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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 152-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794843

RESUMO

C-type lectins are Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins containing one or more carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity, including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two C-type lectins (designated ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2) were identified from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata which dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The open reading frames of ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 encoded polypeptides of 171 and 166 amino acids respectively, which were both composed of a signal peptide and a single CRD. The key motifs determining the carbohydrate binding specificity of ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 were respectively Glu-Pro-Ala (EPA) and Gln-Pro-Asn (QPN), which were firstly discovered in R. exoculata. ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 displayed similar pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) binding features and they bound three PAMPs-ß-glucan, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan-with relatively high affinity. In addition, both could efficiently recognize and bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. However, ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 exhibited different microbial agglutination activities: ReCTL-1 agglutinated Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while ReCTL-2 agglutinated Micrococcus luteus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. fluvialis. Both ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 inhibited the growth of V. fluvialis. All these results illustrated that ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 could function as important pattern-recognition receptors with broad nonself-recognition spectra and be involved in immune defense against invaders, but their specificities are not the same. In addition, the two ReCTLs possessed different carbohydrate binding specificities from each other and from the classical pattern: ReCTL-1 with an EPA motif bound d-galactose and l-mannose, while ReCTL-2 with a QPN motif bound d-fucose and N-acetylglucosamine.

2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 78: 238-247, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678793

RESUMO

Galectins are ß-galactoside binding lectins that play crucial roles in innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates through their conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, single- and four-CRD-containing galectins were identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgGal-2 and CgGal-3). The open reading frames (ORFs) of CgGal-2 and CgGal-3 encode polypeptides of 200 and 555 amino acids, respectively. All CRDs of CgGal-3 include two consensus motifs essential for ligand-binding, and a novel motif is present in CgGal-2. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) profiles were determined for recombinant rCgGal-2 and rCgGal-3, and rCgGal-2 displayed low binding affinity for PAMPs, while rCgGal-3 bound various PAMPs including glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and peptidoglycan (PGN) with relatively high affinity. Furthermore, rCgGal-2 and rCgGal-3 exhibited different microbe binding profiles; rCgGal-2 bound to Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Vibrio vulnificus) and fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris), while rCgGal-3 bound to these microbes but also to Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus). In addition, rCgGal-3 possessed microbial agglutinating activity and coagulation activity against fungi and erythrocytes, respectively, but rCgGal-2 lacked any agglutinating activity. Carbohydrate binding specificity analysis showed that rCgGal-3 specifically bound D-galactose. Furthermore, rCgGal-2 and rCgGal-3 functioned as opsonin participating in the clearance against invaders in C. gigas. Thus, CgGal-2 with one CRD and CgGal-3 with four CRDs are new members of the galectin family involved in immune responses against bacterial infection. Differences in the organisation and amino acid sequences of CRDs may affect their specificity and affinity for nonself substances.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/genética , Galectina 2/genética , Galectina 3/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Crassostrea/imunologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Galectina 2/química , Galectina 2/imunologia , Galectina 3/química , Galectina 3/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
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