ-alumina was investigated with solid-state (1)H NMR. Solution pH was shown to influence the recorded (1)H NMR spectra of γ-alumina, and thus, metal ion-containing samples were prepared under constant pH conditions, 8.00±0.05. The metal ion concentration in the samples was varied between 6.58×10(-7) M - 3.95×10(-4) M in case of Y(3+) and 6.58×10(-8) M - 1.32×10(-4) M in case of Eu(3+). The mineral concentration was kept constant at 4 g/l. After separation of the liquid phase, the samples were dried under vacuum to remove physisorbed water from the mineral surface. However, even after 48 h of drying at 150°C and 20 mTorr, water was still detected in the proton spectra as two distinct peaks with chemical shifts at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm. The europium addition to the γ-alumina samples induced significant spectral changes in comparison with yttrium-containing samples. These changes were attributed to the paramagnetism of europium rather than to complexation reactions occurring on the mineral surface. Proton spectra obtained for yttrium samples were therefore used to detect the spectral changes induced by the sorption reaction itself. The results revealed a large distribution of protons being removed from the mineral surface upon yttrium complexation. Removed protons were assigned to both bridging surface hydroxyls such as (Al(VI))(2)-OH as well as to terminal hydroxyls, e.g., of type Al(VI)-OH. Acidic protons belonging to (Al(VI))(3)-OH groups were not observed to participate in the surface reaction.

8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 144(3): 360-6, 2011 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21093087

RESUMO

Characterization of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta communities is needed to understand the microbial ecology of spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) meats. To overcome the limitations of the currently used methods for the characterization of psychrotrophic bacterial communities in meat, we developed a culture-independent, 16S rRNA gene-targeted terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. An identification library consisting of 100 Gram-positive and 30 Gram-negative meat-associated bacterial strains was set up to identify the terminal restriction fragments derived from the communities. The taxonomic resolution level of the T-RFLP method was in between genus and species within the investigated LAB strains and within family and genus within the investigated Gram-negative strains. The established library was applied to identify the members of bacterial communities in MAP minced meat at the end of the shelf life. The T-RFLP results and plate counts on Man-Rogosa-Sharpe, Violet Red Bile Glucose, and Streptomycin sulfate thallium acetate actidione agars indicated that LAB and B. thermosphacta predominated in meat. The bacterial taxa associated with the T-RFLP results were compared to those identified among plate-grown LAB isolates by numerical ribopattern analysis. Both methods agreed that Leuconostoc spp. and Carnobacterium spp. prevailed in the LAB community in minced meat followed by Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus spp. and Weissella spp. Colony identification revealed that Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, L. gelidum, Carnobacterium divergens and C. maltaromaticum were the predominant LAB species. The T-RFLP results were shown to correlate with viable counts of Leuconostoc spp. and B. thermosphacta. The T-RFLP method was found to be a useful tool enabling rapid and high-throughput characterization of psychrotrophic bacteria prevailing in MAP meat.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 62(2): 387-93, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20651444

RESUMO

Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Esgotos/química , Água/química , Madeira/química , Papel
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 161(1-4): 93-105, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19184485

RESUMO

Sediment cores collected from different locations of Lake Umbozero were studied with respect to concentration and mobility of trace and heavy metals Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. Lake Umbozero is the second largest lake in the Murmansk Region and subjected to contamination by air-borne emissions and river transportation from the nearby metallurgical and mining industries. Unlike its neighboring, more industry-prone Lake Imandra, Lake Umbozero is relatively unexplored with respect to its state of pollution. In our study, metal distribution in sediments was found to vary with respect to the cores, although in general the concentrations were at the same level throughout the lake indicating uniform horizontal distribution of metals. When compared to Lake Imandra, the concentrations of most of the metals studied were significantly lower and represented the levels in sediments measured in lakes of Kola Peninsula located further off from industrial pollutant sources. An exception was Pb the concentration of which was at the same level as in Lake Imandra, probably due to long-distance transport. Sediment layers were subjected to four-step sequential extraction procedure to reveal the metal distribution in soluble, exchangeable, acid-soluble, and residual fractions. Indicative of their potential higher lability, Mn, U, and Zn were generally found in exchangeable fraction; as also Mn and U extensively in the acid-soluble fraction.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cobalto/análise , Cobre/análise , Geografia , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Manganês/análise , Níquel/análise , Federação Russa , Urânio/análise , Zinco/análise
11.
J Environ Radioact ; 100(6): 468-76, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19362758

