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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop, demonstrate and evaluate an automated deep learning method for multiple cardiovascular structure segmentation. BACKGROUND: Segmentation of cardiovascular images is resource-intensive. We design an automated deep learning method for the segmentation of multiple structures from Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) images. METHODS: Images from a multicenter registry of patients that underwent clinically-indicated CCTA were used. The proximal ascending and descending aorta (PAA, DA), superior and inferior vena cavae (SVC, IVC), pulmonary artery (PA), coronary sinus (CS), right ventricular wall (RVW) and left atrial wall (LAW) were annotated as ground truth. The U-net-derived deep learning model was trained, validated and tested in a 70:20:10 split. RESULTS: The dataset comprised 206 patients, with 5.130 billion pixels. Mean age was 59.9 ± 9.4 yrs., and was 42.7% female. An overall median Dice score of 0.820 (0.782, 0.843) was achieved. Median Dice scores for PAA, DA, SVC, IVC, PA, CS, RVW and LAW were 0.969 (0.979, 0.988), 0.953 (0.955, 0.983), 0.937 (0.934, 0.965), 0.903 (0.897, 0.948), 0.775 (0.724, 0.925), 0.720 (0.642, 0.809), 0.685 (0.631, 0.761) and 0.625 (0.596, 0.749) respectively. Apart from the CS, there were no significant differences in performance between sexes or age groups. CONCLUSIONS: An automated deep learning model demonstrated segmentation of multiple cardiovascular structures from CCTA images with reasonable overall accuracy when evaluated on a pixel level.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ADVANCE registry is a large prospective study of outcomes and resource utilization in patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CT-based fractional flow reserve (FFRCT). As experience with new technologies and practices develops over time, we investigated temporal changes in the use of FFRCT within the ADVANCE registry. METHODS: 5083 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA were prospectively enrolled in the ADVANCE registry and were divided into 3 equally sized cohorts based on the temporal order of enrollment per site. Demographics, CCTA and FFRCT findings, and clinical outcomes through 1-year follow-up, were recorded and compared between tertiles. RESULTS: The number of patients with a ≥70% stenosis on CCTA was similar over time (33.6%, 30.9%, and 33.8% for cohort 1-3). The rate of positive FFRCT ≤0.80 was higher for cohorts 2 (67.3%) and 3 (74.6%) than for cohort 1 (57.1%, p < 0.001). Invasive FFR rates decreased from 25.8% to 22.4% between cohort 1 and 3 (p = 0.023). Moreover, patients with a FFRCT ≤0.80 were less frequently referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) (from 62.9% to 52.9%, p < 0.001), and underwent fewer revascularizations between cohort 1 and 3 (from 41.9% to 32.0%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of major events was low (1.2%) and similar between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Growing experience with FFRCT improved the likelihood of identifying hemodynamically significant CAD and safely reduced the need for ICA and revascularization in patients with anatomically significant disease even in the instance of an abnormal FFRCT.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a computed tomography (CT)-based scoring system for grading mitral annular calcification (MAC) severity and potentially aid in predicting valve embolization during transcatheter mitral valve (MV) replacement using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter MV replacement is emerging as an alternative treatment for patients with severe MAC who are not surgical candidates. Although cardiac CT is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of candidates for valve-in-MAC (ViMAC), a standardized grading system to quantify MAC severity has not been established. