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1.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is low among EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although prolonged responses have occasionally been reported. We investigated the association between mutation subtypes and ICI outcomes among HER2- and EGFR-mutated NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study analyzed patients with EGFR- and HER2-mutated advanced NSCLC who received at least 1 cycle of ICI between 2013 and 2019. Patient characteristics, mutation subtype, and ICI outcomes. RESULTS: Among 48 patients with advanced NSCLC, 14 (29%) had HER2 mutations and 34 (71%) had EGFR mutations. EGFR mutations included 16 (47%) exon 19 deletion, 7 (21%) L858R, 5 (15%) uncommon, and 6 (18%) exon 20 insertion. Compared to EGFR-sensitizing mutations (ESMs), HER2 and EGFR exon 20 mutations were associated with a trend toward better response (respectively, ESM, HER2, and EGFR exon 20: 11%, 29%, and 50%; P = .07) and significantly better disease control rates (respectively, 18%, 57%, and 67%; P = .008). Compared to ESM, HER2 mutations (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.35; P = .02) and EGFR exon 20 mutations (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; P = .10 trend) were also associated with improved PFS. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression remained an independent predictor of PFS (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.76; P = .004). The 6-month PFS rates were 29% (HER2), 33% (EGFR exon 20), and 4% (ESM). ICIs were generally well tolerated in this population. Importantly, no immune-related toxicity was observed in 10 patients who received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) as the immediate next line treatment after ICI. CONCLUSION: HER2 and EGFR exon 20 mutations derive greater benefit from ICIs with comparable PFS to wild-type historical second/third-line unselected cohorts. ICIs remain a treatment option for this genomic subgroup, given the absence of approved targeted therapies for these rare mutations.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2003570, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with driver alterations. A guideline update for systemic therapy for patients with stage IV NSCLC without driver alterations was published separately. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from December 2015 to January 2020 and meeting abstracts from ASCO 2020. RESULTS: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous update. Twenty-seven RCTs, 26 observational studies, and one meta-analysis provide the evidence base (total 54). Outcomes of interest included efficacy and safety. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed. RECOMMENDATIONS: All patients with nonsquamous NSCLC should have the results of testing for potentially targetable mutations (alterations) before implementing therapy for advanced lung cancer, regardless of smoking status recommendations, when possible, following other existing high-quality testing guidelines. Most patients should receive targeted therapy for these alterations: Targeted therapies against ROS-1 fusions, BRAF V600e mutations, RET fusions, MET exon 14 skipping mutations, and NTRK fusions should be offered to patients, either as initial or second-line therapy when not given in the first-line setting. New or revised recommendations include the following: Osimertinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (exon 19 deletion, exon 21 L858R, and exon 20 T790M); alectinib or brigatinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions. For the first time, to our knowledge, the guideline includes recommendations regarding RET, MET, and NTRK alterations. Chemotherapy is still an option at most stages.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response (SIR) may influence prognosis in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated (m) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pretreatment SIR markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio [LMR], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and lung immune prognostic index [LIPI]) were assessed as prognostic factors in NSCLC survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective survival analysis (overall survival [OS] and progression-free survival [PFS]) of EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were performed separately for early (I-IIIa) and late (IIIb-IV) stage disease for individual SIR variables, dichotomized by optimal cutoff points by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling. A systematic review and meta-analysis of known SIR studies in patients with late-stage EGFR-mutated were also performed. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2019, in 530 patients, significant adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for OS comparing high versus low NLR were 2.12 for early stage and 1.79 for late stage disease. Additionally, late stage cohorts had significant associations, as follows: high versus low derived NLR, aHR = 1.53; LMR, aHR = 0.62; LDH, aHR = 2.04; and LIPI, aHR = 2.04. Similar patterns were found for PFS in early stage NLR (aHR = 1.96) and late stage NLR (aHR = 1.46), while for PFS, only late stage derived NLR (aHR = 1.34), LDH (aHR = 1.75), and LIPI (aHR = 1.66) were significant. A meta-analysis confirmed that NLR, LMR, LDH, and LIPI were all significantly associated with OS and PFS in the late stage. CONCLUSION: This primary study and meta-analysis demonstrated that LMR and LDH were significantly associated with late stage EGFR-mutated NSCLC outcomes, and the LIPI scoring system was prognostic. NLR remained an independent prognostic factor across all stages and could represent an early marker of immuno-oncology interactions.