RESUMO

The concentrations and vertical distribution of (239,240)Pu, (241)Am and (137)Cs in the bottom sediments and water samples of Lake Päijänne were investigated. This lake is important, since the Päijänne area received a significant deposition from the Chernobyl fallout. Furthermore Lake Päijänne is the raw water source for the Helsinki metropolitan area. In addition no previous data on the distribution of plutonium and americium in the sediment profiles of Lake Päijänne exist. Only data covering the surface layer (0-1cm) of the sediments are previously available. In the sediments the average total activities were 45+/-15Bq/m(2) and 20+/-7Bq/m(2) for (239,240)Pu and (241)Am, respectively. The average (241)Am/(239,240)Pu ratio was 0.45+/-0.14. The (241)Am/(239,240)Pu ratio is lowest in the surface layer of the sediments and increases as a function of depth. The (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu ratio of the sediment samples varied between 0.012+/-0.025 and 0.162+/-0.079, decreasing as a function of depth. The average activity in water was 4.9+/-0.9mBq/m(3) and 4.1+/-0.2mBq/m(3) for (239,240)Pu and (241)Am, respectively. The (241)Am/(239,240)Pu ratio of water samples was 0.82+/-0.17. (239,240)Pu originating from the Chernobyl fallout calculated from the average total activities covers approximately 1.95+/-0.01% of the total (239,240)Pu activity in the bottom sediments. The average total (137)Cs activity of sediment profiles was 100+/-15kBq/m(2) and 19.3+/-1.4Bq/m(3) in water samples.


Assuntos
Amerício/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Água Doce/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Plutônio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Finlândia , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 332(1): 158-64, 2009 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19162273

RESUMO

Gd(III) and Cm(III) sorption onto a pure aluminum hydroxide, gibbsite (alpha-Al(OH)(3)), is studied by batch experiments and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The experiments are conducted under argon atmosphere to exclude the influence of atmospheric CO(2) on solution and surface speciation. Batch experiments are done in two different electrolytes 0.1 M NaClO(4) and 0.1/0.01 M NaCl at a constant gibbsite concentration of 2.2 g/L. Gadolinium concentrations are varied from 6.4x10(-9) to 6.4x10(-5) M. pH-dependent sorption is found to be congruent at Gd(III) concentrations up to 6.4x10(-7) M and a shift of the pH edge to higher pH values is observed for higher metal ion concentrations. Type of background electrolyte anion and ionic strength do not affect the metal ion sorption. The spectroscopic investigations are performed with Cm(III) and gibbsite concentrations of 2x10(-7) M and 0.5 g/L, respectively. From the strongly red-shifted emission spectra two different inner-sphere surface complexes can be identified. A third species appearing at pH 6-11 is assigned to a coprecipitated or incorporated Cm(III) species. This incorporated species is most likely formed as a consequence of the applied experimental procedure. By continuously increasing the pH from 4 we move from high to low gibbsite solubility domains. As a result, aluminum hydroxide precipitates from oversaturated solutions, either covering already adsorbed curium or forming a Al/Cm(OH)(3) coprecipitate. Fluorescence lifetimes for the surface-bound Cm(III) complexes and the incorporated species are at 140-150 and 180-200 micros, respectively. Emission bands of the Cm(III) gibbsite surface complexes appear at comparable wavelengths as reported for Cm(III) species bound to aluminum oxides, e.g., gamma-Al(2)O(3); however, lifetimes are longer. This could presumably arise from either shorter binding distances of the Cm to Al-O sites or a coordination to more surface sites.

13.
Health promot. int ; 22(4): 307-315, Dec. 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | CidSaúde - Cidades saudáveis | ID: cid-59687

RESUMO

Health in All Policies (HiAP) is defined as horizontal, complementary policy-related strategy with a high potential for contributing to population health. To ensure that health impacts are highlighted across sectors, the support of actors in different sectors, not just the health sector, is needed. Public health, here defined as a universally important but a low prioritized politics area, needs to involve high politics areas to fulfil the HiAP strategy. This study aimed to analyse the agenda setting, formulation, initiation and implementation of the intersectoral public health policy and one tool of HiAP, health impact assessment (HIA), at the national and local level (exemplified by Stockholm County) in Sweden. A literature search was carried out of scientific and grey literature on intersectoral health policy and HIA in Sweden. The study was a policy analysis, using a content analysis method, and the theoretical framework of Kingdon where the results were examined through problem identification (why a window of opportunity opens for an intersectoral health policy and HIA), the factors and impact of politics (support for the formulation and implementation of policy) and policy (how best to solve the problem). The results showed that actors perceived the problems (the rationale) differently depending on their agenda and interest. Politicians and experts had a high impact on the formulation of the policy, agreeing on the policy goals. However, there was little focus on implementation plans implying that the political actors were not in agreement, and the experts sometimes showing conflicting evidence-based opinions on how to best ensure the policy. Without this in place, it is difficult to involve high politics areas, and vice versa, without the involvement of high politics, it is difficult to achieve the policy. However, this is a long-term process, where small steps need to be taken, leaving the policy window half-shut. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Política , Suécia
14.
Eur J Public Health ; 17(5): 526-31, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17213235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool have been initiated to replace a traditional, vertical operation at the local level in Slovakia-a country in transition-in 2004. METHODS: Up to date, there are few studies that have analysed intersectoral initiatives in relation to politics. In this study the conceptual framework of Kingdon has been used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute and researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating health status of the population. There was a lack of multi-intersectoral knowledge, co-operation and function between sectors and actors. Enablers on the other hand were the membership of international organizations which called for new solutions, and the strong political commitment and belief that intersectorality would have a positive effect on health. CONCLUSION: The actors on the local level would have the capacity to work intersectorally to bring about policy change if HIA was to be more supported/institutionalized.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Relações Interinstitucionais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Política , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Formulação de Políticas , Sistemas Políticos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Eslováquia , Universidades
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 366(1): 206-17, 2006 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16197982