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective review of cardiac CT and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ViMAC. A CT-based MAC score was created using the following features: average calcium thickness (mm), degrees of annulus circumference involved, calcification at one or both fibrous trigones, and calcification of one or both leaflets. Features were assigned points according to severity (total maximum score = 10) and severity grade was assigned based on total points (mild ≤3, moderate 4 to 6, and severe ≥7 points). The association between MAC score and device migration/embolization was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 117 patients in the TMVR in MAC registry, 87 had baseline cardiac CT of adequate quality. Of these, 15 were treated with transatrial access and were not included. The total cohort included 72 (trans-septal = 37, transapical = 35). Mean patient age was 74 ± 12 years, 66.7% were female, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgery risk score was 15.4% ± 10.5. The mean MAC score was 7.7 ± 1.4. Embolization/migration rates were lower in higher scores: Patients with a MAC score of 7 had valve embolization/migration rate of 12.5%, MAC score ≥8 had a rate of 8.7%, and a MAC score of ≥9 had zero (p = 0.023). Patients with a MAC score of ≤6 had 60% embolization/migration rate versus 9.7% in patients with a MAC score ≥7 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, a MAC score ≤6 was in independent predictor of valve embolization/migration (odds ratio [OR]: 5.86 [95% CI: 1.00 to 34.26]; p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: This cardiac CT-based score provides a systematic method to grade MAC severity which may assist in predicting valve embolization/migration during trans-septal or transapical ViMAC procedures.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(19): 2430-2442, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis has been reported after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement, characterized using 4-dimensional computed tomographic imaging by hypoattenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) and reduced leaflet motion (RLM). The incidence and clinical implications of these findings remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, predictors, and hemodynamic and clinical correlates of HALT and RLM after aortic bioprosthetic replacement. METHODS: A prospective subset of patients not on oral anticoagulation enrolled in the Evolut Low Risk randomized trial underwent computed tomographic imaging 30 days and 1 year after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgery. The primary endpoint was the frequency of HALT at 30 days and 1 year, analyzed by an independent core laboratory using standardized definitions. Secondary endpoints included RLM, mean aortic gradient, and clinical events at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: At 30 days, the frequency of HALT was 31 of 179 (17.3%) for TAVR and 23 of 139 (16.5%) for surgery; the frequency of RLM was 23 of 157 (14.6%) for TAVR and 19 of 133 (14.3%) for surgery. At 1 year, the frequency of HALT was 47 of 152 (30.9%) for TAVR and 33 of 116 (28.4%) for surgery; the frequency of RLM was 45 of 145 (31.0%) for TAVR and 30 of 111 (27.0%) for surgery. Aortic valve hemodynamic status was not influenced by the presence or severity of HALT or RLM at either time point. The rates of HALT and RLM were similar after the implantation of supra-annular, self-expanding transcatheter, or surgical bioprostheses. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of computed tomographic imaging abnormalities of aortic bioprostheses were frequent but dynamic in the first year after self-expanding transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement, but these findings did not correlate with aortic valve hemodynamic status after aortic valve replacement in patients at low risk for surgery. (Medtronic Evolut Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Low Risk Patients; NCT02701283).

