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1.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761770

RESUMO

Progress towards high performance X-ray detection and dynamic imaging applications, including nondestructive inspection, homeland security, and medical diagnostics, requires scintillators with a high light yield, a reasonable decay time, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Recently, copper halide scintillators have drawn tremendous attention due to their outstanding radioluminescence performance. Here, we first employed ß-Cs3Cu2Cl5 as a high-performance scintillator, with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 94.6%, a radioluminescence light yield of 34 000 ± 4000 photons per MeV, a low detection limit of 81.7 nGyair s-1, and good operational stability under a total X-ray dose of 174.6 Gyair in air. In addition, this scintillator presents a high spatial resolution of 9.6 lp mm-1 at the modulation transfer function of 0.2 and a superb performance at 60 frames per second in our X-ray imaging system. Overall, this highly efficient scintillator demonstrates outstanding comprehensive performance and shows great potential for broad applications in X-ray detection and dynamic imaging.

2.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131489, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749091

RESUMO

Zein is potential in encapsulating and delivering polyphenols in food industry. Our study investigated the interaction mechanisms and structural changes of the interaction between ferulic acid (FA) and zein under different CaCl2 concentrations. Addition of CaCl2 resulted in amino acids micro-environment and structural changes of zein and zein/FA complex, which was dependent on different CaCl2 concentrations. At 0.5 mol/L CaCl2 concentration, zein/FA exhibited spherical particles with rough surfaces. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the decrease of α-helix and ß-sheets contents accompanied by the increase of ß-turns and unordered coil contents. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated FA interacted with zein mainly through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force. These observations might contribute to the decreased surface hydrophobicity and digestibility of zein. Results provided a better understanding of the interaction between zein and other molecules, which might be helpful for the development of zein particles as functional materials to encapsulate and deliver bioactive compounds.

3.
Food Funct ; 12(23): 12008-12021, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755750

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of polyphenol extract (TKP) and essential oil (TKO) from Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire (tsao-ko) on plasma total cholesterol and gut microbiota. Four groups of hamsters (n = 8 each) were fed one of four diets, respectively, namely a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.1% cholesterol, a HCD containing 0.5% cholestyramine (PCD), a HCD with daily oral administration of 1000 mg per kg body weight TKP, and a HCD with daily oral administration of 200 mg per kg body weight TKO for 6 weeks. TKP and TKO equally lowered plasma total cholesterol (TC) by 13-18% via increasing the fecal elimination of total acidic sterols by 50-191%. This might be due to up-regulation of liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at both transcriptional and translational levels. At a family level, TKP and TKO diets favorably modified the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae associated with acidic sterols and CYP7A1. It was therefore concluded that TKP and TKO were equally effective in alleviating hypercholesterolemia in hamsters via the interaction between gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism.

4.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784846

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Currently, the definitive treatment modality for HCC is radical resection. However, HCC cells possess biological characteristics of high invasion and metastasis. In this respect, to prevent cancer cell invasion and metastasis and early active intervention, we herein screened through the TCGA database for further prognostic analysis including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The Kaplan-Meier curve suggested that Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) might be an independent prognostic factor for HCC. Moreover, we performed mRNA expression analysis to measure CDK4 levels in normal liver tissues and HCC tissues, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to detect protein level of CDK4 in Non-tumor tissue and HCC tissues collected from patients. Our findings indicated that the expression of CDK4 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with Non-tumor tissue in HCC, which increased from HCC stage 1 to 3. Furthermore, the results of transwell-assay indicated that knocking down CDK4 significantly suppresses the invasion and migration of HCC cells, and the results of bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes closely associated with CDK4 are potentially worthy of further investigation. Additionally, the results of Western Blot indicated CDK4 regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC,and CDK4 appears to regulate EMT and HCC progression via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Collectively, this study found the key target gene through bioinformatic analysis and further functional validation through cell experiments. In particular, CDK4 is anticipated to become a crucial hub gene to snipe the metastasis of cancer cells in HCC.

