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3.
Am J Crit Care ; 30(3): 238-241, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718963

RESUMO

The sudden surge in cases of COVID-19 has presented unprecedented challenges in the care of critically ill patients with the disease. A disease-focused checklist was developed to supplement and streamline the existing structure of rounds during a time of significant resource constraint. A total of 51 critical care consultants across multiple specialties at a tertiary academic medical center were surveyed regarding their preference for a structured checklist. Among the respondents, 82% were in favor of a disease-focused checklist. Mechanical ventilation parameters, rescue ventilation strategies, sedation regimens, inflammatory markers specific to COVID-19, and family communication were the elements most commonly identified as being important for inclusion in such a checklist.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Lista de Checagem , Cuidados Críticos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Visitas com Preceptor , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211000382, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722105

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMPs) in health care environments as a potential mode of transmission. Many organizations and institutions have published AGMP safety guidelines, and several mention the use of simulation in informing their recommendations; however, current methods used to simulate aerosol generation are heterogenous. Creation of a high-fidelity, easily producible aerosol-generating cough simulator would meet a high-priority educational need across all medical specialties. In this communication, we describe the design, construction, and user study of a novel cough simulator, which demonstrates the utility of simulation in raising AGMP safety awareness for providers of all roles, specialties, and training levels.

5.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 31(3): 259-267, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626503

RESUMO

Rapid weight loss or "weight cutting" is a common but potentially harmful practice used in mixed martial arts competition. Following the official weigh-in, competitors refeed and rehydrate themselves in a process known as rapid weight gain (RWG) to realize a potential competitive advantage. While data from surveys and small series have indicated the majority of mixed martial arts athletes engage in rapid weight loss, there is a lack of officially collected data from sanctioning organizations describing its prevalence. The present investigation represents a summary of the data collected between December 2015 and January 2018 by the California State Athletic Commission. In total, 512 professional mixed martial artists (455 males and 57 females) were included. Of these, 503 (98%) athletes gained body mass between weigh-in and their bouts. Total RWG between weigh-in and competition was 5.5 ± 2.5 kg, corresponding to an 8.1% ± 3.6% body mass increase. Total RWG was 5.6 ± 2.5 kg (8.1% ± 3.6%) for males and 4.5 ± 2.3 kg (8.0% ± 3.8%) for females. More than one quarter of men and one third of women gained >10% body mass between weigh-in and competition. Athletes from leading international promotions gained more absolute, but not relative, body mass than those from regional promotions. Our findings indicate RWG is nearly ubiquitous in professional , with a similar prevalence in male and female athletes. Trends based on promotion suggest a larger magnitude of RWG in presumably more experienced and/or successful mixed martial artists from leading international promotions.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Desempenho Atlético , California , Anonimização de Dados , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Artes Marciais/classificação , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(3): 896-903, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of pecto-intercostal fascial plane block (PIFB) on postoperative opioid requirements, pain scores, lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays and incidence of postoperative delirium in cardiac surgical patients. DESIGN: Single- center, prospective, randomized (1:1), quadruple- blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Single center, tertiary- care center. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 80 adult cardiac surgical patients (age >18 y) requiring median sternotomy. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided PIFB, with either 0.25% bupivacaine or placebo, on postoperative days 0 and 1. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 80 patients randomized, the mean age was 65.78 ± 8.73 in the bupivacaine group and 65.70 ± 9.86 in the placebo group (p = 0.573). Patients receiving PIFB with 0.25% bupivacaine showed a statistically significant reduction in visual analog scale scores (4.8 ± 2.7 v 5.1 ± 2.6; p < 0.001), but the 48-hour cumulative opioid requirement computed as morphine milligram equivalents was similar (40.8 ± 22.4 mg v 49.1 ± 26.9 mg; p = 0.14). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative delirium between the groups evaluated using the 3-minute diagnostic Confusion Assessment Method (3/40 [7.5%] v 5/40 [12.5%] placebo; p = 0.45). CONCLUSION: Patients who received PIFB with bupivacaine showed a decline in cumulative opioid consumption postoperatively, but this difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Low incidence of complications and improvement in visual analog scale pain scores suggested that the PIFB can be performed safely in this population and warrants additional studies with a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides , Anestésicos Locais , Bupivacaína , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
7.
Anesthesiology ; 133(5): 985-996, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773686