8.
Circulation ; 141(19): 1527-1537, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare echocardiographic findings in low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: The PARTNER 3 trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized 1000 patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk to undergo either transfemoral TAVR with the balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 valve or SAVR. Transthoracic echocardiograms obtained at baseline and at 30 days and 1 year after the procedure were analyzed by a consortium of 2 echocardiography core laboratories. RESULTS: The percentage of moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) was low and not statistically different between the TAVR and SAVR groups at 30 days (0.8% versus 0.2%; P=0.38). Mild AR was more frequent after TAVR than SAVR at 30 days (28.8% versus 4.2%; P<0.001). At 1 year, mean transvalvular gradient (13.7±5.6 versus 11.6±5.0 mm Hg; P=0.12) and aortic valve area (1.72±0.37 versus 1.76±0.42 cm2; P=0.12) were similar in TAVR and SAVR. The percentage of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch at 30 days was low and similar between TAVR and SAVR (4.6 versus 6.3%; P=0.30). Valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva), which reflects total left ventricular hemodynamic burden, was lower with TAVR than SAVR at 1 year (3.7±0.8 versus 3.9±0.9 mm Hg/mL/m2; P<0.001). Tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion decreased and the percentage of moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation increased from baseline to 1 year in SAVR but remained unchanged in TAVR. Irrespective of treatment arm, high Zva and low tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, but not moderate to severe AR or severe prosthesis-patient mismatch, were associated with increased risk of the composite end point of mortality, stroke, and rehospitalization at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk, TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve was associated with similar percentage of moderate or severe AR compared with SAVR but higher percentage of mild AR. Transprosthetic gradients, valve areas, percentage of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch, and left ventricular mass regression were similar in TAVR and SAVR. SAVR was associated with significant deterioration of right ventricular systolic function and greater tricuspid regurgitation, which persisted at 1 year. High Zva and low tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion were associated with worse outcome at 1 year whereas AR and severe prosthesis-patient mismatch were not. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02675114.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eccentricity of coronary ostial positions in relation to the aortic valve cusp may influence the target laceration location in BASILICA (Bioprosthetic or native Aortic Scallop Intentional Laceration to prevent Coronary Artery obstruction). Eccentricity of the coronary ostia in relation to coronary cusps of native and valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was not well described before. METHODS: A total of 121 pre-TAVR patients' CT data (72 native valves TAVR and 49 bioprosthetic surgical valves TAVR) was included and coronary ostial eccentricity angles were measured and compared. Coronary ostial angles were measured between mid-cusp line to coronary ostium in CT perpendicular images. RESULTS: In the overall cohort, the right coronary artery (RCA) had an eccentric origin in the majority of cases, favoring the commissure between the right and the non coronary cusp (17.0°, IQR; 10-25). On the other hand, the left coronary artery (LCA) originated most commonly near center of the cusp position (0°, IQR; -8 -7.5) In comparison of native and bioprosthetic valves, RCA ostial angles were more eccentric in native valves (19.0°, IQR; 12-26) than in bioprosthetic valves (14.0°, IQR; 3-20) (p = 0.004). Whereas, LCA ostial angle has no significant differences between native valves (-2.0°, IQR;-7.75-5.75) and bioprosthetic valves (1°, IQR;-8-13), (p = 0.6). CONCLUSION: RCA ostia often have an eccentric origin towards the non-coronary cusp, especially in native aortic valves, while LCA ostia commonly originate near the center of the cusp. This finding may contribute to better performance of BASILICA procedures.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(6): 667-678, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different transcatheter heart valves (THVs) on valve leaflet displacement when deployed within bioprosthetic surgical valves and, thereby, risk for coronary obstruction. BACKGROUND: Coronary obstruction is a potentially devastating complication during valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Strategies such as provisional stenting and intentional bioprosthetic valve leaflet laceration have been developed to mitigate this risk. Alternatively, the use of a THV that retracts the bioprosthetic leaflet away from the coronary ostium may prevent coronary obstruction. METHODS: A 25-mm J-Valve, a 26-mm Evolut Pro, and a 23-mm JenaValve were implanted into both a 25-mm Trifecta surgical valve and a 25-mm Mitroflow surgical valve. A 23-mm and a 26-mm SAPIEN 3 were deployed into the Trifecta and Mitroflow, respectively. Displacement of the surgical valve leaflets (retraction vs. expansion) was measured with implantation of each THV by measuring displacement angle and maximal displacement distance. RESULTS: Within both the Trifecta and Mitroflow valves, implantation of the J-Valve and JenaValve resulted in retraction of the surgical valve leaflets, and placement of the Evolut Pro and SAPIEN 3 resulted in tubular expansion of the surgical valve leaflets. There were significant differences in displacement angles and distances between both the J-Valve and JenaValve and the SAPIEN 3 and Evolut Pro (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: ViV implantation with new-generation THVs that directly interact with bioprosthetic valve leaflets results in surgical valve leaflet retraction. This might mitigate the risk for coronary obstruction in selected cases of ViV transcatheter aortic valve replacement and also facilitate coronary reaccess after ViV TAVR.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e013958, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089046