4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This signal finding study (S1400G) was designed to evaluate the efficacy of talazoparib in advanced stage squamous cell lung cancer harboring homologous recombination repair deficiency. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The full eligible population (FEP) had tumors with a deleterious mutation in any of the study-defined homologous recombination repair genes and without prior exposure to a PARP inhibitor. The primary analysis population (PAP) is a subset of FEP with alteration in ATM, ATR, BRCA1, BRCA2, or PALB2. Treatment consisted of talazoparib 1 mg daily continuously in 21-day cycles. A 2-stage design with exact 93% power and 1-sided 0.07 type I error required enrollment of 40 patients in the PAP in order to rule out an overall response rate (ORR) of 15% or less if the true ORR is ≥ 35%. RESULTS: The study enrolled 47 patients in the FEP, of whom 24 were in the PAP. The median age for the FEP was 66.7 years; 83% were male and 85% white. ORR in the PAP was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0, 21) with disease control rate of 54% (95% CI, 33, 74). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.4 months (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 5.2 months (95% CI, 4.0-10), respectively. In the FEP, ORR was 11% (95% CI, 3.6, 23), the disease control rate was 51% (95% CI, 36, 66), and the median duration of response was 1.8 months (95% CI, 1.3, 4.2). Median progression-free and overall survival were 2.5 months and 5.7 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: S1400G failed to show sufficient level of efficacy for single agent talazoparib in a biomarker defined subset of squamous lung cancer with homologous recombination repair deficiency.

5.
Cancer Cell ; 39(1): 25-27, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434512

RESUMO

Should lorlatinib be the standard first-line treatment in advanced ALK-rearranged lung cancer? In the New England Journal of Medicine, Shaw et al. present interim analysis results from CROWN, a randomized, phase 3 study comparing lorlatinib with crizotinib as initial therapy in patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 190-197, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel approach for managing malignant pleural mesothelioma, surgery for mesothelioma after radiotherapy (SMART), consisting of a short accelerated course of high-dose, hemithoracic, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of the SMART protocol. METHODS: In this single-centre, phase 2 trial, patients aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, with histologically proven, resectable, cT1-3N0M0 disease who had previously untreated malignant pleural mesothelioma were eligible for inclusion. Patients received 25 Gy in five daily fractions over 1 week to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax with a concomitant 5 Gy boost to high risk areas followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy within 1 week. Adjuvant chemotherapy was offered to patients with ypN+ disease on final pathology. The primary endpoint was feasibility, which was defined as the number of patients with 30-day perioperative treatment-related death (grade 5 events) or morbidity (grade 3 or 4 events). A key secondary endpoint was cumulative incidence of distant recurrence. The final analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis (including all eligible patients). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00797719. FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2019, 102 patients were enrolled onto the trial and 96 eligible patients were treated with SMART on protocol and included in the analysis. Extrapleural pneumonectomy was done at a median of 5 days (range 2-12) after completing IMRT. 47 (49%) patients had 30-day perioperative grade 3-4 events and one (1%) patient died within 30 days perioperatively (grade 5 event; pneumonia). After a median follow-up of 46·8 months (IQR 13·4-61·2), the 5-year cumulative incidence of distant recurrence was 62 (63·3% [95% CI 52·3-74·4]). The most common first sites of recurrence were the contralateral chest (33 [46%] of 72 patients) and the peritoneal cavity (32 [44%]). INTERPRETATION: Results from this study suggest that extrapleural pneumonectomy after radiotherapy can be done with good early and long-term results. However, minimising grade 4 events on the protocol is technically demanding and might affect survival beyond the post-operative period. FUNDING: Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation Mesothelioma Research Fund.