5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 156, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A complex set of perturbations occur in cytokines and hormones in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and related cardiometabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Evidence for the genetic regulation of these cytokines and hormones is limited, particularly in African-ancestry populations. In order to improve our understanding of the biology of cardiometabolic traits, we investigated the genetic architecture of a large panel of obesity- related cytokines and hormones among Africans with replication analyses in African Americans. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 4432 continental Africans, enrolled from Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study, for 13 obesity-related cytokines and hormones, including adipsin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-RA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, visfatin, insulin, glucagon, and ghrelin. Exact and local replication analyses were conducted in African Americans (n = 7990). The effects of sex, body mass index (BMI), and T2D on results were investigated through stratified analyses. RESULTS: GWAS identified 39 significant (P value < 5 × 10-8) loci across all 13 traits. Notably, 14 loci were African-ancestry specific. In this first GWAS for adipsin and ghrelin, we detected 13 and 4 genome-wide significant loci respectively. Stratified analyses by sex, BMI, and T2D showed a strong effect of these variables on detected loci. Eight novel loci were successfully replicated: adipsin (3), GIP (1), GLP-1 (1), and insulin (3). Annotation of these loci revealed promising links between these adipocytokines and cardiometabolic outcomes as illustrated by rs201751833 for adipsin and blood pressure and locus rs759790 for insulin level and T2D in lean individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified genetic variants underlying variation in multiple adipocytokines, including the first loci for adipsin and ghrelin. We identified population differences in variants associated with adipocytokines and highlight the importance of stratification for discovery of loci. The high number of African-specific loci detected emphasizes the need for GWAS in African-ancestry populations, as these loci could not have been detected in other populations. Overall, our work contributes to the understanding of the biology linking adipocytokines to cardiometabolic traits.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43787-43794, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467752

RESUMO

In ferroelectric-based integrated devices, there are usually buffer layers between ferroelectric films and semiconductor substrates. Here, Bix%FeO3-δ (x = 95, 100, and 105) (BFOx) films are prepared directly on n-Si substrates by the sol-gel method, and the variation of the hysteresis loops with Bi content and heat treatment is investigated. With the help of the dielectric measurement and the composition analysis, a PN heterojunction is believed to exist at the BFOx/Si interface. The Bi/Fe ratio determines not only the type and concentration of charged defects in the films but also the height of the interface barrier and its binding effect on mobile charges. Furthermore, the distribution and the migration of charges can be regulated reversibly by heat treatment. This work reveals the interaction between ferroelectric films and semiconductor substrates, providing an important reference for the design and application of ferroelectric/semiconductor heterostructures.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2984-2994, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467688

RESUMO

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Naoxueshu Oral Liquid in treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, four Chinese databases, four English databases, clinical trials registration center(ClinicalTrials.gov) and Chinese clinical trial registry were retrieved. The retrieval time was from the establishment of each database to September 9, 2020. According to the set criteria, the randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Naoxueshu Oral Liquid combined with conventional Western medicine was selected. The "Cochrane bias risk assessment" tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. RevMan 5.4.1 was used to conduct Meta-analysis of the included studies and GRADE system was used to evaluate the evidence quality of the outcome indicators. Eleven studies were finally included, with a total sample size of 1 221 cases, 612 cases in the treatment group and 609 cases in the control group. Meta-analysis showed that Naoxueshu Oral Liquid combined with conventional Western medicine had no significant difference compare with conventional Western medicine in reducing National Institute of health stroke scale(NIHSS) after 2 weeks of treatment for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage(MD=-1.59,95%CI[-3.46,0.29],P=0.10), but was superior to conventional Western medicine after 30 d of treatment(MD=-1.16,95%CI [-1.39,-0.94],P<0.000 01). Naoxueshu Oral Liquid combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine in improving Glasgow coma scale(MD=1.00,95%CI[0,2.00],P=0.05) and reducing the incidence of secondary brain insults(RR=0.38,95%CI[0.24,0.59],P<0.000 1), but there was no significant difference in increasing Barthel index(MD=1.00,95%CI[-0.30,2.30],P=0.13). In terms of effective rate, studies using Guideline for clinical trials of new patent Chinese medicines, NHISS or Glasgow outcome scale(GOS) had shown that Naoxueshu Oral Liquid combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine(RR_(Guideline for clinical trials of new patent Chinese medicines)=1.27,95%CI[1.10,1.46],P=0.001;RR_(NHISS)=1.26,95%CI[1.13,1.40],P<0.000 1;RR_(GOS)=1.54,95%CI[1.22,1.93],P=0.000 2). In reduction of hematoma volume, Naoxueshu Oral Liquid combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment(MD_(2 week)=-2.31,95%CI[-3.12,-1.49],P<0.000 01;MD_(4 week)=-2.04,95%CI[-2.41,-1.68],P<0.000 01). GRADE system showed that the evidence level of the above outcome indicators was low and extremely low. In terms of adverse reactions, two of the included studies reported mild adverse reactions, and the rest of studies were not mentioned, so this study was not able to make a positive evaluation of the safety of Naoxueshu Oral Liquid. This study showed that compared with conventional Western medicine, combined Naoxueshu Oral Liquid may be better for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. However, due to the high bias risk in the included studies, more large-sample and high-quality RCTs are still needed in the future.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2995-3006, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467689