RESUMO

Background Rapid coronary plaque progression (RPP) is associated with incident cardiovascular events. To date, no method exists for the identification of individuals at risk of RPP at a single point in time. This study integrated coronary computed tomography angiography-determined qualitative and quantitative plaque features within a machine learning (ML) framework to determine its performance for predicting RPP. Methods and Results Qualitative and quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography plaque characterization was performed in 1083 patients who underwent serial coronary computed tomography angiography from the PARADIGM (Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging) registry. RPP was defined as an annual progression of percentage atheroma volume ≥1.0%. We employed the following ML models: model 1, clinical variables; model 2, model 1 plus qualitative plaque features; model 3, model 2 plus quantitative plaque features. ML models were compared with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, Duke coronary artery disease score, and a logistic regression statistical model. 224 patients (21%) were identified as RPP. Feature selection in ML identifies that quantitative computed tomography variables were higher-ranking features, followed by qualitative computed tomography variables and clinical/laboratory variables. ML model 3 exhibited the highest discriminatory performance to identify individuals who would experience RPP when compared with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, the other ML models, and the statistical model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in ML model 3, 0.83 [95% CI 0.78-0.89], versus atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, 0.60 [0.52-0.67]; Duke coronary artery disease score, 0.74 [0.68-0.79]; ML model 1, 0.62 [0.55-0.69]; ML model 2, 0.73 [0.67-0.80]; all P<0.001; statistical model, 0.81 [0.75-0.87], P=0.128). Conclusions Based on a ML framework, quantitative atherosclerosis characterization has been shown to be the most important feature when compared with clinical, laboratory, and qualitative measures in identifying patients at risk of RPP.

13.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 71(2): 201-207, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063007

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as the preferred modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, but it is limited by modest specificity. By applying principles of computational fluid dynamics, flow fraction reserve, a measure of lesion-specific ischemia that is used to guide revascularization, can be noninvasively derived from CCTA, the so-called computed tomography-derived flow fractional reserve (FFRCT). The accuracy of FFRCT in discriminating ischemia has been extensively validated, and it has been shown to improve the specificity of CCTA. Compared to other stress myocardial perfusion imaging, FFRCT has superior or comparable accuracy. Clinical studies have provided strong evidence that FFRCT has significant prognostic implications and informs clinical decisions for revascularization, serving as a gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography. In addition, FFRCT-based tools can be used to simulate the physiological consequences of different revascularization strategies, thus providing the roadmap to achieve complete revascularization. Although challenges remain, ongoing research and randomized controlled trials are expected to address current limitations and better define its role in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Revascularização Miocárdica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT measurement of supra-annular area (SA) has been proposed as an alternative to annular area (AA) for sizing of trancatheter valves in biscuspid aortic valves (BAV). This study examines the reproducibility of SA and AA measurements and their potential impact on downstream transcatheter heart valve sizing and clinical outcomes. METHODS: 44 consecutive patients (mean age: 73 ± 15 years, 57% male) undergoing CTA with subsequent SAPIEN 3 valve insertion for severe bicuspid aortic stenosis (AS) were included. AA was measured at the basal ring. SA was measured by generating a circle defined by the intercommisural distance. AA and SA were measured by 2 independent observers. Baseline characteristics, TAVR procedural data, and discharge echocardiography data were collected. RESULTS: The SA was significantly larger than the AA (562 ± 146mm2 vs. 518 ± 112mm2,p = 0.013). Interobserver agreement was high using both techniques (ICC AA = 0.98,p < 0.001; SA = 0.80,p < 0.001), but with narrower limits of agreement with AA measurements (mean difference (limits of agreement): AA = -3mm2 (22; 19), SA = -16mm2 (-92; 76)). AA-based device sizing demonstrated substantial agreement with final valve inserted (κ = 0.72,p < 0.001), while SA demonstrated fair agreement (κ = 0.40,p < 0.001). There was no difference in post TAVR gradients, paravalvular leakage or valve success between patients with concordant sizing between AA and SA, and those in whom SA would have suggested an alternate valve size. CONCLUSIONS: Supra-annular sizing is less reproducible than annular sizing, with no difference in procedural complication rates in patients in whom supra-annular sizing would have altered the device size used. These results suggest no role for supra-annular sizing in current clinical practice.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e015063, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106747

