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1.
Oecologia ; 195(4): 901-913, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787996

RESUMO

The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory provides an evolutionary explanation for the existence of consistent among-individual variation in behaviour, or animal personality. Herein, individuals with a fast lifestyle are considered to be bolder and should take more risks resulting in a lower life expectancy compared to shyer individuals with a slower lifestyle. However, this assumption depends on the levels of intra-specific competition that the individuals experience which has rarely been tested in species that experience large changes in competition on a very short time scale. We used the multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis) as a model system to study the POLS assumption by investigating the effects of two personality traits (exploration and stress-sensitivity) on survival, maturation (a proxy for reproductive investment) and recapture probability during one population cycle (Nindividuals = 201). Such a cycle consists of two phases in which the levels of intra-specific competition vary drastically. We found that only one personality trait, namely stress-sensitivity, had a negative effect on both survival and recapture probability but none of them affected maturation. This suggests that less stress-sensitive individuals take more risks in the wild and have a higher survival probability compared to high stress-sensitive individuals. However, the effect of personality on survival was only present during the population decrease phase, when the levels of intra-specific competition are high due to a scarcity of food. This suggests that seasonal changes in competition might be important in the evolution and maintenance of animal personalities in species whose population dynamics have a clear seasonal component.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008903, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434190

RESUMO

In most low-resource settings, microscopy still is the standard method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, despite its limited sensitivity. In Ethiopia, the more sensitive molecular methods are not yet routinely used. This study compared five PCR methods with microscopy on two sample types collected from patients with a suspected lesion to advise on optimal diagnosis of Leishmania aethiopica. Between May and July 2018, skin scrapings (SS) and blood exudate from the lesion spotted on filter paper (dry blood spot, DBS) were collected for PCR from 111 patients of four zones in Southern Ethiopia. DNA and RNA were simultaneously extracted from both sample types. DNA was evaluated by a conventional PCR targeting ITS-1 and three probe-based real-time PCRs: one targeting the SSU 18S rRNA and two targeting the kDNA minicircle sequence (the 'Mary kDNA PCR' and a newly designed 'LC kDNA PCR' for improved L. aethiopica detection). RNAs were tested with a SYBR Green-based RT-PCR targeting spliced leader (SL) RNA. Giemsa-stained SS smears were examined by microscopy. Of the 111 SS, 100 were positive with at least two methods. Sensitivity of microscopy, ITS PCR, SSU PCR, Mary kDNA PCR, LC kDNA PCR and SL RNA PCR were respectively 52%, 22%, 64%, 99%, 100% and 94%. Microscopy-based parasite load correlated well with real-time PCR Ct-values. Despite suboptimal sample storage for RNA detection, the SL RNA PCR resulted in congruent results with low Ct-values. DBS collected from the same lesion showed lower PCR positivity rates compared to SS. The kDNA PCRs showed excellent performance for diagnosis of L. aethiopica on SS. Lower-cost SL RNA detection can be a complementary high-throughput tool. DBS can be used for PCR in case microscopy is negative, the SS sample can be sent to the referral health facility where kDNA PCR method is available.

4.
Oecologia ; 195(3): 601-622, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369695

RESUMO

Most small rodent populations in the world have fascinating population dynamics. In the northern hemisphere, voles and lemmings tend to show population cycles with regular fluctuations in numbers. In the southern hemisphere, small rodents tend to have large amplitude outbreaks with less regular intervals. In the light of vast research and debate over almost a century, we here discuss the driving forces of these different rodent population dynamics. We highlight ten questions directly related to the various characteristics of relevant populations and ecosystems that still need to be answered. This overview is not intended as a complete list of questions but rather focuses on the most important issues that are essential for understanding the generality of small rodent population dynamics.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Roedores , Animais , Arvicolinae , Surtos de Doenças , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Mamm Rev ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230363