RESUMO

The effect of oral or nasal feeding with Chinese patent medicine on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage was systematically evaluated by using the method of network Meta-analysis. Four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, CBM), three English databases(Medline, EMbase, Cochrane Library) and ClinicalTrials.gov were retrieved through computers. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Chinese patent medicine combined with Western medicine in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were screened out according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and Stata 16.0 software was used to analyze the outcome indicators. A total of 3 888 literatures were retrieved, and 30 studies involving 6 kinds of Chinese patent medicines were finally included. The total sample size was 2 758 cases, including 1 401 cases in the treatment group and 1 357 cases in the control group. According to the results of network Meta-analysis,(1)in terms of improving the degree of nerve function defect, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined with Tongxinluo Capsules>combined with Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills>conventional Western medicine;(2)in terms of reducing the amount of residual cerebral hematoma, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>conventional Western medicine;(3)in terms of improving ability of daily living, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Shenzhi Huoxue Capsules>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills>combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>conventional Western medicine;(4)in terms of improving total effective rate, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined with Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills=combined with Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>combined Tongxinluo Capsules>conventional Western medicine treatment. The results showed that in addition to conventional Western medicine therapy, the combined use with Chinese patent medicine can improve the clinical efficacy in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. However, due to the differences in the number and quality of various Chinese patent medicines included in the studies, and the lack of direct comparison of Chinese patent medicines, the ranking results still need to be verified by multi center, large-sample-size randomized double-blind trials in the future, so as to provide more reliable evidence support for clinical drug use.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , China , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4633-4643, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581071

RESUMO

To overview of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of Xingnaojing Injection(XNJ) in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). The systematic reviews concerning XNJ in the treatment of ICH were retrieved from four Chinese databases, four English databases, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and ClinicalTrail.gov, with the retrieval time set from their inception to September 2020. Following the independent screening and data extraction by two researchers, a measurement tool to assess systematic evaluation 2(AMSTAR 2) and grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation(GRADE) system were used to evaluate the metho-dological, reporting and evidence qualities of the 10 included systematic reviews. The results showed that XNJ was superior to the wes-tern medicine or conventional treatment in improving the effective rate and National Institutes of Health stroke scale(NIHSS) score, Barthel index(BI), and Glasgow coma scale(GCS) score and Chinese stroke scale(CSS) score, and reducing the mortality and cerebral hematoma volume, without inducing obvious adverse reactions. In general, the methodological, reporting and evidence qualities of the 10 included systematic reviews were poor. The AMSTAR 2 scores showed that key items No. 2 and No. 16 failed to meet the stan-dard, resulting in poor methodological quality. There was only one outcome indicator graded by GRADE as intermediate quality, 43% indicators as low quality, 42% indicators as extremely low quality, and none as high quality. These available evidences have suggested that the methodological, reporting and evidence qualities of the systematic evaluation concerning XNJ for the treatment of ICH need to be improved. Most evidences support that XNJ was better than the western medicine or conventional treatment in the treatment of ICH, but the methodological quality and the reliability of outcome indicators in relevant systematic review were low. More high-quality studies are still required for further verification.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Estados Unidos
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4601-4614, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581068