RESUMO

Background Mixed valvular disease (MVD), mitral regurgitation (MR) from pre-existing disease in conjunction with paravalvular leak (PVL) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), is one of the most important stimuli for left ventricle (LV) dysfunction, associated with cardiac mortality. Despite the prevalence of MVD, the quantitative understanding of the interplay between pre-existing MVD, PVL, LV, and post-TAVR recovery is meager. Methods and Results We quantified the effects of MVD on valvular-ventricular hemodynamics using an image-based patient-specific computational framework in 72 MVD patients. Doppler pressure was reduced by TAVR (mean, 77%; N=72; P<0.05), but it was not always accompanied by improvements in LV workload. TAVR had no effect on LV workload in 22 patients, and LV workload post-TAVR significantly rose in 32 other patients. TAVR reduced LV workload in only 18 patients (25%). PVL significantly alters LV flow and increases shear stress on transcatheter aortic valve leaflets. It interacts with mitral inflow and elevates shear stresses on mitral valve and is one of the main contributors in worsening of MR post-TAVR. MR worsened in 32 patients post-TAVR and did not improve in 18 other patients. Conclusions PVL limits the benefit of TAVR by increasing LV load and worsening of MR and heart failure. Post-TAVR, most MVD patients (75% of N=72; P<0.05) showed no improvements or even worsening of LV workload, whereas the majority of patients with PVL, but without that pre-existing MR condition (60% of N=48; P<0.05), showed improvements in LV workload. MR and its exacerbation by PVL may hinder the success of TAVR.

17.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(5): 479-488, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065624

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the prognostic value of risk factors and atherosclerotic extent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the long-term CONFIRM registry without prior CAD and without obstructive (≥50%) stenosis were included. Within the groups of normal coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (N = 1849) and non-obstructive CAD (N = 1698), the prognostic value of traditional clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic extent (segment involvement score, SIS) was assessed with Cox models. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or late revascularization. In total, 3547 patients were included (age 57.9 ± 12.1 years, 57.8% male), experiencing 460 MACE during 5.4 years of follow-up. Age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were the clinical variables associated with increased MACE risk, but the magnitude of risk was higher for CCTA defined atherosclerotic extent; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SIS >5 was 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.9) while HR for diabetes and hypertension were 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), respectively. Exclusion of revascularization as endpoint did not modify the results. In normal CCTA, presence of ≥1 traditional risk factors did not worsen prognosis (log-rank P = 0.248), while it did in non-obstructive CAD (log-rank P = 0.025). Adjusted for SIS, hypertension and diabetes predicted MACE risk in non-obstructive CAD, while diabetes did not increase risk in absence of CAD (P-interaction = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Among patients without obstructive CAD, the extent of CAD provides more prognostic information for MACE than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. An interaction was observed between risk factors and CAD burden, suggesting synergistic effects of both.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Different methodologies to report whole-heart atherosclerotic plaque on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have been utilized. We examined which of the three commonly used plaque burden definitions was least affected by differences in body surface area (BSA) and sex. METHODS: The PARADIGM study includes symptomatic patients with suspected coronary atherosclerosis who underwent serial CCTA >2 years apart. Coronary lumen, vessel, and plaque were quantified from the coronary tree on a 0.5 mm cross-sectional basis by a core-lab, and summed to per-patient. Three quantitative methods of plaque burden were employed: (1) total plaque volume (PV) in mm3, (2) percent atheroma volume (PAV) in % [which equaled: PV/vessel volume * 100%], and (3) normalized total atheroma volume (TAVnorm) in mm3 [which equaled: PV/vessel length * mean population vessel length]. Only data from the baseline CCTA were used. PV, PAV, and TAVnorm were compared between patients in the top quartile of BSA vs the remaining, and between sexes. Associations between vessel volume, BSA, and the three plaque burden methodologies were assessed. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1479 patients (age 60.7 ± 9.3 years, 58.4% male) who underwent CCTA. A total of 17,649 coronary artery segments were evaluated with a median of 12 (IQR 11-13) segments per-patient (from a 16-segment coronary tree). Patients with a large BSA (top quartile), compared with the remaining patients, had a larger PV and TAVnorm, but similar PAV. The relation between larger BSA and larger absolute plaque volume (PV and TAVnorm) was mediated by the coronary vessel volume. Independent from the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk (ASCVD) score, vessel volume correlated with PV (P < 0.001), and TAVnorm (P = 0.003), but not with PAV (P = 0.201). The three plaque burden methods were equally affected by sex. CONCLUSIONS: PAV was less affected by patient's body surface area then PV and TAVnorm and may be the preferred method to report coronary atherosclerotic burden.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968065