RESUMO

It has been a long time since the world has experienced a pandemic with such a rapid devastating impact as the current COVID-19 pandemic. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is unusual in that it appears capable of infecting many different mammal species. As a significant proportion of people worldwide are infected with SARS-CoV-2 and may spread the infection unknowingly before symptoms occur or without any symptoms ever occurring, there is a non-negligible risk of humans spreading SARS-CoV-2 to wildlife, in particular to wild non-human mammals. Because of SARS-CoV-2's apparent evolutionary origins in bats and reports of humans transmitting the virus to pets and zoo animals, regulations for the prevention of human-to-animal transmission have so far focused mostly on these animal groups. We summarise recent studies and reports that show that a wide range of distantly related mammals are likely to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and that susceptibility or resistance to the virus is, in general, not predictable, or only predictable to some extent, from phylogenetic proximity to known susceptible or resistant hosts. In the absence of solid evidence on the susceptibility and resistance to SARS-CoV-2 for each of the >6500 mammal species, we argue that sanitary precautions should be taken by humans interacting with any other mammal species in the wild. Preventing human-to-wildlife SARS-CoV-2 transmission is important to protect these animals (some of which are classed as threatened) from disease, but also to avoid establishment of novel SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs in wild mammals. The risk of repeated re-infection of humans from such a wildlife reservoir could severely hamper SARS-CoV-2 control efforts. Activities during which direct or indirect interaction with wild mammals may occur include wildlife research, conservation activities, forestry work, pest control, management of feral populations, ecological consultancy work, management of protected areas and natural environments, wildlife tourism and wildlife rehabilitation in animal shelters. During such activities, we recommend sanitary precautions, such as physical distancing, wearing face masks and gloves, and frequent decontamination, which are very similar to regulations currently imposed to prevent transmission among humans. We further recommend active surveillance of domestic and feral animals that could act as SARS-CoV-2 intermediate hosts between humans and wild mammals.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 580, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is affected by human leishmaniasis caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by a variety of sand fly vectors of the genus Phlebotomus. The sand fly fauna in Ethiopia is highly diverse and some species are closely related and similar in morphology, resulting in difficulties with species identification that requires deployment of molecular techniques. DNA barcoding entails high costs, requires time and lacks reference sequences for many Ethiopian species. Yet, proper species identification is pivotal for epidemiological surveillance as species differ in their actual involvement in transmission cycles. Recently, protein profiling using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been introduced as a promising technique for sand fly identification. METHODS: In our study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to identify most of the important sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, applying three complementary methods: morphological assessment, sequencing analysis of two genetic markers, and MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling. RESULTS: Although morphological assessment resulted in some inconclusive identifications, both DNA- and protein-based techniques performed well, providing a similar hierarchical clustering pattern for the analyzed species. Both methods generated species-specific sequences or protein patterns for all species except for Phlebotomus pedifer and P. longipes, the two presumed vectors of Leishmania aethiopica, suggesting that they may represent a single species, P. longipes Parrot & Martin. All three approaches also revealed that the collected specimens of Adlerius sp. differ from P. (Adlerius) arabicus, the only species of Adlerius currently reported in Ethiopia, and molecular comparisons indicate that it may represent a yet undescribed new species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study uses three complementary taxonomical methods for species identification of taxonomically challenging and yet medically import Ethiopian sand flies. The generated MALDI-TOF MS protein profiles resulted in unambiguous identifications, hence showing suitability of this technique for sand fly species identification. Furthermore, our results contribute to the still inadequate knowledge of the sand fly fauna of Ethiopia, a country severely burdened with human leishmaniasis.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 536660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134187