RESUMO

The study aims to analyze the outcome indicators of randomized controlled trial(RCT) of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage(HICH) in recent three years, and thus provide suggestions for the future studies in this field. Four English databases, four Chinese databases and two online registration websites of clinical trials were searched. The RCTs published between January 2018 and September 2020 were screened. The risk of bias was assessed and outcome measures were classified. A total of 151 839 articles were retrieved, of which 44 RCTs were included for analysis after screening. The outcome measures of the included RCTs were classified into 7 categories, among which the symptoms/signs category showed the highest reporting rate. National Institute of Health stroke scale(72.73%) was the most frequently reported outcome indicator, while the vo-lume of intracerebral hemorrhage determined by computerized tomography(36.36%) was the most frequently reported lab test outcome. Most studies collect the outcomes at the end of treatment, while 9 studies reported long-term outcomes 3 months or more after onset. Compared with those of international clinical trials, the application of some of the outcomes was reasonable, focusing on patients' symptoms, quality of life and objective outcomes. However, there were still several problems: unclear primary and secondary outcome measures, insufficient attention to long-term prognosis, insufficient attention to social function, few TCM outcomes, lack of measurement blindness and the use of unreasonable composite outcomes. It is recommended that researchers should rationally design the outcome indicators of clinical trials and develop the core outcome set.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4644-4653, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581072

RESUMO

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic the-rapy in treating hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage(HICH) patients compared with minimally invasive surgery or basic treatment. In this study, the four Chinese databases, the four English databases, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and ClinicalTrail.gov, all above were systematically and comprehensively retrieved from the time of database establishment to September 10, 2020. Rando-mized controlled trials(RCTs) were screened out according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria established in advanced. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated by the tool named "Cochrane bias risk assessment 6.1". Meta-analysis of the included studies was performed using RevMan 5.4, and the quality of outcome indicators was evaluated by the GRADE system. Finally, 17 studies were included, involving 1 852 patients with HICH, and the overall quality of the included studies was not high. According to Meta-analysis,(1)CSS score of the group of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy was superior to the group of minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy(MD=-3.50,95%CI[-4.39,-2.61],P<0.000 01);(2)NIHSS score of the group of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy was superior to the group of minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy(MD=-4.78,95%CI[-5.55,-4.00],P<0.000 01);(3)the cerebral hematoma volume of the group of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy was superior to the group of minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy(MD=-4.44,95%CI[-5.83,-3.04],P<0.000 01);(4)ADL score of the group of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy was superior to the group of minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy(MD=20.81,95%CI[17.25,24.37],P<0.000 01);(5)the GCS score of the group of acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy was superior to the group of minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy(MD=2.41,95%CI[1.90,2.91],P<0.000 01). The GRADE system showed an extremely low level of evidence for the above outcome indicators. Adverse reactions were mentioned only in two literatures, with no adverse reactions reported. The available evidence showed that acupuncture combined with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy had a certain efficacy in patients of HICH compared with minimally invasive surgery or basic therapy. However, due to the high risk of bias in the included studies, its true efficacy needs to be verified by more high-quality studies in the future.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12845-12858, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538494

