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1.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633240

RESUMO

China is the origin and distribution center of kiwifruit, as well as the country with the largest cultivated area and output of kiwifruit. A previous study found that a new kiwifruit virus, Actinidia yellowing ringspot virus (AYRSpV), has been detected in kiwifruit samples with yellowed leaves. The incidence of this virus was high in kiwifruit plantings in Shaanxi Province. To determine the symptoms of this viral infection and the effects of this virus on the yield and quality of kiwifruits, we measured leaf chlorophyll levels and the fruit yield, total sugar, total acid and dry matter contents of 'Hayward' kiwifruits grafted with AYRSpV-infected scions. The results showed that after AYRSpV infection, symptoms including chlorotic ringspots were mainly observed in the spring and gradually recovered with high summer temperatures. A few of the leaves that did not recover showed symptoms of albinism, which lasted until the leaves fell. We found that AYRSpV infection could reduce the chlorophyll content of 'Hayward' kiwifruit by 74.61-76.64%, the fruit yield by 14.50-24.10%, the sugar to acid ratio by 50.09-50.57%, and the fruit dry matter content by 1.67-1.78%. Our results showed that AYRSpV infection could significantly affect the yield and quality of 'Hayward' kiwifruit.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650949

RESUMO

Background: The disease burden of hepatitis E remains high. We used a new method (richness, diversity, evenness, and similarity analyses) to classify cities according to the occupational classification of hepatitis E patients across regions in China and compared the results of cluster analysis. Methods: Data on reported hepatitis E cases from 2008 to 2018 were collected from 24 cities (9 in Jilin Province, 13 in Jiangsu Province, Xiamen City, and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture). Traditional statistical methods were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E patients, while the new method and cluster analysis were used to classify the cities by analyzing the occupational composition across regions. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis E in eastern China (Jiangsu Province) was similar to that in the south (Xiamen City) and southwest of China (Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture), but higher than that in the north (Jilin Province). The age of hepatitis E patients was concentrated between 41 and 60 years, and the sex ratio ranged from 1:1.6 to 1:3.4. Farming was the most highly prevalent occupation; other sub-prevalent occupations included retirement, housework and unemployment. The incidence of occupations among migrant workers, medical staff, teachers, and students was moderate. There were several occupational types with few or no records, such as catering industry, caregivers and babysitters, diaspora children, childcare, herders, and fishing (boat) people. The occupational similarity of hepatitis E was high among economically developed cities, such as Nanjing, Wuxi, Baicheng, and Xiamen, while the similarity was small among cities with large economic disparities, such as Nanjing and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture. A comparison of the classification results revealed more similarities and some differences when using these two methods. Conclusion: In China, the factors with the greatest influence on the prevalence of hepatitis E are living in the south, farming as an occupation, being middle-aged or elderly, and being male. The 24 cities we studied were highly diverse and moderately similar in terms of the occupational distribution of patients with hepatitis E. We confirmed the validity of the new method on in classifying cities according to their occupational composition by comparing it with the clustering method.

4.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263766

RESUMO

BackgroundThe worldwide surge in coronavirus cases has led to the COVID-19 testing demand surge. Rapid, accurate, and cost-effective COVID-19 screening tests working at a population level are in imperative demand globally. MethodsBased on the eye symptoms of COVID-19, we developed and tested a COVID-19 rapid prescreening model using the eye-region images captured in China and Spain with cellphone cameras. The convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-based model was trained on these eye images to complete binary classification task of identifying the COVID-19 cases. The performance was measured using area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and F1. The application programming interface was open access. FindingsThe multicenter study included 2436 pictures corresponding to 657 subjects (155 COVID-19 infection, 23{middle dot}6%) in development dataset (train and validation) and 2138 pictures corresponding to 478 subjects (64 COVID-19 infections, 13{middle dot}4%) in test dataset. The image-level performance of COVID-19 prescreening model in the China-Spain multicenter study achieved an AUC of 0{middle dot}913 (95% CI, 0{middle dot}898-0{middle dot}927), with a sensitivity of 0{middle dot}695 (95% CI, 0{middle dot}643-0{middle dot}748), a specificity of 0{middle dot}904 (95% CI, 0{middle dot}891 -0{middle dot}919), an accuracy of 0{middle dot}875(0{middle dot}861-0{middle dot}889), and a F1 of 0{middle dot}611(0{middle dot}568-0{middle dot}655). InterpretationThe CNN-based model for COVID-19 rapid prescreening has reliable specificity and sensitivity. This system provides a low-cost, fully self-performed, non-invasive, real-time feedback solution for continuous surveillance and large-scale rapid prescreening for COVID-19. FundingThis project is supported by Aimomics (Shanghai) Intelligent