Assuntos
/radioterapia , Pneumonectomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , /patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(2): 187-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494924
9.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 159-163, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure contributes to over 80 % of lung cancer cases. Smoking is associated with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor expression and better outcomes from anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PD-L1 tumor expression is now routinely used to predict benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. In this study, we explored the impact of smoking status on patient outcomes with anti-PD-1 therapy in addition to PD-L1 tumor expression. METHODS: A prospective real-world cohort of 268 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PMCC) was used for this analysis. Logistic regression was performed to test factors associated with treatment response (RECIST v1.1), including PD-L1 tumour proportion score (TPS) and smoking status. RESULTS: Overall response rates (ORR) to immunotherapy were significantly higher in current and former smokers than never smokers (36 % vs 26 % vs 14 %; p = 0.02). In patients with PD-L1 tumour proportion score (TPS) ≥50 %, current smokers continued to experience better ORR to anti-PD-1 therapy than never smokers (58 % vs 19 %; p = 0.03). Current smoking was associated with higher response even after adjusting for level of PD-L1 TPS expression (adjusted odds ratio 5.9, 95 % CI 1.6-25.0, p = 0.03). Exploratory analysis demonstrated higher 1-year survival rates in smokers compared to never smokers (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains an important factor associated with response to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Advanced NSCLC patients with positive PD-L1 expression are more likely to respond to anti-PD-1 monotherapy if they are current smokers compared to never smokers.

10.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung-MAP S1400K was designed to evaluate the response to telisotuzumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting c-MET, in patients with c-MET-positive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously treated SCC with c-MET-positive tumors (H score ≥ 150, Ventana SP44 assay) were enrolled into 2 cohorts: Cohort 1 (immune checkpoint inhibitor-naive) and Cohort 2 (immune checkpoint inhibitor refractory). Telisotuzumab vedotin 2.7 mg/kg was administered intravenously every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Response assessments were performed every 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, response within cohort, duration of response, and toxicities. Interim analysis was planned after 20 evaluable patients, with ≥ 3 responses needed to continue enrollment. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (14% of screened patients) were assigned to S1400K, 28 patients enrolled (15 in Cohort 1 and 13 in Cohort 2), and 23 were eligible. S1400K closed on December 21, 2018 owing to lack of efficacy. Two responses (response rate of 9%; 95% confidence interval, 0%-20%) were reported in cohort 1 (1 complete and 1 unconfirmed partial response), whereas 10 patients had stable disease, with a disease control rate of 52%. The median overall and progression-free survival was 5.6 and 2.4 months, respectively. There were 3 grade 5 events (2 pneumonitis, in Cohort 2, and 1 bronchopulmonary hemorrhage, in Cohort 1). CONCLUSION: Telisotuzumab vedotin failed to meet the pre-specified response needed to justify continuing enrollment to S1400K. Pneumonitis was an unanticipated toxicity observed in patients with SCC.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 142: 83-91, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PACIFIC trial demonstrated that durvalumab therapy following chemoradiation (CRT) was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is unclear whether the results obtained as part of randomised controlled trials are a reflection of real-world (RW) data. Several questions remain unanswered with regard to RW durvalumab use, such as optimal time to durvalumab initiation, incidence of pneumonitis and response in PD-L1 subgroups. METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective analysis, 147 patients with stage III NSCLC treated with CRT followed by durvalumab were compared with a historical cohort of 121 patients treated with CRT alone. