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1.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 186: 105527, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is aetiologically unknown disorder that associates with endocrinological disturbances, including dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis. Neuroendocrinological dysfunctions have also been characterized in psychiatric disorders, and therefore we investigated the presence of psychiatric disorders of patients with IIH in a well-defined cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 51 patients with IIH were included. Patient demographics, symptoms, imaging data, ophthalmological and clinical findings were collected. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis the mean age was 32.5years (SD 10.7), the body mass index was 37.1 kg/m2 (SD 7.4), and the opening pressure 29.1 mmHg (SD 6.2). A total of 88.2% of patients were female and 45.1% were diagnosed with a psychiatric co-morbidity prior to IIH diagnosis. The mean follow-up time was 4.4 years (SD 5.4). The overall treatment outcome was significantly poorer on a group of patients with psychiatric diagnosis when compared to individuals without such history (p = 0.001), but there were no differences in the resolution of papilledema (p = 0.405). Patients with IIH and psychiatric disorders had more often empty sella on their imaging at diagnosis when compared to patients without psychiatric co-morbidity (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in patients with IIH and associate with worse subjective outcomes. These findings advocate for monitoring the mental health of patients with IIH and warrant further multidisciplinary research to understand the potentially underlying psychosocial and neuroendocrinological mechanisms.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children. However, the underpinning biological mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether depression was associated with levels of and change in the inflammatory state during pregnancy, if early pregnancy overweight/obesity or diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for/mediated these effects, and if depression added to the inflammation that typically accompanies these conditions. METHODS: We analyzed plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and glycoprotein acetyls at three consecutive stages during pregnancy, derived history of depression diagnoses before pregnancy from Care Register for Healthcare (HILMO) (N = 375) and self-reports (N = 347) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale completed concurrently to blood samplings (N = 295). Data on early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders came from medical records. RESULTS: Higher overall hsCRP levels, but not change, during pregnancy were predicted by history of depression diagnosis before pregnancy [HILMO: mean difference (MD) = 0.69 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-1.11, self-report: MD = 0.56 s.d.; 95% CI 0.17-0.94] and higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy (0.06 s.d. per s.d. increase; 95% CI 0.00-0.13). History of depression diagnosis before pregnancy also predicted higher overall glycoprotein acetyls (HILMO: MD = 0.52 s.d.; 95% CI 0.12-0.93). These associations were not explained by diabetes/hypertensive disorders, but were accounted for and mediated by early pregnancy BMI. Furthermore, in obese women, overall hsCRP levels increased as depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased (p = 0.006 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with a proinflammatory state during pregnancy. These associations are mediated by early pregnancy BMI, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy aggravate the inflammation related to obesity.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 113: 72-78, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peripartum depression (PPD) pertaining to depression in pregnancy and postpartum is one of the most common complications around childbirth with enduring adverse effects on mother and child health. Although psychiatric symptoms may improve or worsen over time, relatively little is known about the course of PPD symptoms and possible fluctuations. METHODS: We applied a person-centered approach to examine PPD symptom patterns across pregnancy and childbirth. 824 women were assessed at three time points: first trimester (T1), third trimester (T2), and again at eight weeks (T3) postpartum. We assessed PPD symptoms, maternal mental health history, and childbirth variables. RESULTS: Growth mixture modeling (GMM) analysis revealed four discrete PPD symptom trajectory classes including chronic PPD (1.1%), delayed (10.2%), recovered (7.2%), and resilient (81.5%). Delivery complications were associated with chronic PPD but also with the recovered PPD trajectory class. History of mental health disorders was associated with chronic PPD and the delayed PPD class. CONCLUSION: The findings underscore that significant changes in a woman's depression level can occur across pregnancy and childbirth. While a minority of women experience chronic PDD, for others depression symptoms appear to significantly alleviate over time, suggesting a form of recovery. Our findings support a personalized medicine approach based on the woman's symptom trajectory. Future research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying modifications in PPD symptoms severity and those implicated in recovery.