RESUMO

Ketotic dairy cows exhibit a state of negative energy balance (NEB) characterized by elevated circulating levels of ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and fatty acids. Impaired hepatic insulin signaling in dairy cows occurs frequently during the transition into lactation, but its role on liver function during this period is not well known. In nonruminants, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a causal factor contributing to impaired insulin signaling in the liver. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of hepatic insulin and ER stress signaling and whether ER stress contributes to impaired insulin signaling in dairy cows with ketosis. Healthy (control cows, n = 10, BHB ≤0.6 mM) and ketotic (ketotic cows, n = 10, BHB ≥1.2 mM) cows at 3 to 10 d in milk were selected for liver biopsy and blood sampling before feeding. In vitro experiments were conducted with isolated hepatocytes from 5 healthy calves (1 d old, fasted female, 30-40 kg of body weight). Treatments included BHB (0, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6 mM), tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, a canonical inhibitor of ER stress), and different incubation times (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 12 h). Ketotic cows had lower daily milk yield (median: 29.50 vs. 23.00 kg), higher plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (median: 0.33 vs. 1.17 mM), BHB (median: 0.43 vs. 3.22 mM), aspartate aminotransferase (median: 70.58 vs. 155.70 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (median: 18.31 vs. 37.90 U/L), lower plasma glucose (median: 4.32 vs. 2.37 mg/dL), and revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (median: 0.39 vs. 0.37) compared with healthy cows. Increased abundance of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) and decreased abundance of phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß) in ketotic cows indicated a state of insulin resistance. In addition, abundance of phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol requiring protein-1α (IRE1α), and cleavage of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) were greater in the liver of ketotic cows. In vitro, at the early stages of incubation, treatment with BHB upregulated abundance of phosphorylated of IRE1α, PERK, and the cleavage of ATF6, as well as several unfolded protein response genes [X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)]. Furthermore, in response to increasing doses of BHB, the phosphorylation level of PERK, IRE1α, and the cleavage of ATF6, and the abundance of XBP1, GRP78, and CHOP increased. In addition, BHB treatment increased phosphorylation of IRS1 and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3ß, and upregulated abundance of gluconeogenic genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase). Importantly, these changes were reversed by inhibiting ER stress with TUDCA treatment. Overall, the present study indicated that reversing ER stress during ketosis might help alleviate hepatic insulin resistance. Targeting ER stress may represent a potential therapeutic target for controlling the negative aspects of ketosis on liver function.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Cetose , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Bovinos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases , Feminino , Hepatócitos , Insulina , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Fígado , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
13.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Risk-stratified endoscopic screening (RSES) has been suggested to improve screening efficiency. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of RSES and identify the optimal risk score thresholds for once in a lifetime esophageal cancer (EC) screening in high-risk areas of China. METHODS: From a healthcare system perspective, a Markov model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 13 RSES strategies (under different score thresholds for EC risk), universal endoscopic screening strategy, and no screening. Six cohorts of 100,000 participants with different screening ages (40-65 years) were followed up to the age of 77 years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), ie, incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, as the score threshold was lowered, additionally gained QALYs increased, with 49 to 172 QALYs and 329 to 1147 QALYs gained from screening performed at 40 and 65 years, respectively. RSES in all age scenarios had ICERs less than the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and 11 RSES strategies with score thresholds of 3 to 13 had lower ICERs than universal endoscopic screening. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of the GDP per capita (U.S.$10 276/QALY), RSES at score thresholds of 8 or 9 and universal endoscopic screening were the most cost-effective strategies at ages <55 and ≥55 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RSES is cost-effective and the score thresholds of 8 or 9 should be considered for screening ages <55 years. For individuals aged ≥55 years, universal endoscopic screening would be the optimal strategy.

14.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder involving neuromuscular junctions and more than half of MG patients manifested with extraocular muscle weakness initially. In the remained patients, ocular weakness may occur later in the course of the disease. However, little data are available about ocular involvement in such patients. Therefore, the study aims to investigate ocular weakness in MG patients with nonocular onset and evaluate the associated factors influencing it. METHODS: In our monocentric retrospective study, 54 adult-onset patients with MG with nonocular onset were included and were followed up for at least 2 years from the onset. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ptosis, diplopia, or both. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate the time to the ocular weakness, and log-rank tests were used to analyze the association between clinical characteristics and ocular weakness. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify factors associated with ocular involvement. RESULTS: A total of 47 (87.0%) patients developed ocular weakness during the study period. The median time to ocular weakness was 6.0 months. Time to the ocular involvement was earlier in patients with bulbar onset (P = 0.007), whereas patients receiving pyridostigmine monotherapy and immunomodulatory therapy had a longer median time of ocular weakness (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was noted between ocular weakness and age of onset, gender, and thymoma. The Cox analysis showed that bulbar onset was a risk factor of ocular weakness (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.99), whereas pyridostigmine monotherapy (adjusted HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13-0.60) and immunotherapy (adjusted HR 0.09, 95% CI 0.04-0.22) were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Eighty-seven percent of patients with MG with nonocular onset developed ocular weakness. Bulbar onset was an independent risk factor for ocular involvement, whereas pyridostigmine and immunotherapy were protective factors.