5.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327615

RESUMO

The present study established a necroptosis model in vitro and investigated the role of HMGB1 in cell necroptosis. A combination of tumor necrosis factor-α and z-VAD-fmk was used to induce necroptosis in L929 cells with necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 applied as an intervention. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure cell necroptosis. Western blotting assay was applied to detect the expression of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) and HMGB1. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay was used to confirm the interaction between HMGB1 and RIPK3. Our study demonstrated that HMGB1 migrated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the onset of necroptosis and was subsequently released passively to the extracellular matrix. Further experiments determined that the binding of HMGB1 with RIPK3 in the cytoplasm was loose during necroptosis. By contrast, when necroptosis was inhibited, the interaction in the cytoplasm was tight suggesting that this association between HMGB1 and RIPK3 might affect its occurrence. In conclusion, the transfer of HMGB1 from nucleus to cytoplasm, and its interaction with RIPK3 might be potentially involved in necroptosis.

6.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21258626

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected several million people since 2019. Despite various vaccines of COVID-19 protect million people in many countries, the worldwide situations of more the asymptomatic and mutated strain discovered are urging the more sensitive COVID-19 testing in this turnaround time. Unfortunately, it is still nontrivial to develop a new fast COVID-19 screening method with the easier access and lower cost, due to the technical and cost limitations of the current testing methods in the medical resource-poor districts. On the other hand, there are more and more ocular manifestations that have been reported in the COVID-19 patients as growing clinical evidence[1]. This inspired this project. We have conducted the joint clinical research since January 2021 at the ShiJiaZhuang City, Hebei province, China, which approved by the ethics committee of The fifth hospital of ShiJiaZhuang of Hebei Medical University. We undertake several blind tests of COVID-19 patients by Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Meantime as an important part of the ongoing globally COVID-19 eye test program by AIMOMICS since February 2020, we propose a new fast screening method of analyzing the eye-region images, captured by common CCD and CMOS cameras. This could reliably make a rapid risk screening of COVID-19 with the sustainable stable high performance in different countries and races. For this clinical trial in ShiJiaZhuang, we compare and analyze 1194 eye-region images of 115 patients, including 66 COVID-19 positive patients, 44 rehabilitation patients (nucleic acid changed from positive to negative), 5 liver patients, as well as 117 healthy people. Remarkably, we consistently achieved very high testing results (> 0.94) in terms of both sensitivity and specificity in our blind test of COVID-19 patients. This confirms the viability of the COVID-19 fast screening by the eye-region manifestations. Particularly and impressively, the results have the similar conclusion as the other clinical trials of the globally COVID-19 eye test program[1]. Hopefully, this series of ongoing globally COVID-19 eye test study, and potential rapid solution of fully self-performed COVID risk screening method, can be inspiring and helpful to more researchers in the world soon. Our model for COVID-19 rapid prescreening have the merits of the lower cost, fully self-performed, non-invasive, importantly real-time, and thus enables the continuous health surveillance. We further implement it as the open accessible APIs, and provide public service to the world. Our pilot experiments show that our model is ready to be usable to all kinds of surveillance scenarios, such as infrared temperature measurement device at airports and stations, or directly pushing to the target people groups smartphones as a packaged application.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 683905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122394