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of standard prognostic factors for durvalumab use. RESULTS: Median OS was not reached in the durvalumab group, compared with 26.9 months in the historical group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.85, p = 0.001). In the durvalumab group, our data suggest improved 12-month OS in patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% (100% vs 86%, HR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.11-0.58, p = 0.007). There was no difference in OS between patients with a PD-L1 expression of 1-49% and patients with PD-L1 expression <1%. Delay in durvalumab initiation beyond 42 days did not impact OS. Incidence of pneumonitis was similar in the durvalumab and historical groups. In the durvalumab group, patients who experienced any-grade pneumonitis had a lower 12-month OS than patients without pneumonitis (85% vs 95%, respectively; HR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-9.0, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This multicentre analysis suggests that PD-L1 expression ≥50% was associated with favourable OS in patients with stage III NSCLC treated with durvalumab after CRT, whereas the presence of pneumonitis represented a negative prognostic factor.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(12): 1589-1601, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP; S1400) is a completed biomarker-driven master protocol designed to address an unmet need for better therapies for squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung-MAP (S1400) was created to establish an infrastructure for biomarker screening and rapid regulatory intent evaluation of targeted therapies and was the first biomarker-driven master protocol initiated with the US National Cancer Institute (NCI). METHODS: Lung-MAP (S1400) was done within the National Clinical Trials Network of the NCI using a public-private partnership. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had stage IV or recurrent squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, had previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2. The study included a screening component using the FoundationOne assay (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA) for next-generation sequencing, and a clinical trial component with biomarker-driven substudies and non-match substudies for patients who were ineligible for biomarker-driven substudies. Patients were pre-screened and received their substudy assignment upon progression, or they were screened at progression and received their substudy assignment upon completion of testing. Patients could enrol onto additional substudies after progression on a substudy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02154490, and all research related to Lung-MAP (S1400) is completed. FINDINGS: Between June 16, 2014, and Jan 28, 2019, 1864 patients enrolled and 1841 (98·9%) submitted tissue. 1674 (90·9%) of 1841 patients had biomarker results, and 1404 (83·9%) of 1674 patients received a substudy assignment. Of the assigned patients, 655 (46·7%) registered to a substudy. The biomarker-driven substudies evaluated taselisib (targeting PIK3CA alterations), palbociclib (cell cycle gene alterations), AZD4547 (FGFR alteration), rilotumumab plus erlotinib (MET), talazoparib (homologous recombination repair deficiency), and telisotuzumab vedotin (MET). The non-match substudies evaluated durvalumab, and nivolumab plus ipilimumab for anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1-naive disease, and durvalumab plus tremelimumab for anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 relapsed disease. Combining data from the substudies, ten (7·0%) of 143 patients responded to targeted therapy, 53 (16·8%) of 315 patients responded to anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy for immunotherapy-naive disease, and three (5·4%) of 56 responded to docetaxel in the second line of therapy. Median overall survival was 5·9 months (95% CI 4·8-7·8) for the targeted therapy groups, 7·7 months (6·7-9·2) for the docetaxel groups, and 10·8 months (9·4-12·3) for the anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1-containing groups. Median progression-free survival was 2·5 months (95% CI 1·7-2·8) for the targeted therapy groups, 2·7 months (1·9-2·9) for the docetaxel groups, and 3·0 months (2·7-3·9) for the anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1-containing groups. INTERPRETATION: Lung-MAP (S1400) met its goal to quickly address biomarker-driven therapy questions in squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. In early 2019, a new screening protocol was implemented expanding to all histological types of non-small-cell lung cancer and to add focus on immunotherapy combinations for anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 therapy-relapsed disease. With these changes, Lung-MAP continues to meet its goal to focus on unmet needs in the treatment of advanced lung cancers. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, and AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Genentech, and Pfizer through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

