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1.
Radiology ; : 202630, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973837

RESUMO

Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a key feature of aortic stenosis, and patients with aortic stenosis often have coronary -artery disease. Therefore, proving the association between the progression of AVC and coronary atherosclerosis could improve follow-up and treatment strategies. Purpose To explore the association between the progression of AVC and the progression of total and plaque volume composition from a large multicenter registry of serial coronary CT angiographic examinations. Materials and Methods A prospective multinational registry (PARADIGM) of consecutive participants who underwent serial coronary CT angiography at intervals of every 2 years or more was performed (January 2003-December 2015). AVC and the total and plaque volume composition at baseline and follow-up angiography were quantitatively analyzed. Plaque volumes were normalized by using the mean total analyzed vessel length of the study population. Multivariable linear mixed-effects models were constructed. Results Overall, 594 participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 62 years ± 10; 330 men) were included (mean interval between baseline and follow-up angiography, 3.9 years ± 1.5). At baseline, the AVC score was 31 Agatston units ± 117, and the normalized total plaque volume at baseline was 122 mm3 ± 219. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical risk factors, and medication use, AVC was independently associated with total plaque volume (standardized ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.32; P < .001) and both calcified (ß = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.34; P < .001) and noncalcified (ß = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.25; P < .001) plaque volumes at baseline. The progression of AVC was associated with the progression of total plaque volume (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = .01), driven solely by calcified plaque volume (ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.34; P < .001) but not noncalcified plaque volumes (ß = -0.06; 95% CI: -0.14, 0.03; P = .17). Conclusion The overall burden of coronary atherosclerosis was associated with aortic valve calcification at baseline. However, the progression of aortic valve calcification was associated with only the progression of calcified plaque volume but not with the -progression of noncalcified plaque volume. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02803411 © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Sinitsyn in this issue.

2.
Radiology ; : 203297, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876969

RESUMO

Background People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher risk of myocardial infarction. Coronary atherosclerotic plaque CT characterization helps to predict cardiovascular risk. Purpose To measure CT characteristics of coronary plaque in PLWH without known cardiovascular disease and healthy volunteers without HIV. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, noncontrast CT (all participants, n = 265) was used for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in asymptomatic PLWH and healthy volunteers without HIV, without known cardiovascular disease, from 2012 to 2019. At coronary CT angiography (n = 233), prevalence, frequency, and volume of calcified, mixed, and noncalcified plaque were measured. Poisson regressions were used with adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Results There were 181 PLWH (mean age, 56 years ± 7; 167 men) and 84 healthy volunteers (mean age, 57 years ± 8; 65 men) evaluated by using noncontrast CT. CT angiography was performed in 155 PLWH and 78 healthy volunteers. Median 10-year Framingham risk score was not different between PLWH and healthy volunteers (10% vs 9%, respectively; P = .45), as were CAC score (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.94; P = .85) and overall plaque prevalence (prevalence ratio, 1.07; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.32; P = .55) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk. Noncalcified plaque prevalence (prevalence ratio, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.67; P = .03) and volume (OR, 2.8; 95% CI: 1.05, 7.40; P = .04) were higher in PLWH. Calcified plaque frequency was reduced in PLWH (OR, 0.6; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.91; P = .02). Treatment with protease inhibitors was associated with higher volume of overall (OR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.85; P = .02) and mixed plaque (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.45; P = .03). Conclusion Noncalcified coronary plaque burden at coronary CT angiography was two- to threefold higher in asymptomatic people living with HIV without known cardiovascular disease compared with healthy volunteers without HIV. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lai in this issue.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871579