RESUMO

Xylan oligosaccharides (XOS) can promote proliferation of Pediococcus acidilactic BCC-1, which benefits gut health and growth performance of broilers. The study aimed to investigate the effect of Pediococcus acidilactic BCC-1 (referred to BBC) and XOS on the gut metabolome and microbiota of broilers. The feed conversion ratio of BBC group, XOS group and combined XOS and BBC groups was lower than the control group (P < 0.05). Combined XOS and BBC supplementation (MIX group) elevated butyrate content of the cecum (P < 0.05) and improved ileum morphology by enhancing the ratio of the villus to crypt depth (P < 0.05). The 16S rDNA results indicated that both XOS and BBC induced high abundance of butyric acid bacteria. XOS treatment elevated Clostridium XIVa and the BBC group enriched Anaerotruncus and Faecalibacterium. In contrast, MIX group induced higher relative abundance of Clostridiaceae XIVa, Clostridiaceae XIVb and Lachnospiraceae. Besides, MIX group showed lower abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter. Metabolome analysis showed that all the 3 treatment groups (XOS, BBC and MIX) showed lower concentrations of sorbitol and both XOS and BBC group had higher concentrations of pyridoxine levels than CT group. Besides, XOS and BBC groups enhanced the content of hydroxyphenyl derivatives 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 1 and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, respectively (P < 0.05). Notably, MIX group enhanced both 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 1 and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (P < 0.05). Thus, XOS and BBC may have a synergistic role to improve the performance of broilers by modulating gut microbiota and metabolome.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 72-80, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the transmission mechanisms of the avian influenza A(H5N6) virus. METHODS: This study explored the live poultry feeding and trading network (LPFTN) around Changsha city, China. Field epidemiological investigations were performed in Changsha to investigate the LPFTN with the environmental samples systematically collected during 2014-2015 to monitor and analyze the spread of the A(H5N6) virus. Two surveillance systems were also applied to find possible human cases of A(H5N6) infection. RESULT: The information of all the 665 live poultry farming sites, five wholesale markets, and 223 retail markets in Changsha was collected to investigate the LPFTN. Moreover, about 840 environmental samples were systematically collected from the LPFTN during 2014-2015 to monitor the spread of the A(H5N6) virus, with 8.45% (71/840) positive for the N6 subtype. Furthermore, the full genome sequences of 10 A(H5N6) viruses detected from the environmental samples were obtained, which were then characterized and phylogenetically analyzed with the corresponding gene segments of the A(H5N6) virus obtained from GenBank, to determine the source of human infection. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the LPFTN provided a platform for the H5N6 transmission, and formed an infectious pool for the spread of the virus to humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9545, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953243

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore the key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A susceptible-exposed-infectious-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. The information of each confirmed case and asymptomatic infection was collected from Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increasing trend. The proportion of elder people in the asymptomatic infections was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic infections, accounting for 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate (SAR) of asymptomatic infections was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no statistical significance was observed (χ2 = 0.052, P = 0.819) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43, which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions had not been strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would have lasted about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate (TAR) and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increase trend. Asymptomatic infections had the same transmissibility as symptomatic infections. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which turned out to be exceedingly effective in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3609028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880365