15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106321, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339910

RESUMO

Child restraint system (CRS) is effective to protect child passenger safety in a motor vehicle crash. However, research on CRS is limited and the use rate of CRS is not high in China. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the use of CRS and its associated factors in Shenzhen. Via the method of cluster random sampling, parents who had at least one child aged 0 to 6 and owned a car from nine community health service centers and eight kindergartens were invited to complete the self-administered questionnaire during April and May 2014, including their knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of CRS and socio-demographics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the factors associated with CRS use. A total of 3768 parents participated in the survey, with a mean age of 33.94. Parents' knowledge and attitude regarding CRS were fair, with the mean score of 3.07 and 3.33 out of 6, respectively, and only 22.8% of them used CRS for their child passengers. Children aged below 3 years, drivers owing expensive cars and wearing seatbelts, and parents with higher knowledge and attitude scores had greater likelihoods to use CRS. Moreover, trip frequency and distance were also significantly associated with CRS use. The findings indicate that the use rate of CRS is low in Shenzhen and parents have fair levels of knowledge and attitude regarding CRS use. Comprehensive public education programs and legislative interventions are urgently required to increase the use of CRS and ensure child passenger safety in Shenzhen.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Automóveis , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Gravidez
16.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1938-1951, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459690

RESUMO

In this paper, bis (indol-3-yl) methanes (BIMs) were synthesised and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. All synthesised compounds showed potential α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Compounds 5 g (IC50: 7.54 ± 1.10 µM), 5e (IC50: 9.00 ± 0.97 µM), and 5 h (IC50: 9.57 ± 0.62 µM) presented strongest inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, that were ∼ 30 times stronger than acarbose. Compounds 5 g (IC50: 32.18 ± 1.66 µM), 5 h (IC50: 31.47 ± 1.42 µM), and 5 s (IC50: 30.91 ± 0.86 µM) showed strongest inhibitory activities towards α-amylase, ∼ 2.5 times stronger than acarbose. The mechanisms and docking simulation of the compounds were also studied. Compounds 5 g and 5 h exhibited bifunctional inhibitory activity against these two enzymes. Furthermore, compounds showed no toxicity against 3T3-L1 cells and HepG2 cells.HighlightsA series of bis (indol-3-yl) methanes (BIMs) were synthesised and evaluated inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and α-amylase.Compound 5g exhibited promising activity (IC50 = 7.54 ± 1.10 µM) against α-glucosidase.Compound 5s exhibited promising activity (IC50 = 30.91 ± 0.86 µM) against α-amylase.In silico studies were performed to confirm the binding interactions of synthetic compounds with the enzyme active site.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Indóis/síntese química , Metano/síntese química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Acarbose/química , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cinética , Metano/metabolismo , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7265-7276, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Esophageal cancer risk prediction models allow for risk-stratified endoscopic screening. We aimed to assess the quality of these models developed in the general population. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed and Embase databases from January 2000 through May 2021 was performed. Studies that developed or validated a model of esophageal cancer in the general population were included. Screening, data extraction, and risk of bias (ROB) assessment by the Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST) were performed independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Of the 13 models included in the qualitative analysis, 8 were developed for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the other 5 were developed for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Only two models conducted external validation. In the ESCC models, cigarette smoking was included in each model, followed by age, sex, and alcohol consumption. For EAC models, cigarette smoking and body mass index were included in each model, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, uses of acid-suppressant medicine, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug were exclusively included. The discriminative performance was reported in all studies, with C statistics ranging from 0.71 to 0.88, whereas only six models reported calibration. For ROB, all the models had a low risk in participant and outcome, but all models showed high risk in analysis, and 60% of models showed a high risk in predictors, which resulted in all models being classified as having overall high ROB. For model applicability, about 60% of these models had an overall low risk, with 30% of models of high risk and 10% of models of unclear risk, concerning the assessment of participants, predictors, and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Most current risk prediction models of esophageal cancer have a high ROB. Prediction models need further improvement in their quality and applicability to benefit esophageal cancer screening.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(29): 6961-6966, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283605