RESUMO

AIMS: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888385

RESUMO

AIMS: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 46-51, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been suggested as a marker of plasma atherogenicity. This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: A total of 1488 adults (60.9 ± 9.2 years, 58.9% male) who underwent serial CCTA with a median inter-scan period of 3.4 years were included. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rapid plaque progression (RPP) was defined as the change of percentage atheroma volume (PAV) ≥1.0%/year. All participants were divided into three groups based on AIP tertiles. RESULTS: Baseline total PAV (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) (%) (group I [lowest]: 1.91 [0.00, 6.21] vs. group II: 2.82 [0.27, 8.83] vs. group III [highest]: 2.70 [0.41, 7.50]), the annual change of total PAV (median [IQR]) (%/year) (group I: 0.27 [0.00, 0.81] vs. group II: 0.37 [0.04, 1.11] vs. group III: 0.45 [0.06, 1.25]), and the incidence of RPP (group I: 19.7% vs. group II: 27.3% vs. group III: 31.4%) were significantly different among AIP tertiles (all p < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of RPP was increased in group III (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26; p = 0.042) compared to group I after adjusting for clinical factors and baseline total PAV. CONCLUSIONS: Based on serial CCTA findings, AIP is an independent predictive marker for RPP beyond traditional risk factors.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(9): 1149-1161, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, the PARTNER 3 (Safety and Effectiveness of the SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve in Low Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis) trial demonstrated superiority of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus surgery for the primary endpoint of death, stroke, or re-hospitalization at 1 year. OBJECTIVES: This study determined both clinical and echocardiographic outcomes between 1 and 2 years in the PARTNER 3 trial. METHODS: This study randomly assigned 1,000 patients (1:1) to transfemoral TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve versus surgery (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 1.9%; mean age: 73 years) with clinical and echocardiography follow-up at 30 days and at 1 and 2 years. This study assessed 2-year rates of the primary endpoint and several secondary endpoints (clinical, echocardiography, and quality-of-life measures) in this as-treated analysis. RESULTS: Primary endpoint follow-up at 2 years was available in 96.5% of patients. The 2-year primary endpoint was significantly reduced after TAVR versus surgery (11.5% vs. 17.4%; hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.88; p = 0.007). Differences in death and stroke favoring TAVR at 1 year were not statistically significant at 2 years (death: TAVR 2.4% vs. surgery 3.2%; p = 0.47; stroke: TAVR 2.4% vs. surgery 3.6%; p = 0.28). Valve thrombosis at 2 years was increased after TAVR (2.6%; 13 events) compared with surgery (0.7%; 3 events; p = 0.02). Disease-specific health status continued to be better after TAVR versus surgery through 2 years. Echocardiographic findings, including hemodynamic valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure, were similar for TAVR and surgery at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: At 2 years, the primary endpoint remained significantly lower with TAVR versus surgery, but initial differences in death and stroke favoring TAVR were diminished and patients who underwent TAVR had increased valve thrombosis. (Safety and Effectiveness of the SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve in Low Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis [PARTNER 3]; NCT02675114).

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(5): 489-500, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663778

RESUMO

Growing clinical data support the use of transcatheter therapies for significant mitral valve disease. Currently, edge-to-edge repair is the transcatheter treatment of choice, but many anatomies are not suitable. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement offers several potential advantages over transcatheter repair, most notably a greater and more sustained reduction in mitral regurgitation post-implantation, but also potential disadvantages. To enable the successful treatment of mitral valve disease in a wide range of patients and anatomies, we require an armory of transcatheter devices, including transcatheter mitral valve replacement systems.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6674144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681370

RESUMO

Background: In the United States, functional stress testing is the primary imaging modality for patients with stable symptoms suspected to represent coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is excellent at identifying anatomic coronary artery disease (CAD). The application of computational fluid dynamics to coronary CTA allows fractional flow reserve (FFR) to be calculated noninvasively (FFRCT). The relationship of noninvasive stress testing to coronary CTA and FFRCT in real-world clinical practice has not been studied. Methods: We evaluated 206 consecutive patients at Loyola University Chicago with suspected CAD who underwent noninvasive stress testing followed by coronary CTA and FFRCT when indicated. Patients were categorized by stress test results (positive, negative, indeterminate, and equivocal). Duke treadmill score (DTS), METS, exercise duration, and chest pain with exercise were analyzed. Lesions ≥ 50%stenosis were considered positive by coronary CTA. FFRCT < 0.80 was considered diagnostic of ischemia. Results: Two hundred and six patients had paired noninvasive stress test and coronary CTA/FFRCT results. The median time from stress test to coronary CTA was 49 days. Average patient age was 60.3 years, and 42% were male. Of the 206 stress tests, 75% were exercise (70% echocardiographic, 26% nuclear, and 4% EKG). There were no associations of stress test results with CAD > 50% or FFRCT < 0.80 (p = 0.927 and p = 0.910, respectively). Of those with a positive stress test, only 30% (3/10) had CAD > 50% and only 50% (5/10) had FFRCT < 0.80. Chest pain with exercise did not correlate with CAD > 50% or FFRCT < 0.80 (p = 0.66 and p = 0.12, respectively). There were no significant correlations between METS, DTS, or exercise duration and FFRCT (r = 0.093, p = 0.274; r = 0.012, p = 0.883; and r = 0.034, p = 0.680; respectively). Conclusion: Noninvasive stress testing, functional capacity, chest pain with exercise, and DTS are not associated with anatomic or functional CAD using a diagnostic strategy of coronary CTA and FFRCT.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709096