RESUMO

Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive and invasive malignancy that presents at advanced clinical stage with no more effective treatments. Development of a method for its early detection would be useful, also new therapeutic target need to be discovered; however, there is a lack of information about its oncogenic driver gene mutations. Objectives: We aim to identify the SCLC-related genomic variants that associate with clinical staging and serum protein biomarkers observed in other types of lung cancer. Methods: We screened formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissues of 32 Chinese SCLC patients using the 303 oncogenic driver gene panel generated by Tiling PCR amplification sequencing (tPAS) and analyzed the patients' corresponding serum protein levels of CYFRA21-1 CEA, NSE, and SCCA. Results: In total, we found 147 SCLC-related mutant genes, among these, three important genes (TP53, RB1, KMT2D) as well as five novel genes LRRK2, BRCA1, PTCH1, ARID2, and APC that altogether occurred in 90% of patients. Furthermore, increased mutations to 6 genes (WT1, NOTCH1, EPHA3, KDM6A, SETD2, ACVR1B) significantly associated with higher serum NSE levels (P = 0.0016) and higher clinical stages II + III compared to stage I (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Our panel is relatively reliable in detecting the oncogenic mutations of Chinese SCLC patients. Based on our findings, it may be possible to combine SCLC-related mutations and serum NSE for a simple detection of clinical staging.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Oncogenes , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009233, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global infectious disease; particularly, it has a high disease burden in China. This study was aimed to explore the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease by analyzing its epidemiological characteristics, and to calculate the early warning signals of HFMD by using a logistic differential equation (LDE) model. METHODS: This study included datasets of HFMD cases reported in seven regions in Mainland China. The early warning time (week) was calculated using the LDE model with the key parameters estimated by fitting with the data. Two key time points, "epidemic acceleration week (EAW)" and "recommended warning week (RWW)", were calculated to show the early warning time. RESULTS: The mean annual incidence of HFMD cases per 100,000 per year was 218, 360, 223, 124, and 359 in Hunan Province, Shenzhen City, Xiamen City, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunxiao County across the southern regions, respectively and 60 and 34 in Jilin Province and Longde County across the northern regions, respectively. The LDE model fitted well with the reported data (R2 > 0.65, P < 0.001). Distinct temporal patterns were found across geographical regions: two early warning signals emerged in spring and autumn every year across southern regions while one early warning signals in summer every year across northern regions. CONCLUSIONS: The disease burden of HFMD in China is still high, with more cases occurring in the southern regions. The early warning of HFMD across the seven regions is heterogeneous. In the northern regions, it has a high incidence during summer and peaks in June every year; in the southern regions, it has two waves every year with the first wave during spring spreading faster than the second wave during autumn. Our findings can help predict and prepare for active periods of HFMD.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano
12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 625169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767993

RESUMO

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4 (NEDD4) plays two opposite roles in carcinogenesis. It has been reported that NEDD4 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression; however, little is known about its potential function and molecular mechanism in HCC in the context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we analyzed NEDD4 expression in 199 HCC specimens with or without HBV infection and observed that NEDD4 expression was unrelated to HBV exposure in HCC tumor tissue but that high NEDD4 expression conferred better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than low NEDD4 expression in patients with HBV-associated HCC. Upregulation of NEDD4 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion in HBV-related HCC cell lines. We demonstrated that NEDD4 interacts with HBV X protein (HBx) and that HBx upregulation could reverse the suppression of proliferation and mobility induced by NEDD4 overexpression. Furthermore, we confirmed that NEDD4 induced the degradation of HBx in a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent manner via K48-linked ubiquitination. Our findings suggest that NEDD4 exerts a tumor-suppressive effect in HBV-associated HCC by acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for HBx degradation and provide new insights into the function of NEDD4.

13.
Environ Int ; 151: 106452, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639345

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) is an emerging environmental pollutant and exposure to MPs has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in both wild and laboratory animals. The toxicity of MPs depends on concentration, exposure time, chemical composition and size distribution, but the impacts of particle size remain inconclusive yet. In this study, adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were exposed to different size of polystyrene MPs (PS-MPs) with concentration of 10 mg/L for 60 days and the growth performance, lipid metabolism, immune parameters and gut microbiome were determined. Results indicated that particle size is a dominant factor causing lipid metabolism disorders and hepatic toxicity in PS-MPs-exposed fish. The bodyweight, adipocyte size and hepatic lipid contents were significantly increased in 200 µm PS-MPs-exposed fish, while 2 and 10 µm PS-MPs-exposed fish exhibited liver injury principally manifested asthepresence oflittlefibrosis and inflammation. Given that larger particles could not enter the circulatory system, the impacts of PS-MPs on intestinal microbial biota homeostasis were further investigated. The results not only showed the characterization of gut microbial communities in Oryzias melastigma, but also indicated that microbial diversity and composition were altered in gut of fish exposed to PS-MPs, in particular 200 µm PS-MPs. The differentially abundant bacterial taxa in PS-MPs-exposed fish mainly belonged to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria. And furthermore, increased abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased Fusobacteria were correlated with the increased bodyweight. Intestinal microbiome should play a critical role in regulating host lipid metabolism in fish exposed to lager size of PS-MPs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Homeostase , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Mol Cell Oncol ; 8(1): 1863739, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553611

RESUMO

The clinical introduction of magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) has been hindered by current available agents with poor magnetic-to-thermal conversion efficiency and biocompatibility. It is believed that the genetically engineered magnetic nanocages of encapsulin-produced magnetic iron oxide nanocomposites (eMIONs) have great potential as clinically translatable MHT agents for cancer magneto-catalytic theranostics.