RESUMO

The halide perovskite X-ray detector can meet the urgent needs of low-dose medical imaging by X-rays. However, there is still a pressing challenge in lacking robust methods for large-scale fabrication of high-quality perovskite films with tunable thickness. Here we report a laminated fabrication of polycrystalline MAPbI3 by using solvent-free liquid perovskite molten-salt (PMS), that offers reduced toxic issue, scalable fabrication, and highly tunability in film thickness. Nylon membrane was chosen as a scaffold for the infiltration of PMS, which simultaneously acts as a physical barrier to suppress the ionic migration in the MAPbI3-nylon composite (denoted as MAPbI3-LLP). The enhanced material properties result in good stability and high performance of X-ray detectors that show low detection limit and high sensitivity. Additionally, single gamma-ray photon detection was realized by MAPbI3-LLP detectors. The promising performance characteristics of such polycrystalline detectors can accelerate the adoption of polycrystalline perovskites in X-ray imaging and gamma-ray detection.

19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 262: 120119, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243140

RESUMO

Unclear established standard of bran-fried Atractylodis Rhizoma (BFAR), a commonly used drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), compromised its clinical efficacy. In this study, we explored the correlation between color and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) feature with content of atractylodin, then established a rapid recognition model for the optimal degree of processing for BFAR preparation. The results of the Pearson analysis indicated that the color values were significantly and positively correlated with atractylodin content. The back propagation artificial neural network algorithm and cluster analysis revealed the color of different BFAR could be accurately divided into three categories; subsequently, the color range for the optimal degrees of stir-frying was established as follows: R[red value (105.79-127.25)], G[green value(75.84-89.64)], B[blue value(33.33-42.73)], L[Lightness (81.26-95.09)].Using NIR, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and cluster analysis, three types of BFAR were accurately identified. The prediction model of atractylodin content was established using partial least squares regression analysis. The R2 of the validation set was 0.9717 and the root mean square error was 0.026. In the color judgment model, the processing degree of 8 batches of BFAR from the market is inferior. According to the NIR judgment model, the processing degree of all samples from the market is inferior. In conclusion, the best fire degree of BFAR can be identified quickly and accurately based on our established model. It is a potential method for quality evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica processing.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Mineração de Dados , Furanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Rizoma , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
20.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 6277-6291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232875

RESUMO

This work presents a robust graph mapping approach for the unsupervised heterogeneous change detection problem in remote sensing imagery. To address the challenge that heterogeneous images cannot be directly compared due to different imaging mechanisms, we take advantage of the fact that the heterogeneous images share the same structure information for the same ground object, which is imaging modality-invariant. The proposed method first constructs a robust K -nearest neighbor graph to represent the structure of each image, and then compares the graphs within the same image domain by means of graph mapping to calculate the forward and backward difference images, which can avoid the confusion of heterogeneous data. Finally, it detects the changes through a Markovian co-segmentation model that can fuse the forward and backward difference images in the segmentation process, which can be solved by the co-graph cut. Once the changed areas are detected by the Markovian co-segmentation, they will be propagated back into the graph construction process to reduce the influence of changed neighbors. This iterative framework makes the graph more robust and thus improves the final detection performance. Experimental results on different data sets confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. Source code of the proposed method is made available at https://github.com/yulisun/IRG-McS.

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