RESUMO

AIMS : To investigate the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and declining renal function, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 891 participants with analysable serial CCTA and available glomerular filtration rate (GFR, derived using Cockcroft-Gault formulae) at baseline (CCTA 1) and follow-up (CCTA 2) were included. CKD was defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Declining renal function was defined as ≥10% drop in GFR from the baseline. Quantitative assessment of plaque volume and composition were performed on both scans. There were 203 participants with CKD and 688 without CKD. CKD was associated with higher baseline total plaque volume, but similar plaque progression, measured by crude (57.5 ± 3.4 vs. 65.9 ± 7.7 mm3/year, P = 0.28) or annualized (17.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.9 ± 2.0 mm3/year, P = 0.25) change in total plaque volume. There were 709 participants with stable GFR and 182 with declining GFR. Declining renal function was independently associated with plaque progression, with higher crude (54.1 ± 3.2 vs. 80.2 ± 9.0 mm3/year, P < 0.01) or annualized (16.4 ± 0.9 vs. 23.9 ± 2.6 mm3/year, P < 0.01) increase in total plaque volume. In CKD, plaque progression was driven by calcified plaques whereas in patients with declining renal function, it was driven by non-calcified plaques. CONCLUSION: Decline in renal function was associated with more rapid plaque progression, whereas the presence of CKD was not.

10.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(2): 180-189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685845

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to highlight the most impactful, educational, and frequently downloaded articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) for the year 2020. The JCCT reached new records in 2020 for the number of research submissions, published manuscripts, article downloads and social media impressions. The articles in this review were selected by the Editorial Board of the JCCT and are comprised predominately of original research publications in the following categories: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease, coronary physiology, structural heart disease, and technical advances. The Editorial Board would like to thank each of the authors, peer-reviewers and the readers of JCCT for making 2020 one of the most successful years in its history, despite the challenging circumstances of the global COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Cardiopatias/virologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , /patogenicidade , /complicações , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/virologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(4): 446-454, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been identified as a surrogate marker for vessel related adverse events. FFR can be derived from standard coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Moreover, the FFR derived from coronary CTA (FFRCT ) Planner is a tool that simulates PCI providing modeled FFRCT values after stenosis opening. AIM: To validate the accuracy of the FFRCT Planner in predicting FFR after PCI with invasive FFR as a reference standard. METHODS: Prospective, international and multicenter study of patients with chronic coronary syndromes undergoing PCI. Patients will undergo coronary CTA with FFRCT prior to PCI. Combined morphological and functional evaluations with motorized FFR hyperemic pullbacks, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) will be performed before and after PCI. The FFRCT Planner will be applied by an independent core laboratory blinded to invasive data, replicating the invasive procedure. The primary objective is to assess the agreement between the predicted FFRCT post-PCI derived from the Planner and invasive FFR. A total of 127 patients will be included in the study. RESULTS: Patient enrollment started in February 2019. Until December 2020, 100 patients have been included. Mean age was 64.1 ± 9.03, 76% were males and 24% diabetics. The target vessels for PCI were LAD 83%, LCX 6%, and RCA 11%. The final results are expected in 2021. CONCLUSION: This study will determine the accuracy and precision of the FFRCT Planner to predict post-PCI FFR in patients with chronic coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous revascularization.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome based on the patient similarity network using quantitative coronary plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA can noninvasively assess coronary plaques quantitatively. METHODS: Patients who underwent 2 coronary CTAs at a minimum of 24 months' interval were analyzed (n = 1,264). A similarity Mapper network of patients was built by topological data analysis (TDA) based on the whole-heart quantitative coronary plaque analysis on coronary CTA to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome. RESULTS: Three distinct patient groups were identified by TDA, and the patient similarity network by TDA showed a closed loop, demonstrating a continuous trend of coronary plaque progression. Group A had the least coronary plaque amount (median 12.4 mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.0 to 39.6 mm3]) in the entire coronary tree. Group B had a moderate coronary plaque amount (31.7 mm3 [IQR: 0.0 to 127.4 mm3]) with relative enrichment of fibrofatty and necrotic core (32.6% [IQR: 16.7% to 46.2%] and 2.7% [IQR: 0.1% to 6.9%] of the total plaque, respectively) components. Group C had the largest coronary plaque amount (187.0 mm3 [IQR: 96.7 to 306.4 mm3]) and was enriched for dense calcium component (46.8% [IQR: 32.0% to 63.7%] of the total plaque). At follow-up, total plaque volume, fibrous, and dense calcium volumes increased in all groups, but the proportion of fibrofatty component decreased in groups B and C, whereas the necrotic core portion decreased in only group B (all p < 0.05). Group B showed a higher acute coronary syndrome incidence than other groups (0.3% vs. 2.6% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.009) but both group B and C had a higher revascularization incidence than group A (3.1% vs. 15.5% vs. 17.8%; p < 0.001). Incorporating group information from TDA demonstrated increase of model fitness for predicting acute coronary syndrome or revascularization compared with that incorporating clinical risk factors, percentage diameter stenosis, and high-risk plaque features. CONCLUSIONS: The TDA of quantitative whole-heart coronary plaque characteristics on coronary CTA identified distinct patient groups with different plaque dynamics and clinical outcomes. (Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the independent prognostic value of whole-heart atherosclerosis progression by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: The multi-center PARADIGM study includes patients undergoing serial CCTA for symptomatic reasons, ≥2 years apart. Whole-heart atherosclerosis was characterized on a segmental level, with co-registration of baseline and follow-up CCTA, and summed to per-patient level. The independent prognostic significance of atherosclerosis progression for MACE (non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], death, unplanned coronary revascularization) was examined. Patients experiencing interval MACE were not omitted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1166 patients (age 60.5 â€‹± â€‹9.5 years, 54.7% male) who experienced 139 MACE events during 8.2 (IQR 6.2, 9.5) years of follow up (15 death, 5 non-fatal MI, 119 unplanned revascularizations). Whole-heart percent atheroma volume (PAV) increased from 2.32% at baseline to 4.04% at follow-up. Adjusted for baseline PAV, the annualized increase in PAV was independently associated with MACE: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08, 1.39) per 1 standard deviation increase, which was consistent in multiple subpopulations. When categorized by composition, only non-calcified plaque progression associated independently with MACE, while calcified plaque did not. Restricting to patients without events before follow-up CCTA, those with future MACE showed an annualized increase in PAV of 0.93% (IQR 0.34, 1.96) vs 0.32% (IQR 0.02, 0.90), P â€‹< â€‹0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-heart atherosclerosis progression examined by serial CCTA is independently associated with MACE, with a prognostic threshold of 1.0% increase in PAV per year.