13.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 602-604, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091381

RESUMO

To understand the real impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients, an entirely new data collection effort was initiated within the Thoracic Cancers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT). TERAVOLT reported high mortality related to COVID-19 infection in thoracic cancer patients and identified several negative prognostic factors. In this commentary, we discuss the importance and limits of patient registries to support decision-making in thoracic cancer during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Carga Global da Doença/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias Torácicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/virologia
14.
Oncologist ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions about trial funding, ethical approval, or clinical practice guideline recommendations require expert judgments about the potential efficacy of new treatments. We tested whether individual and aggregated expert opinion of oncologists could predict reliably the efficacy of cancer treatments tested in randomized controlled trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An international sample of 137 oncologists specializing in genitourinary, lung, and colorectal cancer provided forecasts on primary outcome attainment for five active randomized cancer trials within their subspecialty; skill was assessed using Brier scores (BS), which measure the average squared deviation between forecasts and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 40% of trials in our sample reported positive primary outcomes. Experts generally anticipated this overall frequency (mean forecast, 34%). Individual experts on average outperformed random predictions (mean BS = 0.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.33] vs. 0.33) but underperformed prediction algorithms that always guessed 50% (BS = 0.25) or that were trained on base rates (BS = 0.19). Aggregating forecasts improved accuracy (BS = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.16-0.36]). Neither individual experts nor aggregated predictions showed appreciable discrimination between positive and nonpositive trials (area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.52 and 0.43, respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings are based on a limited sample of trials. However, they reinforce the importance of basing research and policy decisions on the results of randomized trials rather than expert opinion or low-level evidence. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Predictions of oncologists, either individually or in the aggregate, did not anticipate reliably outcomes for randomized trials in cancer. These findings suggest that pooled expert opinion about treatment efficacy is no substitute for randomized trials. They also underscore the challenges of using expert opinion to prioritize interventions for clinical trials or to make recommendations in clinical practice guidelines.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3863-3873, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited data exist on the optimal duration of immunotherapy, including for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present an exploratory analysis of CheckMate 153, a largely community-based phase IIIb/IV study, to evaluate the impact of 1-year fixed-duration versus continuous therapy on the efficacy and safety of nivolumab. METHODS: Patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC received nivolumab monotherapy (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks). Those still receiving treatment at 1 year, including patients perceived to be deriving benefit despite radiographic progression, were randomly assigned to continue nivolumab until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or to stop nivolumab with the option of on-study retreatment after disease progression (1-year fixed duration). RESULTS: Of 1,428 patients treated, 252 were randomly assigned to continuous (n = 127) or 1-year fixed-duration (n = 125) treatment (intent-to-treat [ITT] population). Of these, 89 and 85 patients in the continuous and 1-year fixed-duration arms, respectively, had not progressed (progression-free survival [PFS] population). With minimum post-random assignment follow-up of 13.5 months, median PFS was longer with continuous versus 1-year fixed-duration treatment (PFS population: 24.7 months v 9.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.56 [95% CI, 0.37 to 0.84]). Median overall survival from random assignment was longer with continuous versus 1-year fixed-duration treatment in the PFS (not reached v 32.5 months; HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.37 to 0.99]) and ITT (not reached v 28.8 months; HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.92]) populations. Few new-onset treatment-related adverse events occurred. No new safety signals were identified. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, these findings from an exploratory analysis represent the first randomized data on continuous versus fixed-duration immunotherapy in previously treated advanced NSCLC and suggest that continuing nivolumab beyond 1 year improves outcomes.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 147: 214-220, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Organ transplant recipients (OTR) have an increased risk of developing post-transplant malignancies with lung cancer being one of the most common. In this retrospective study, we investigated incidence, use of systemic therapy and outcomes from lung cancer in OTR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer following a solid organ transplant at the University Health Network, Toronto, ON, CA, from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2016 were included. Data for the study population, patient characteristics, treatments and outcomes were abstracted from solid OTR databases, our cancer registry and patient charts. Univariate Kaplan-Meier curves estimated median overall survival (OS) by histology, stage and systemic therapy. RESULTS: Amongst 7944 OTR (heart [N = 765], lung [n = 1668], liver [n = 2238], kidney [n = 3273]), 101 (1.3 %) developed lung cancer which were included in our analyses. Of these, 81 % were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 11 % small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 8% neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Median OS (months) was 25 in those that presented with Stage I/II NSCLC (44 %); 25 for Stage III NSCLC (7%); 3 for Stage IV NCLC (31 %); 10 for Limited stage SCLC (6%); 2 for Extensive stage (ES) SCLC (5%). NSCLC patients that received palliative chemotherapy had an OS of 8 months; ES-SCLC patients that received chemotherapy had an OS of 6 months. Of all patients who received platinum doublets (n = 16), 10 (62.5 %) required dose reductions at some point. Five patients experienced febrile neutropenia (31 %); two (12 %) had other toxicities leading to discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Patients with stage I/II NSCLC and NET had poorer survival compared to historical norms in non-transplant patients. Patients who had stage III NSCLC or received palliative systemic therapy had survivals at or slightly below historic norms, although numbers were small. Chemotherapy can be administered in selected OTR patients though dose reductions and febrile neutropenia were common.