RESUMO

For wildlife diseases, one often relies on host density to predict host infection prevalence and the subsequent force of infection to humans in the case of zoonoses. Indeed, if transmission is mainly indirect, i.e., by way of the environment, the force of infection is expected to increase with host density, yet the laborious field data supporting this theoretical claim are often absent. Hantaviruses are among those zoonoses that have been studied extensively over the past decades, as they pose a significant threat to humans. In Europe, the most widespread hantavirus is the Puumala virus (PUUV), which is carried by the bank vole and causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans. Extensive field campaigns have been carried out in Central Finland to shed light on this supposed relationship between bank vole density and PUUV prevalence and to identify other drivers for the infection dynamics. This resulted in the surprising observation that the relationship between bank vole density and PUUV prevalence is not purely monotonic on an annual basis, contrary to what previous models predicted: a higher vole density does not necessary result in a higher infection prevalence, nor in an increased number of humans reported having NE. Here, we advance a novel individual-based spatially-explicit model which takes into account the immunity provided by maternal antibodies and which simulates the spatial behavior of the host, both possible causes for this discrepancy that were not accounted for in previous models. We show that the reduced prevalence in peak years can be attributed to transient immunity, and that the density-dependent spatial vole behavior, i.e., the fact that home ranges are smaller in high density years, plays only a minor role. The applicability of the model is not limited to the study and prediction of PUUV (and NE) occurrence in Europe, as it could be easily adapted to model other rodent-borne diseases, either with indirect or direct transmission.

8.
Virus Evol ; 6(2): veaa039, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033629

RESUMO

Mastomys natalensis is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and hosts several arenavirus species, including the pathogenic zoonotic Lassa virus in West Africa. Mitochondrial lineages sub-divide the range of M. natalensis and have been associated with cryptic structure within the species. To test specificity of arenaviruses to hosts carrying these lineages, we screened 1772 M. natalensis in a large area of Tanzania where three mitochondrial lineages meet. We detected fifty-two individuals that were positive for one of three arenaviruses: Gairo, Morogoro, and Luna virus. This is the first record of Luna virus in Tanzania. We confirmed the specificity of each arenavirus to a distinct host mitochondrial lineage except for three cases in one locality at the centre of a host hybrid zone. No arenaviruses were detected in a large part of the study area. Morogoro and Gairo virus showed differences in prevalence (Morogoro virus lower than Gairo virus) and in genetic structure (Morogoro virus more structured than Gairo virus). However, both viruses have genetic neighbourhood size estimates of the same order of magnitude as Lassa virus. While differences in arenavirus and/or host evolutionary and ecological dynamics may exist, Tanzanian arenaviruses could be suited to model Lassa virus dynamics in M. natalensis.

9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 467, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus pedifer is the vector for Leishmania aethiopica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in southwestern Ethiopia. Previous research on the transmission dynamics of CL resulted in recommendations for vector control. In order to target these interventions towards affected areas, a comprehensive understanding of the spatial distribution of P. pedifer at high spatial resolution is required. Therefore, this study determined the environmental predictors that facilitate the distribution of P. pedifer and created a map indicating the areas where conditions are suitable for survival of the vector in southwestern Ethiopia with high spatial resolution. METHODS: Phlebotomus pedifer presence points were collected during two entomological surveys. Climate, vegetation and topographic variables were assembled. Climate variables were interpolated with variables derived from high-resolution digital elevation models to generate topoclimatic layers representing the climate conditions in the highlands. A Maximum Entropy model was run with the presence points, predicting variables and background points, which were selected based on a bias file. RESULTS: Phlebotomus pedifer was the only captured Phlebotomus species in the study area and was collected at altitudes ranging between 1685 and 2892 m. Model projections indicated areas with suitable conditions in a 'belt' surrounding the high mountain peaks. Model performance was high, with train and test AUC values being 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A multivariate environmental similarity surface (MESS) analysis showed that the model projection was only slightly extrapolated for some of the variables. The mean annual temperature was the environmental variable, which contributed most to the model predictions (60.0%) followed by the seasonality in rainfall (13.2%). Variables representing steep slopes showed very low importance to model predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the suitable habitats for P. pedifer correspond well with the altitudes at which CL was reported previously, but the predictions are more widely distributed, in contrast with the description of CL to occur in particular foci. Moreover, we confirm that vector distribution is driven by climate factors, suggesting inclusion of topoclimate in sand fly distribution models. Overall, our model provides a map with a high spatial resolution that can be used to target sand fly control measures in southwestern Ethiopia.