15.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: THV implantation within failed surgical valves is well established. However the implications of THV implantation within failed THVs is poorly understood. AIMS: This study assessed the impact of different transcatheter heart valve (THV) designs and implant positioning strategies on hydrodynamic performance after redo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: THVs of varying design (Sapien 3, Evolut Pro, Acurate neo, Allegra, and Portico) and sizes were implanted inside Sapien XT and Evolut R THVs. Hydrodynamic function as per International Standard Organization (ISO) specifications was evaluated using a pulse duplicator and multimodality imaging was performed. RESULTS: The majority of tested THV-in-THV combinations resulted in stable anchoring of the new implant. However some combinations resulted in unstable anchoring with the potential for dislodgement or embolization. Hydrodynamic function was favourable for all tested THV designs implanted in the intra-annular Sapien XT THV. Sapien 3 implantation within an Evolut THV with supra-annular leaflets must be appropriately sized to ensure adequate anchoring. Avoidance of an intra-annular deployment mitigated leaflet overhang of the Evolut leaflets and optimized hydrodynamic performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that most THV designs and implantation strategies can result in favourable hydrodynamic performance following redo-TAVI. Whether the leaflets of a failed THV are intra- or supra-annular may have important implications for the positioning of a redo-THV implant. Certain THV designs or implantation positions may be more desirable when performing redo-TAVI.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(24): 2803-2813, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. However, it remains unclear whether the high risk is due to high atherosclerotic disease burden or if presence of stenosis has independent predictive value. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if obstructive CAD provides predictive value beyond its association with total calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden as assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC). METHODS: Among 23,759 symptomatic patients from the Western Denmark Heart Registry who underwent diagnostic computed tomography angiography (CTA), we assessed the risk of major CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause death) stratified by CAC burden and number of vessels with obstructive disease. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 1,054 patients experienced a first major CVD event. The event rate increased stepwise with both higher CAC scores and number of vessels with obstructive disease (by CAC scores: 6.2 per 1,000 person-years (PY) for CAC = 0 to 42.3 per 1,000 PY for CAC >1,000; by number of vessels with obstructive disease: 6.1 per 1,000 PY for no CAD to 34.7 per 1,000 PY for 3-vessel disease). When stratified by 5 groups of CAC scores (0, 1 to 99, 100 to 399, 400 to 1,000, and >1,000), the presence of obstructive CAD was not associated with higher risk than presence of nonobstructive CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Plaque burden, not stenosis per se, is the main predictor of risk for CVD events and death. Thus, patients with a comparable calcified atherosclerosis burden generally carry a similar risk for CVD events regardless of whether they have nonobstructive or obstructive CAD.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

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