4.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(3): 229-235, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor responses have been considered to mainly reflect the electrophysiological characteristics of the central motor system. However, certain motor phenomena, such as the magnitude of repetition suppression measured with motor evoked potentials (MEPs), could also in part be influenced by metabolic processes in the peripheral muscles and in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Repetition suppression is an inhibitory phenomenon in which the amplitude of MEP decreases in comparison to that of the first MEP in a train of transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses. This study aimed to identify possible metabolic processes influencing repetition suppression. METHODS: The metabolic profiles from serum samples and repetition suppression from the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle were measured in 73 subjects (37 female subjects). Repetition suppression was measured using trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation stimuli consisting of 4 identical single pulses at 1-second intervals. The trains were repeated every 20 seconds, and 30 trains were given with a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold of the abductor pollicis brevis. Thus, a total of 120 stimuli were administered. RESULTS: The main finding was a significant negative relationship between serum creatine levels and the magnitude of repetition suppression (standardized ß coefficient (ß) = -0.43; P < 0.001). In other words, higher creatine levels corresponded to a smaller decrement in the MEP amplitude in response to repetition. When MEPs were not repeated, no relationship was observed (ß = 0.09; P = 0.454). Creatine is used to form phosphocreatine, which in turn is needed to resynthesize adenosine triphosphate from adenosine diphosphate in situations requiring high amounts of energy in muscles and neural cells. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, this study demonstrated a connection between repeated MEPs and peripheral serum metabolites linked to muscle function. These findings could explain some of the intersubject variability commonly observed in MEPs when the pulses are repeated.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 326-333, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597385

RESUMO

Associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cholesterol in depressed patients are unclear. Therefore, we compared 78 adult outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 24) or without (n = 54) experiences of physical violence in childhood. Background data were collected with questionnaires, and total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured from fasting blood samples. Patients with a history of childhood physical violence had lower levels of TC than the control group. No differences were observed in HDL-C, LDL-C, or low-grade inflammation levels between the two groups. In multivariate models, decreased levels of TC were associated with childhood physical violence, and these associations remained significant after adjustments for age, gender, lifestyle, metabolic condition, socioeconomic situation, psychiatric status, suicidality, low-grade inflammation, the chronicity of depression, medications used and somatic diseases. At the 8-month follow-up, the results were essentially the same when the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was used as the measure of ACEs. The specific mechanisms underlying cholesterol alterations associated with ACEs are a topic for future studies. Better understanding of these mechanisms might lead to possible new interventions in the prevention of adverse health effects resulting from ACEs.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Colesterol/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Alcohol ; 75: 89-97, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513444

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze metabolite profile changes in serum associated with moderate-to-heavy consumption of alcohol in young adults and to evaluate whether these changes are connected to reduced brain gray matter volumes. These study population consisted of young adults with a 10-year history of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption (n = 35) and light-drinking controls (n = 27). We used the targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations of metabolites in serum, and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain gray matter volumes. Alterations in amino acid and energy metabolism were observed in the moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults when compared to the controls. After correction for multiple testing, the group of moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults had increased serum concentrations of 1-methylhistamine (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) when compared to the controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 1-methylhistamine (r = -0.48, p = 0.004) and creatine (r = -0.52, p = 0.001) were negatively correlated with the brain gray matter volumes in the females. Overall, our results show association between moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol and altered metabolite profile in young adults as well as suggesting that some of these changes could be associated with the reduced brain gray matter volume.

8.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prevention of the recurrence of major depression and its residual symptoms requires effective treatment. Our aim was to study the effects of bifrontal active rTMS controlled by sham rTMS in treatment-resistant unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with treatment-resistant MDD were randomized into two groups. One group received a total of 30 sessions of active bifrontal rTMS (10 Hz rTMS on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and 1 Hz rTMS on right DLPFC) and the other group received bilateral sham rTMS on five days a week for six weeks. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms significantly improved in both the groups, but without a significant group difference. Furthermore, patients with psychotic depression improved similarly to those with moderate or severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study indicate a large sham effect of stimulation treatment. The intensive structured treatment protocol may explain the positive outcome in both the groups. It is important to recognize, appreciate, and utilize placebo effects as a significant means of rehabilitation in psychiatric care.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 381, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. METHODS: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omics; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. DISCUSSION: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 263-268, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature suggests an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression, but data on the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) are scarce. METHODS: Altogether, 1066 women with no previous mental health issues enrolled in the Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo, www.kubico.fi) were selected for this study. GDM was diagnosed according to the Finnish Current Care Guidelines. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the third trimester of pregnancy and eight weeks after delivery. Additionally, a subgroup of women (n = 505) also completed the EPDS during the first trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of GDM and PPDS in the whole study population were 14.1% and 10.3%, respectively. GDM was associated with an increased likelihood of belonging to the PPDS group (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.23-4.05; adjusted for maternal age at delivery, BMI in the first trimester, smoking before pregnancy, relationship status, nulliparity, delivery by caesarean section, gestational age at delivery, neonatal intensive care unit admission and third-trimester EPDS scores). A significant association between GDM and PPDS was found in the subgroup of women with available data on first-trimester depression (n = 505). LIMITATIONS: The participation rate of the KuBiCo study was relatively low (37%). CONCLUSIONS: Women with GDM may be at increased risk of PPDS. Future studies should investigate whether these women would benefit from a closer follow-up and possible supportive interventions during pregnancy and the postpartum period to avoid PPDS.