11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 276, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In eco-epidemiological studies, Leishmania detection in vectors and reservoirs is frequently accomplished by high-throughput and sensitive molecular methods that target minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). A pan-Leishmania SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which detects the conserved spliced-leader RNA (SL RNA) sequence was developed recently. This study assessed the SL RNA assay performance combined with a crude extraction method for the detection of Leishmania in field-collected and laboratory-reared sand flies and in tissue samples from hyraxes as reservoir hosts. METHODS: Field-collected and laboratory-infected sand fly and hyrax extracts were subjected to three different qPCR approaches to assess the suitability of the SL RNA target for Leishmania detection. Nucleic acids of experimentally infected sand flies were isolated with a crude extraction buffer with ethanol precipitation and a commercial kit and tested for downstream DNA and RNA detection. Promastigotes were isolated from culture and sand fly midguts to assess whether there was difference in SL RNA and kDNA copy numbers. Naive sand flies were spiked with a serial dilution of promastigotes to make a standard curve. RESULTS: The qPCR targeting SL RNA performed well on infected sand fly samples, despite preservation and extraction under presumed unfavorable conditions for downstream RNA detection. Nucleic acid extraction by a crude extraction buffer combined with a precipitation step was highly compatible with downstream SL RNA and kDNA detection. Copy numbers of kDNA were found to be identical in culture-derived parasites and promastigotes isolated from sand fly midguts. SL RNA levels were slightly lower in sand fly promastigotes (ΔCq 1.7). The theoretical limit of detection and quantification of the SL RNA qPCR respectively reached down to 10-3 and 10 parasite equivalents. SL RNA detection in stored hyrax samples was less efficient with some false-negative assay results, most likely due to the long-term tissue storage in absence of RNA stabilizing reagents. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a crude extraction method in combination with the SL RNA qPCR assay is suitable for the detection and quantification of Leishmania in sand flies. The assay is inexpensive, sensitive and pan-Leishmania specific, and accordingly an excellent assay for high-throughput screening in entomological research.

12.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(3): 191582, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269793

RESUMO

Understanding the determinants of species coexistence in complex and species-rich communities is a fundamental goal of ecology. Patterns of species coexistence depend on how biotic interactions and environmental filtering act over ecological and evolutionary time scales. Climatic fluctuations in lowland rainforests of the Congo Basin led to the number of vertebrate species being significantly lower in central compared with northern ecoregions of the Basin. We used null models to assess whether climatic variations affected the community assembly of shrews. A consistent limit to functional similarity of species was not related to species richness. Rather, species richness is constrained by environmental factors, and these constraints are stronger in the central lowland forests of the Congo Basin. By constraining species geographic distributions, historical effects of rainforest refugia arising from climatic fluctuations may affect contemporary species composition of local shrew communities. The Congo River represents a vicariance event that led to allopatric speciation of shrews and continues to represent a barrier to dispersal. Ultimately, the historical effects of this barrier have led to differences in the functional volume of shrew communities in northern and central ecoregions. We suggest that the analyses of community assembly can be used to identify Holocene refugia in the Congo Basin.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007947, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health concern in Ethiopia. However, knowledge about the complex zoonotic transmission cycle is limited, hampering implementation of control strategies. We explored the feeding behavior and activity of the vector (Phlebotomus pedifer) and studied the role of livestock in CL transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Blood meal origins of engorged sand flies were determined by sequencing host DNA. A host choice experiment was performed to assess the feeding preference of P. pedifer when humans and hyraxes are equally accessible. Ear and nose biopsies from livestock were screened for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Sand flies were captured indoor and outdoor with human landing catches and CDC light traps to determine at which time and where P. pedifer is mostly active. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 180 P. pedifer sand flies were found to bite hosts of 12 genera. Humans were the predominant blood meal source indoors (65.9%, p < 0.001), while no significant differences were determined outdoors and in caves. In caves, hyraxes were represented in blood meals equally as humans (45.5% and 42.4%, respectively), but the host choice experiment revealed that sand flies have a significant preference for feeding on hyraxes (p = 0.009). Only a single goat nose biopsy from 412 animal samples was found with Leishmania RNA. We found that P. pedifer is predominantly endophagic (p = 0.003), but occurs both indoors and outdoors. A substantial number of sand flies was active in the early evening, which increased over time reaching its maximum around midnight. CONCLUSION: In contrast to earlier suggestions of exclusive zoonotic Leishmania transmission, we propose that there is also human-to-human transmission of CL in southwestern Ethiopia. Livestock does not play a role in CL transmission and combined indoor and outdoor vector control measures at night are required for efficient vector control.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Gado/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Antiviral Res ; 176: 104733, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068071