15.
Cell Cycle ; 20(2): 194-203, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459112

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been identified as the leading cause of premature deaths in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), accounting for about 40 to 50% of all deaths. Macrophage inflammation is regarded as a key point to link to the two diseases. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have acknowledged as a regulator of inflammation significantly. Here, we firstly found that lncRNA myocardial infarction associated transcript (lncRNA MIAT), a crucial lncRNA to regulate CVD, expressed increasingly in synovium and myocardial tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Besides, we also verified that the increased infiltration of macrophage occurred in those tissues of the CIA. In vitro, we found that macrophage inflammation induced by LPS could up-regulate lncRNA MIAT expression. LncRNA MIAT seemed to inhibit the expression of IL-1ß, TNF-ɑ and be suppressed by ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation pathway. Therefore, these data indicated an anti-inflammatory effect of lncRNA MIAT in macrophage and an original research direction for high cardiovascular risk in RA.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa430, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123609

RESUMO

Here we report a case study of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak event during bus trips of an index patient in Hunan Province, China. This retrospective investigation suggests potential airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the possibility of superspreading events in certain close contact and closed space settings, which should be taken into account when control strategies are planned.

17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008772, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057334

RESUMO

Tsutsugamushi disease (TD) is an acute infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological features of TD, investigate chigger mites and their hosts, and investigate the meteorological factors affecting TD incidence and the host of O. tsutsugamushi in Xiamen city, China. Data on reported TD cases were collected from 2006 to 2018. Spearman's correlation test were used for identifying the relationship between meteorological factors and TD incidence and whether meteorological factors affect the host of O. tsutsugamushi. The incidence of reported TD increased gradually from 2006, reached a peak of 4.59 per 100,000 persons in 2014, and then decreased gradually. The TD incidence was seasonal, with epidemic periods occurred mainly in summer and autumn. Patients aged 40-60 years had the highest proportion of cases, accounting for 44.44% of the total cases. Farmers had the largest number of cases among all occupational groups. Rattus Norvegicus was the most common host, accounting for the largest proportion of rats (73.00%), and the highest rat density was observed in March and October every year. There were significant positive correlations between the number of reported cases and average temperature, sunshine duration, and rainfall as well as between rat density and average temperature. On phylogenetic analysis, 7 sequences of hosts and human TD cases obtained from health records demonstrated the highest similarities to the Kato, Karp, and Gilliam strains. No correlations were observed between rat density, and sunshine duration and rainfall. The transmission of TD in Xiamen city, China, was seasonal, and its incidence was affected by several meteorological factors including average temperature, sunshine duration, and rainfall. However, the host of O. tsutsugamushi was only affected by average temperature.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi/fisiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orientia tsutsugamushi/classificação , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Orientia tsutsugamushi/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Ratos/parasitologia , Tifo por Ácaros/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 643, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transmission features and the feasibility of containing shigellosis remain unclear among a population-based study in China. METHODS: A population-based Susceptible - Exposed - Infectious / Asymptomatic - Recovered (SEIAR) model was built including decreasing the infectious period (DIP) or isolation of shigellosis cases. We analyzed the distribution of the reported shigellosis cases in Hubei Province, China from January 2005 to December 2017, and divided the time series into several stages according to the heterogeneity of reported incidence during the period. In each stage, an epidemic season was selected for the modelling and assessing the effectiveness of DIP and case isolation. RESULTS: A total of 130,770 shigellosis cases were reported in Hubei Province. The median of Reff was 1.13 (range: 0.86-1.21), 1.10 (range: 0.91-1.13), 1.09 (range: 0.92-1.92), and 1.03 (range: 0.94-1.22) in 2005-2006 season, 2010-2011 season, 2013-2014 season, and 2016-2017 season, respectively. The reported incidence decreased significantly (trend χ2 = 8260.41, P <  0.001) among four stages. The incidence of shigellosis decreased sharply when DIP implemented in three scenarios (γ = 0.1, 0.1429, 0.3333) and when proportion of case isolation increased. CONCLUSIONS: Year heterogeneity of reported shigellosis incidence exists in Hubei Province. It is feasible to contain the transmission by implementing DIP and case isolation.