11.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 22(7): 611-636, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907531

RESUMO

Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe-brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior relationships. Our goal is to describe microbial effects in domains of cognitive significance and the associated challenges to stimulate interdisciplinary research on the contribution of this hidden kingdom to psychological processes.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive and potentially treatable neurodegenerative disease affecting elderly people, characterized by gait impairment and ventricular enlargement in brain imaging. Similar findings are seen in some patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of SCZ among patients suffering from probable or possible iNPH and the specific effects of comorbid SCZ on the outcome of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. METHODS: All medical records of the 521 iNPH patients in the NPH registry were retrospectively analyzed from 1991 until 2017. The prevalence of comorbidity of SCZ was determined and compared to that of general aged (≥65 yr) population in Finland. RESULTS: We identified a total of 16 (3.1%) iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ. The prevalence of SCZ among the iNPH patients was significantly higher compared to the general population (3.1% vs 0.9%, P < .001). All iNPH patients with comorbid SCZ were CSF shunted and 12 (75%) had a clinically verified shunt response 3 to 12 mo after the procedure. The CSF shunt response rate did not differ between patients with and without comorbid SCZ. CONCLUSION: SCZ seems to occur 3 times more frequently among iNPH patients compared to the general aged population in Finland. The outcome of the treatment was not affected by comorbid SCZ and therefore iNPH patients suffering from comorbid SCZ should not be left untreated. These results merit validation in other populations. In addition, further research towards the potential connection between these chronic conditions is warranted.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542265

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronic depression (CD) are common and challenging mental disorders. Maladaptive cognitive schemas have been proposed to increase vulnerability to both disorders. In order to elucidate the role of maladaptive cognitive schemas in BPD and CD, this study compared psychiatric outpatients with BPD (N = 30) and CD (N = 30) in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The groups were compared using the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended (YSQ-S2-extended) and the 15D health status questionnaire. BPD patients showed higher endorsement on the majority of EMSs, poorer social functioning, and greater concurrent distress than CD patients. However, after controlling for concurrent effects of psychological distress, the groups did not differ in 14 out of the 18 EMSs. These findings point to significant similarities in maladaptive beliefs between the 2 disorders and do not support broad, specific patterns of EMSs associated with either disorder. The results highlight the need for further study of the role of maladaptive schemas in the development and treatment of chronic mental disorders.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 229: 145-151, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. We compared nitric oxide metabolism, i.e., the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) and related serum amino acids, between MDD patients and non-depressed controls, and between remitted and non-remitted MDD patients. METHODS: Ninety-nine MDD patients and 253 non-depressed controls, aged 20-71 years, provided background data via questionnaires. Fasting serum samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to determine the serum levels of ornithine, arginine, citrulline, and symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine. GABR was calculated as arginine divided by the sum of ornithine plus citrulline. We compared the above measures between: 1) MDD patients and controls, 2) remitted (n=33) and non-remitted (n = 45) MDD patients, and 3) baseline and follow-up within the remitted and non-remitted groups. RESULTS: Lower arginine levels (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and lower GABR (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.50) were associated with the MDD vs. the non-depressed group after adjustments for potential confounders. The remitted group showed a decrease in GABR, arginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine, and an increase in ornithine after the follow-up compared with within-group baseline values. The non-remitted group displayed an increase in arginine and ornithine levels and a decrease in GABR. No significant differences were recorded between the remitted and non-remitted groups. LIMITATIONS: The MDD group was not medication-free. CONCLUSIONS: Arginine bioavailability may be decreased in MDD. This could impair the production of nitric oxide, and thus add to oxidative stress in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Arginina/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Disponibilidade Biológica , Citrulina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Ornitina/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Scand J Psychol ; 58(4): 318-323, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636271