RESUMO

The 2019 11th International Conference on Hantaviruses (ICH 2019) was organized by the International Society for Hantaviruses (ISH), and held on September 1-4, 2019, at the Irish College, in Leuven, Belgium. These ICHs have been held every three years since 1989. ICH 2019 was attended by 158 participants from 33 countries. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology; pathogenesis and immune responses; virus phylogeny, replication and morphogenesis; epidemiology; vaccines, therapeutics and prevention; and clinical aspects and diagnosis.

15.
J Anim Ecol ; 89(2): 506-518, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545505

RESUMO

A key aim in wildlife disease ecology is to understand how host and parasite characteristics influence parasite transmission and persistence. Variation in host population density can have strong impacts on transmission and outbreaks, and theory predicts particular transmission-density patterns depending on how parasites are transmitted between individuals. Here, we present the results of a study on the dynamics of Morogoro arenavirus in a population of multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis). This widespread African rodent, which is also the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus in West Africa, is known for its strong seasonal density fluctuations driven by food availability. We investigated to what degree virus transmission changes with host population density and how the virus might be able to persist during periods of low host density. A seven-year capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in Tanzania where rodents were trapped monthly and screened for the presence of antibodies against Morogoro virus. Observed seasonal seroprevalence patterns were compared with those generated by mathematical transmission models to test different hypotheses regarding the degree of density dependence and the role of chronically infected individuals. We observed that Morogoro virus seroprevalence correlates positively with host density with a lag of 1-4 months. Model results suggest that the observed seasonal seroprevalence dynamics can be best explained by a combination of vertical and horizontal transmission and that a small number of animals need to be infected chronically to ensure viral persistence. Transmission dynamics and viral persistence were best explained by the existence of both acutely and chronically infected individuals and by seasonally changing transmission rates. Due to the presence of chronically infected rodents, rodent control is unlikely to be a feasible approach for eliminating arenaviruses such as Lassa virus from Mastomys populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arenaviridae/epidemiologia , Arenavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Camundongos , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(2): 676-684, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are a problematic pest in global sweet pepper cultivation. Control of aphids often relies on insecticides, leading to widespread resistance. Biological control of aphids is mainly based on releasing specialist natural enemies, but they often fail to control outbreaks. Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a zoophytophagous generalist which attacks several sweet pepper pests, including aphids. Previous research showed that M. pygmaeus is capable of strongly reducing aphid populations in sweet pepper, but complete control was seldom achieved. Sweet pepper plants continue to grow during the season, reaching > 3 m high in Belgian and Dutch greenhouses. Dense foliage and large vertical distance from the flowers to the lower leaves impede the search efficiency of the predator. Leaf pruning may improve aphid predation by M. pygmaeus by increasing the probability of encountering prey. RESULTS: Four and five treatments (foliage range: 100 cm to full length) respectively were tested in a semi-commercial sweet pepper greenhouse in 2017 and 2018. Aphid populations in pruned treatments grew more slowly than in the control and M. pygmaeus was eventually able to control aphids in all pruned treatments in 2018. There was no difference in aphid control between the pruned treatments. Sweet pepper production was lower in the treatments with the shortest foliage lengths. CONCLUSION: Leaf pruning up to 160 or 190 cm foliage length improves aphid control by M. pygmaeus in sweet pepper without affecting production. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Capsicum , Animais , Heterópteros , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Folhas de Planta
17.
Biodivers Data J ; 7: e46948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885462