RESUMO

Weekly air samples of 25000 m(3) volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. (137)Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median (239,240)Pu activities were 100 nBq/m(3) and (238)Pu activities 34 nBq/m(3). The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m(3), respectively, and in half of the filters the (238)Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and (137)Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 microBq/m(3). Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 microSv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring (210)Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Plutônio/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Filtração , Cazaquistão , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Urânio/análise
16.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 62(3): 276-83, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14594202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study is a pilot project for the Finnish AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme/Human Health) investigations. We examined the exposure of northern Finns to chromium (Cr), because analyses of this metal are not included in the AMAP, and local industry and industry throughout the Kola Peninsula may increase chromium fallout in Finnish Lapland. Chromium exposure and its temporal trend were estimated by analyzing hair of northern Finns collected in 1982 and 1991. METHODS: After washing the hair samples, chromium analyses were carried out in 1995 by a method developed by Salmela et al. (1981) and Kumpulainen et al. (1982). The Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrometer used was equipped with a graphite furnace (HGA-400). RESULTS: Age showed no statistically significant correlation with Cr concentration in hair, but the hair concentration of Cr in men was higher than that in women, both among southern and northern Finns and Sami. CONCLUSIONS: Chromium levels in the hair of Finns and Sami were too low to result in any health hazard, however, exposure to chromium may have slightly increased during the 1990s.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Cabelo/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Regiões Árticas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 22(5): 373-87, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11580164

RESUMO

Persons with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to perform more poorly than their mental age would suggest in the visuo-spatial problem solving task Tower of Hanoi (TOH). Inefficient performance has been assumed to be related to inability to use sophisticated problem solving strategies because of restricted working memory capacity. In the present study, the TOH performance of adult persons with ID was found to be equal to that of fluid-intelligence-matched general children. However, persons with ID violated the rules of the TOH more often, and needed more trials to solve the TOH problems than the children did. Visuo-spatial and executive working memory tasks were significantly connected to the TOH performance of persons with ID, whereas phonological working memory tasks were not. Poor inhibition ability was related to the poor performance of subjects with ID in the TOH. We suggest that for persons with ID, TOH performance is determined by individual differences in fluid intelligence, controlled attention, and inhibition ability.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Memória/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Waste Manag Res ; 19(1): 45-57, 2001 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11525475

RESUMO

Sixteen zeolites and 5 activated carbons were tested for the removal of nickel, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, and cobalt from waste simulants mimicking effluents produced in metal plating plants. The best performances were obtained from 4 zeolites: A, X, L, and ferrierite types and from 2 carbon types made from lignite and peat. The distribution coefficients for these sorbents were in the range of 10,000-440,000 ml/g. Column experiments showed that the most effective zeolites for Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were A and X type zeolites. The activated carbons, Hydrodarco 3000 and Norit Row Supra, exhibited good sorption properties for metals in aqueous solutions containing complexing agents.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zeolitas/química , Absorção , Metalurgia , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
20.
Addiction ; 92 Suppl 1: S55-9, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9167288

RESUMO

The use of economic arguments with regard to four aspects of alcohol policy is described and discussed. The first aspect is the impact of a potential reduction in alcohol consumption on employment by alcohol production and trade. It is shown that employment is quite independent of the level of consumption. The second aspect is the opportunity for serving the public health and state finance interests at the same time by developing alcohol taxation. The third aspect is the relationship between the public revenue from alcohol and the public costs for alcohol-related problems. A "polluter pays" principle with regard to alcohol would mean higher taxation of alcoholic beverages. The fourth aspect is the need for cost-effectiveness analyses to support the choices by the decision makers between different alcohol policy options. It is concluded that such analyses could have impact on the priorities in public health policy on alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Emprego/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emprego/tendências , Política de Saúde , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...