RESUMO

Preparedness measures for the anticipated surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases within eastern Massachusetts included the establishment of alternate care sites (field hospitals). Boston Hope hospital was set up within the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center to provide low-acuity care for COVID-19 patients and to support local healthcare systems. However, early recognition of the need to provide higher levels of care, or critical care for the potential deterioration of patients recovering from COVID-19, prompted the development of a hybrid acute care-intensive care unit. We describe our experience of implementing rapid response capabilities of this innovative ad hoc unit. Combining quality improvement tools for hazards detection and testing through in situ simulation successfully identified several operational hurdles. Through rapid continuous analysis and iterative change, we implemented appropriate mitigation strategies and established rapid response and rescue capabilities. This study provides a framework for future planning of high-acuity services within a unique field hospital setting.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Análise do Modo e do Efeito de Falhas na Assistência à Saúde/normas , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Análise do Modo e do Efeito de Falhas na Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 378-386, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459668

RESUMO

The morbidity, mortality, and blistering pace of transmission of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease produced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is remarkable for persistent, severe respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation that places considerable strain on critical care resources. Because recovery from COVID-19-associated respiratory failure can be prolonged, tracheostomy may facilitate patient management and optimize the use of mechanical ventilators. Several important considerations apply to plan tracheostomies for COVID-19-infected patients. After performing a literature review of tracheostomies during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, we synthesized important learning points from these experiences and suggested an approach for perioperative teams involved in these procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multidisciplinary teams should be involved in decisions regarding timing and appropriateness of the procedure. As the theoretical risk of disease transmission is increased during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), stringent infectious precautions are warranted. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be available and worn by all personnel present during tracheostomy. The number of people in the room should be limited to those absolutely necessary. Using the most experienced available operators will minimize the total time that staff is exposed to an infectious aerosolized environment. An approach that secures the airway in the safest and quickest manner will minimize the time any part of the airway is open to the environment. Deep neuromuscular blockade (train-of-four ratio = 0) will facilitate surgical exposure and prevent aerosolization due to patient movement or coughing. For percutaneous tracheostomies, the bronchoscopist should be able to reintubate if needed. Closed-loop communication must occur at all times among members of the team. If possible, after tracheostomy is performed, waiting until the patient is virus-free before changing the cannula or downsizing may reduce the chances of health care worker infection. Tracheostomies in COVID-19 patients present themselves as extremely high risk for all members of the procedural team. To mitigate risk, systematic meticulous planning of each procedural step is warranted along with strict adherence to local/institutional protocols.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Traqueostomia , Aerossóis , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(3): 303-321, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387439