RESUMO

Importance: Plaque morphologic measures on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have been associated with future acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the evolution of calcified coronary plaques by noninvasive imaging is not known. Objective: To ascertain whether the increasing density in calcified coronary plaque is associated with risk for ACS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter case-control cohort study included individuals enrolled in ICONIC (Incident Coronary Syndromes Identified by Computed Tomography), a nested case-control study of patients drawn from the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter) registry, which included 13 study sites in 8 countries. Patients who experienced core laboratory-verified ACS after baseline CCTA (n = 189) and control individuals who did not experience ACS after baseline CCTA (n = 189) were included. Patients and controls were matched 1:1 by propensity scores for age; male sex; presence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD); current smoking status; and CAD severity. Data were analyzed from November 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Whole-heart atherosclerotic plaque volume was quantitated from all coronary vessels and their branches. For patients who underwent invasive angiography at the time of ACS, culprit lesions were coregistered to baseline CCTA lesions by a blinded independent reader. Low-density plaque was defined as having less than 130 Hounsfield units (HU); calcified plaque, as having more than 350 HU and subcategorized on a voxel-level basis into 3 strata: 351 to 700 HU, 701 to 1000 HU, and more than 1000 HU (termed 1K plaque). Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between calcium density and future ACS risk. Results: A total of 189 patients and 189 matched controls (mean [SD] age of 59.9 [9.8] years; 247 [65.3%] were male) were included in the analysis and were monitored during a mean (SD) follow-up period of 3.9 (2.5) years. The overall mean (SD) calcified plaque volume (>350 HU) was similar between patients and controls (76.4 [101.6] mm3 vs 99.0 [156.1] mm3; P = .32), but patients who experienced ACS exhibited less 1K plaque (>1000 HU) compared with controls (3.9 [8.3] mm3 vs 9.4 [23.2] mm3; P = .02). Individuals within the highest quartile of 1K plaque exhibited less low-density plaque, as a percentage of total plaque, when compared with patients within the lower 3 quartiles (12.6% [10.4%] vs 24.9% [20.6%]; P < .001). For 93 culprit precursor lesions detected by CCTA, the volume of 1K plaque was lower compared with the maximally stenotic lesion in controls (2.6 [7.2] mm3 vs 7.6 [20.3] mm3; P = .01). The per-patient and per-lesion results were similar between the 2 groups when restricted to myocardial infarction cases. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that, on a per-patient and per-lesion basis, 1K plaque was associated with a lower risk for future ACS and that measurement of 1K plaque may improve risk stratification beyond plaque burden.

20.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(4): 363-374, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985803

RESUMO

AIMS: There are significant sex-specific differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), with a higher LVEF being observed in women. We sought to assess the clinical relevance of an increased LVEF in women and men. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4632 patients from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry (44.8% women; mean age 58.7 ± 13.2 years in men and 59.5 ± 13.3 years in women, P = 0.05), in whom LVEF was measured by cardiac computed tomography, were categorized according to LVEF (low <55%, normal 55-65%, and high >65%). The prevalence of high LVEF was similar in both sexes (33.5% in women and 32.5% in men, P = 0.46). After 6 years of follow-up, no difference in mortality was observed in patients with high LVEF in the overall cohort (P = 0.41). When data were stratified by sex, women with high LVEF died more often from any cause as compared to women with normal LVEF (8.6% vs. 7.1%, log rank P = 0.032), while an opposite trend was observed in men (5.8% vs. 6.8% in normal LVEF, log rank P = 0.89). Accordingly, a first order interaction term of male sex and high LVEF was significant (hazard ratios 0.63, 95% confidence intervals 0.41-0.98, P = 0.043) in a Cox regression model of all-cause mortality adjusted for age, cardiovascular risk factors, and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). CONCLUSION: Increased LVEF is highly prevalent in patients referred for evaluation of CAD and is associated with an increased risk of death in women, but not in men. Differentiating between normal and hyperdynamic left ventricles might improve risk stratification in women with CAD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01443637.

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