RESUMO

Background: The Congo Basin rainforest is the second largest rainforest in the world and one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth. Nevertheless, the Congo Basin biodiversity remains to be fully mapped, with many species awaiting discovery or official description. In recent years, much effort has been put into research on shrews (Soricidae), particularly in the region around Kisangani (D.R. Congo). Shrews are opportunistic feeders that are able to forage on a large diversity of invertebrate prey and therefore play an important role in the forest ecosystem. Furthermore, as they largely depend on forest habitats and have limited dispersal capacities, shrews form an interesting model group to study biogeographic patterns in the Congo Basin. New information: This paper collates the efforts on shrew research from the wider region around Kisangani, in the centre of the Congo Basin. Apart from sampling information, the dataset includes morphological measures, DNA sequences and photographs. This dataset is therefore critical in the study of the taxonomy and ecology of Soricidae in the Congo Basin lowland rainforests.

18.
Ecol Evol ; 9(18): 10213-10224, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624546

RESUMO

Conspecific density and animal personality (consistent among-individual differences in behavior) may both play an important role in disease ecology. Nevertheless, both factors have rarely been studied together but may provide insightful information in understanding pathogen transmission dynamics. In this study, we investigated how both personality and density affect viral infections both direct and indirectly, using the multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis) and Morogoro arenavirus (MORV) as a model system. Using a replicated semi-natural experiment, we found a positive correlation between MORV antibody presence and density, suggesting that MORV infection is density-dependent. Surprisingly, slower explorers were more likely to have antibodies against MORV compared to highly explorative individuals. However, exploration was positively correlated with density which may suggest a negative, indirect effect of density on MORV infection. We have shown here that in order to better understand disease ecology, both personality and density should be taken into account.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007667, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ochollo is a village in southern Ethiopia burdened with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), where Phlebotomus pedifer is the only vector for Leishmania aethiopica and hyraxes are confirmed reservoir hosts. A detailed description of the different players of transmission, and the ecology and seasonality of the vector needs to be established in order to accomplish efficient control programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between March 2017 and February 2018, a monthly sandfly collection was carried out in different habitats and records of temperature and humidity were taken. Rodents and hyraxes were trapped in the dry and wet season. All samples were screened for Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Positive samples were further processed for determination of the Leishmania species and the species of the sandfly/small mammal that was found infected. Additionally, the species of 400 sandfly specimens from different habitats and seasons was identified. 17,190 Sergentomyia and Phlebotomus sandflies were caught and showed an overall kDNA prevalence of 2.6%, all were L. aethiopica infections only found in P. pedifer. The overall sandfly and P. pedifer abundance peaked in the dry season and was negatively correlated with the %RH. The kDNA prevalence varied over the months and was negatively correlated with the temperature. Total sandfly abundance did not differ between the sampled habitats, but P. pedifer was the distinct predominant species only in caves. Moreover, significantly more infected sandflies were found in caves. Only 1/192 rodents were kDNA positive, while 20.0% (5/25) of Heterohyrax brucei were found infected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that caves may be a source of multiplication of the infection. If an outdoor control program would be considered, it would be useful to focus on caves in the wet season, when the sandfly abundance is lowest. The captured rodent species appear not important for transmission and the contribution of hyraxes in transmission should be further investigated.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças , Vetores de Doenças , Procaviídeos/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Prevalência , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(12): 950-953, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355714

RESUMO

Orthohantaviruses are RNA viruses that some members are known to cause severe zoonotic diseases in humans. Orthohantaviruses are hosted by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles), and bats. Only two orthohantaviruses associated with murid rodents are known in Africa, Sangassou orthohantavirus (SANGV) in two species of African wood mice (Hylomyscus), and Tigray orthohantavirus (TIGV) in the Ethiopian white-footed rat (Stenocephalemys albipes). In this article, we report evidence that, like SANGV, two strains of TIGV occur in two genetically related rodent species, S. albipes and S. sp. A, occupying different elevational zones in the same mountain. Investigating the other members of the genus Stenocephalemys for TIGV could reveal the real diversity of TIGV in the genus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Hantavirus/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores , Especificidade da Espécie
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