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided central line placement has been shown to decrease the number of needle puncture attempts, complication, and failure rates. In order to obtain successful central access, it is important to have adequate cognitive knowledge, workflow understanding, and manual dexterity to safely execute this invasive procedure. The operator should also be familiar with the anatomical variations, equipment operations, and potential complications and their prevention. In this article, we present a detailed review of ultrasound-guided central venous access. It includes a description of anatomy, operative technique, equipment operation, and techniques for specific situations. We describe the use of ultrasound guidance to avoid and identify various complications associated with this procedure. We have also reviewed recent recommendations and guidelines for the use of ultrasound for central venous access and the current evidence pertaining to the recommendations for the expected level of training, methodology, and metrics for establishing competency.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/normas
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(4): 1037-1043, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive educational initiatives in ultrasound for practicing physicians are lacking. We developed a perioperative ultrasound training program for faculty to offer a broad orientation to the principles and clinical applications of ultrasound. DESIGN AND SETTING: The program consisted of two phases. Phase one, which introduced ultrasound via didactic and hands-on components, had six live sessions. At the end of each, participants completed a knowledge quiz. During the sixth session, faculty participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). For phase two, faculty attended two to three sessions (8-10 hours each) of in-depth individualized training and demonstrated supervised performance of ultrasound-related procedures of their choice. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included Anesthesia faculty at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: On average 30 faculty members attended each live session for phase one; 12 completed phase two. There was a significant difference in quiz scores across the six sessions (p < 0.001) with scores for Session 6 being significantly higher than for Session 1 (p < 0.001). The average mean and median scores on the three OSCE stations were 95.63% and 98.33%, respectively. For phase two, the 8 participants who received training in regional anesthesia each performed > 10 blocks on patients over two days; 5 of the 7 participants who received training in transthoracic echocardiography each completed more than 15 examinations on simulators and 10 examinations on patients. CONCLUSION: It is possible to implement a departmental educational program for ultrasound to improve ultrasound knowledge and skills in practicing anesthesiologists.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Anestesiologia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/normas
12.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 45(2): 263-271, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that in hypovolemic shock, resuscitation with fresh whole blood (FWB) may be superior to component therapy without platelets (which are likely to be unavailable in the pre-hospital setting). Nevertheless, the effects of this approach have not been studied in the combined injury. Previously, in a rat model of combined injury we have found that mild resuscitation to MABP of 80 mmHg with FWB is superior to fluid resuscitation or aggressive resuscitation with FWB. In this study, we investigate the physiological and neurological outcomes in a rat model of combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hypovolemic shock, submitted to treatment with varying amounts of FWB, compared to similar resuscitation goals with fractionated blood products-red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in a 1:1 ratio regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male Lewis rats were divided into control and treatment groups. TBI was inflicted by a free-falling rod on the exposed cranium. Hypovolemia was induced by controlled hemorrhage of 30% blood volume. Treatment groups were treated either with fresh whole blood or with RBC + plasma in a 1:1 ratio, achieving a resuscitation goal of a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 80 mmHg at 15 min. MAP was assessed at 60 min, and neurological outcomes and mortality in the subsequent 24 h. RESULTS: At 60 min, hemodynamic parameters were improved compared to controls, but not significantly different between treatment groups. Survival rates at 48 h were 100% for both of the mildly resuscitated groups (MABP 80 mmHg) with FWB and RBC + plasma. The best neurological outcomes were found in the group mildly resuscitated with FWB and were better when compared to resuscitation with RBC + plasma to the same MABP goal (FWB: Neurological Severity Score (NSS) 6 ± 2, RBC + plasma: NSS 10 ± 2, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we find that mild resuscitation with goals of restoring MAP to 80 mmHg (which is lower than baseline) with FWB, provided better hemodynamic stability and survival. However, the best neurological outcomes were found in the group resuscitated with FWB. Thus, we suggest that resuscitation with FWB is a feasible modality in the combined TBI + hypovolemic shock scenario, and may result in improved outcomes compared to platelet-free component blood products.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodinâmica , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia
13.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(1): 68-71, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893586

RESUMO

Rapid weight loss or "weight cutting" is a dangerous practice that is ubiquitous in modern combat sports yet underrepresented in the medical literature. We present a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a mixed martial artist with sickle cell trait to illustrate the hazards of weight cutting and ensuing critical illness. Sickle cell trait is known to predispose patients to exertional rhabdomyolysis, and multiple fatal cases have been reported in the setting of strenuous exercise. Dehydration and consequent electrolyte abnormalities make combat sport athletes with sickle cell trait particularly vulnerable to this entity. This case suggests a potential role for sickle cell trait screening in this population and underscores the need for safer weight-control practices and monitoring among all combat sport athletes.

14.
A A Pract ; 11(4): 93-95, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634533

RESUMO

An 81-year-old woman with extensive peripheral vascular and coronary artery disease was admitted to the intensive care unit with a deep heel abscess and urinary tract infection. When cultures from the heel ulcer yielded vancomycin-resistant enterococci, she was started on the antibiotic linezolid. After several days of intravenous linezolid therapy, she developed severe lactic acidosis (pH 6.89) and elevation of pancreatic enzymes. An emergent exploratory laparotomy was performed to rule out mesenteric ischemia. Findings from the laparotomy were negative, and after elimination of other differential diagnoses, the metabolic acidosis was ultimately attributed to linezolid. Acidosis resolved after discontinuation of linezolid.