RESUMO

Recent evidence supports the association between healthy dietary patterns and a reduced risk of depression. The objective was: (1) to examine the associations between dietary patterns and alexithymic features; and (2) investigate whether these possible associations are explained by depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional study among the Finnish general population aged 25-65 years. The study population was a part of the population-based Kuopio Depression Study (KUDEP) conducted in central-eastern Finland (n = 1747). Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns from 22 predefined food groups, which were extracted by factor analysis. Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and depression using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21). Altogether, 173 of the study subjects (9.9%) were alexithymic. Three dietary patterns were identified: "prudent," "Western" and "traditional." Lower scores for a healthy prudent dietary pattern and higher scores for an unhealthy Western dietary pattern were associated with an increased likelihood of belonging to the alexithymic group among subjects with elevated depressive symptoms. Among subjects without depressive symptoms, alexithymia was associated with lower scores in the prudent dietary pattern, but also with higher scores in the traditional dietary pattern. General population subjects with alexithymic features may have unhealthier dietary patterns than non-alexithymic subjects.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 71(4): 329-335, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is suggested to contribute to the development of dementia. However, prospective longitudinal data from middle-aged populations are scarce. METHODS: We investigated a population-based sample of 2386 men aged 42-62 years at baseline during 1984-1989. Participants having a history of mental illnesses, psychiatric medication, Parkinson's disease or dementia within 2 years after baseline (n=296) were excluded. Difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep, sleep duration and daytime tiredness were enquired. Dementia diagnoses (n=287) between 1984 and 2014 were obtained through linkage with hospital discharge, national death and special reimbursement registers. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed for all dementias, and separately for Alzheimer's disease (n=234) and other phenotypes (n=53). Additional analyses were performed on a subsample of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype-tested population (n=1199). RESULTS: The risk ratio for dementia was 1.58 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.27) in men with frequent sleep disturbance after adjustments for age, examination year, elevated depressive symptoms, physical activity, alcohol consumption, cumulative smoking history, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, cardiovascular disease history, education years and living alone. Daytime tiredness and sleep duration were not associated with dementia in adjusted analysis. In the APOE subsample, both APOE ε4 genotype and frequent sleep disturbance were associated with increased dementia risk, but in the interaction analysis they had no joint effect. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported frequent sleep disturbance in middle-aged men may relate to the development of dementia in later life. Having an APOE ε4 genotype did not affect the relationship.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Sono
19.
J Affect Disord ; 213: 151-155, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a major public health challenge worldwide, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-3 PUFAs, have been found to inversely associate with the risk of depression. However, only few cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), an n-6 PUFA with anti-inflammatory effects, and depression. The aims of the present study were to examine an association between serum DGLA and the risk of depression, and to study whether the potential association is mediated via inflammation. METHODS: A 20-year prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) follow-up study was conducted from 1984 to 1989 with 2179 middle-aged and older Finnish men (42-60 years old at baseline). The baseline concentrations of serum fatty acids, including DGLA, were determined. A hospital discharge diagnosis of depression was used as the main outcome and obtained from linkage to National Hospital Discharge Register. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured to assess inflammation. RESULTS: An inverse association between serum DGLA concentration and incidence of depression was found after adjustment for several potential confounders (Hazard ratio HR 0.53, CI 0.36-0.79, P=0.002). The association between DGLA and depression was not dependent on inflammation (P-interaction=0.618). LIMITATIONS: Our findings may not be generalizable to individuals below middle-age or women. Moreover, we were unable to consider cases with mild depression in the longitudinal setting. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum DGLA concentrations may predict lower risk of develop depression in elderly men. Further studies are warranted to address potential mechanisms as mechanism behind this association remains unclear.


Assuntos
Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Soro/metabolismo
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