17.
Qual Life Res ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly fatal disease associated with significant morbidity, with a need for real-world symptom and health utility score (HUS) data. HUS can be measured using an EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, however most captured data is available in non-SCLC (NSCLC) only. As new treatment regimens become available in SCLC it becomes important to understand factors which influence health-related quality of life and health utility. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study (2012-2017) of ambulatory histologically confirmed SCLC evaluated patient-reported EQ-5D-5L-derived HUS, toxicity and symptoms. A set of NSCLC patients was used to compare differential factors affecting HUS. Clinical and demographic factors were evaluated for differential interactions between lung cancer types. Comorbidity scores were documented for each patient. RESULTS: In 75 SCLC and 150 NSCLC patients, those with SCLC had lower mean HUS ((SCLC vs NSCLC: mean 0.69 vs 0.79); (p < 0.001)) when clinically stable and with progressive disease: ((SCLC mean HUS = 0.60 vs NSCLC mean HUS = 0.77), (p = 0.04)). SCLC patients also had higher comorbidity scores ((1.11 vs 0.73); (p < 0.015)). In multivariable analyses, increased symptom severity and comorbidity scores decreased HUS in both SCLC and NSCLC (p < 0.001); however, only comorbidity scores differentially affected HUS (p < 0.0001), with a greater reduction of HUS adjusted per unit of comorbidity in SCLC. CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced SCLC had significantly lower HUS than NSCLC. Both patient cohorts are impacted by symptoms and comorbidity, however, comorbidity had a greater negative effect in SCLC patients.

18.
Oncologist ; 25(11): 981-992, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents approximately 15% of lung cancers, and approximately 70% are diagnosed as extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). Although ES-SCLC is highly responsive to chemotherapy, patients typically progress rapidly, and there is an urgent need for new therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have recently been investigated in SCLC, and this review provides guidance on the use of these agents in ES-SCLC based on phase III evidence. METHODS: Published and presented literature on phase III data addressing use of ICIs in ES-SCLC was identified using the key search terms "small cell lung cancer" AND "checkpoint inhibitors" (OR respective aliases). Directed searches of eligible studies were periodically performed to ensure capture of the most recent data. RESULTS: Six phase III trials were identified, with four assessing the benefits of ICIs plus chemotherapy first-line, one evaluating ICIs as first-line therapy maintenance, and one assessing ICI monotherapy after progression on platinum-based chemotherapy. The addition of ipilimumab or tremelimumab to first-line treatment or as first-line maintenance did not improve survival. Two out of three studies combining PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy demonstrated significant long-lasting survival benefits and improved quality of life with no unexpected safety concerns. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as first-line maintenance or in later lines of therapy did not improve survival. Biomarker research is ongoing as well as research into the role of ICIs in combination with radiation therapy in limited-stage SCLC. CONCLUSION: The addition of atezolizumab or durvalumab to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for ES-SCLC prolongs survival and improves quality of life. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Platinum-based chemotherapy has been standard of care for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) for more than a decade. Six recent phase III trials investigating immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have clarified the role of these agents in this setting. Although ICIs were assessed first-line, as first-line maintenance, and in later lines of therapy, the additions of atezolizumab or durvalumab to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were the only interventions that significantly improved overall survival and increased quality of life. These combinations should therefore be considered standard therapy for first-line ES-SCLC. Biomarker research and investigations into the role of ICIs for limited-stage disease are ongoing.

19.
Lung Cancer ; 147: 123-129, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693293

RESUMO

Osimertinib is an irreversible EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor initially approved for treatment of EGFR-positive patients exhibiting a T790 M resistance mutation in the second line setting and now emerging as the new standard of care for all EGFR positive patients as first-line treatment. Despite its efficacy, resistance to osimertinib inevitably develops and mechanisms of resistance can be grouped broadly in two categories: on-target EGFR-dependent and off-target EGFR-independent mechanisms. EGFR-dependent resistance typically is associated with additional EGFR-mutations disrupting the osimertinib binding through changes in the binding site by allosteric/ conformational transitions; EGFR-independent mechanisms are related mostly to alternate pathway activation or aberrant downstream signalling but also to lineage plasticity leading to small cell transformation. MET amplification is the most frequent off-target mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib treatment and recently published early trials show promising results for combination of MET-inhibitors with osimertinib upon development of resistance. This review will summarize mechanisms of resistance overall and in different treatment settings and will focus on potential new treatment options targeting specific acquired alterations after osimertinib failure.

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