Assuntos
Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Láctica/cirurgia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico
16.
Crit Care Med ; 45(7): 1192-1198, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. SETTING: All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. PATIENTS: Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. INTERVENTIONS: During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. CONCLUSIONS: Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Torácica
17.
Shock ; 38(6): 630-4, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23143053

RESUMO

Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hypovolemic shock poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining and adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remain a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we investigate the physiological and neurological outcomes in a rat model of combined traumatic brain injury and hypovolemic shock, submitted to treatment with varying amounts of fresh blood. Forty-eight male Lewis rats were divided into control and treatment groups. Traumatic brain injury was inflicted by a free-falling rod on the exposed cranium. Hypovolemia was induced by controlled hemorrhage of 30% blood volume. Treatment groups were treated by fresh whole blood with varying volumes, reaching resuscitation goals of a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 80, 100, and 120 mmHg at 15 min. Mean arterial blood pressure was assessed at 60 min and neurological outcomes and mortality in the subsequent 48 h. At 60 min, MAP was highest for the group resuscitated most aggressively. Neurological outcomes and mortality inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of resuscitation. In this study, we find that mild resuscitation with goals of restoring MAP to 80 mmHg (which is lower than baseline) provided best results when considering hemodynamic stability, survival, and neurological outcomes. An aggressive resuscitation may be detrimental, inducing processes that eventually cause a significant decrease in survival.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Ressuscitação , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Choque/complicações , Choque/fisiopatologia , Choque/terapia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
18.
J Crit Care ; 27(6): 743.e1-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23084134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether hemodialysis (HD) is effective in lowering blood glutamate levels. In addition, we examined the effect of HD on glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels in the blood and described the rate and pattern of blood glutamate clearance during HD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 45 patients with stage V chronic kidney disease immediately after initiation of HD and hourly, for a total of 5 blood samples. Samples were sent for determination of glutamate, glucose, GOT, GPT, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, and creatinine levels. A blood sample from 25 healthy volunteers without chronic renal failure was used as a control for the determination of baseline blood levels of glutamate, GOT, and GPT. RESULTS: Glutamate and GPT levels in patients on HD were higher at baseline compared with healthy controls (P < .001). In the first 3 hours after HD, there was a decrease in blood glutamate levels compared with baseline levels (P < .00001). At the fourth hour, there was an increase in blood glutamate levels compared with the third hour (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis may be a promising method of reducing blood glutamate levels.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 13(8): 10041-66, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22949847

RESUMO

Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain's extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos
20.
Anim Sci J ; 83(9): 656-62, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22943533

RESUMO

Several motor-function scales have been developed to assess neurological function in animal models of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and closed head injury. We hypothesize that the location of arterial and venous catheters, even in the absence of brain injury, may impact rats' motor performance. Our study examined the effect of catheter location, rate of infection and the time required for catheter placement. We further describe an original technique of tail artery cannulation without exposure of the artery. Sixty-one rats were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of seven groups, including no catheter, tail artery or artery + vein catheters, or femoral artery or artery + vein catheters. A neurological severity score (NSS) was determined at 1 h, 24 h and 48 h after surgical preparation or catheter placement. NSS at 1 h after placement of unilateral and bilateral femoral catheters was higher than the NSS observed at 1 h after placement of tail arterial and venous catheters (P < 0.01). The NSS also was higher at 24 h in the bilateral femoral catheter groups as compared with the tail catheter groups (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the NSS observed between the groups that had tail catheters and the sham group at 1 h, 24 h or 48 h. Infection rate at the site of catheter placement and the time required for catheter placement was also higher in the femoral catheter groups (P < 0.001). Thus, we propose that the line location may bias a study's results and lead to deceptive interpretations of neurological assessment following rat head injury. Compared to femoral vessels, tail blood vessels are preferable locations for lines placement.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Animais , Artérias , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Cauda/irrigação sanguínea , Veias
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