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções Assintomáticas , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Coleta de Dados , Disenteria Bacilar/prevenção & controle , Disenteria Bacilar/transmissão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 117, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) causes different morbidity risks to individuals in different age groups. This study attempts to quantify the age-specific transmissibility using a mathematical model. METHODS: An epidemiological model with five compartments (susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed [SEIAR]) was developed based on observed transmission features. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, those ≤ 14 years old; group 2, those 15 to 44 years old; group 3, those 45 to 64 years old; and group 4, those ≥ 65 years old. The model was initially based on cases (including imported cases and secondary cases) collected in Hunan Province from January 5 to February 19, 2020. Another dataset, from Jilin Province, was used to test the model. RESULTS: The age-specific SEIAR model fitted the data well in each age group (P < 0.001). In Hunan Province, the highest transmissibility was from age group 4 to 3 (median: ß43 = 7.71 × 10- 9; SAR43 = 3.86 × 10- 8), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 3.07 × 10- 9; SAR34 = 1.53 × 10- 8), group 2 to 2 (median: ß22 = 1.24 × 10- 9; SAR22 = 6.21 × 10- 9), and group 3 to 1 (median: ß31 = 4.10 × 10- 10; SAR31 = 2.08 × 10- 9). The lowest transmissibility was from age group 3 to 3 (median: ß33 = 1.64 × 10- 19; SAR33 = 8.19 × 10- 19), followed by group 4 to 4 (median: ß44 = 3.66 × 10- 17; SAR44 = 1.83 × 10- 16), group 3 to 2 (median: ß32 = 1.21 × 10- 16; SAR32 = 6.06 × 10- 16), and group 1 to 4 (median: ß14 = 7.20 × 10- 14; SAR14 = 3.60 × 10- 13). In Jilin Province, the highest transmissibility occurred from age group 4 to 4 (median: ß43 = 4.27 × 10- 8; SAR43 = 2.13 × 10- 7), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 1.81 × 10- 8; SAR34 = 9.03 × 10- 8). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 exhibits high transmissibility between middle-aged (45 to 64 years old) and elderly (≥ 65 years old) people. Children (≤ 14 years old) have very low susceptibility to COVID-19. This study will improve our understanding of the transmission feature of SARS-CoV-2 in different age groups and suggest the most prevention measures should be applied to middle-aged and elderly people.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 40(4): 563-577, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734264

RESUMO

This study assessed breed differences in fatty acid composition and meat quality of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and semitendinosus (SE) of Angus× Chinese Simmental (AS), Wagyu×Chinese Simmental (WS), and Chinese Simmental (CS). CS (n=9), AS (n=9) and WS (n=9) were randomly selected from a herd of 80 bulls which were fed and managed under similar conditions. Fatty acid profile and meat quality parameters were analyzed in duplicate. Significant breed difference was observed in fatty acid and meat quality profiles. AS exhibited significantly (p<0.05) lower C16:0 and higher C18:1n9c compared with CS. AS breed also had a tendency (p<0.10) to lower total saturated fatty acid (SFA), improve C18:3n3 and total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) compared with CS. Crossbreed of AS and WS had significantly (p<0.05) improved the lightness, redness, and yellowness of muscles, and lowered cooking loss, pressing loss, and shear force compared with CS. These results indicated that fatty acid composition and meat quality generally differed among breeds, although the differences were not always similar in different tissues. Fatty acid composition, meat color, water holding capacity, and tenderness favored AS over CS. Thus, Angus cattle might be used to improve fatty acid and meat quality profiles of CS, and AS might contain better nutritive value, organoleptic properties, and flavor, and could be potentially developed as an ideal commercial crossbreed.

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