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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 199, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) double blind randomized trial demonstrated that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide 1.5 mg, a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist, versus matched placebo reduced the first outcome of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke (594 versus 663 events) in 9901 persons with type 2 diabetes and either chronic cardiovascular disease or risk factors, and followed during 5.4 years. These findings were based on a time-to-first-event analysis and preclude relevant information on the burden of total major events occurring during the trial. This analysis reports on the total cardiovascular or fatal events in the REWIND participants METHODS: We compared the total incidence of MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths, and the total incidence of expanded MACE (MACE, unstable angina, heart failure or revascularization) or non-cardiovascular deaths between participants randomized to dulaglutide and those randomized to placebo. Incidences were expressed as number per 1000 person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the conditional time gap and proportional means models. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 66.2 years, 46.3% were women and 31% had previous cardiovascular disease. During the trial there were 1972 MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths and 3673 expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths. The incidence of total MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 35.8 and 40.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 4.5 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.98) p = 0.020, and proportional means HR 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.98) p = 0.022]. The incidence of total expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 67.1 and 74.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 7.6 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.99) p = 0.023, and proportional means HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99) p = 0.028]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide reduced total cardiovascular or fatal event burden in people with type 2 diabetes at moderate cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gouv . Unique Identifier NCT01394952).

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin level, ≥7%), chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area), and risks for cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was changed during the trial to the composite of the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure. The trial ended early owing to loss of funding. RESULTS: Of 19,188 patients screened, 10,584 were enrolled, with 5292 assigned to the sotagliflozin group and 5292 assigned to the placebo group, and followed for a median of 16 months. The rate of primary end-point events was 5.6 events per 100 patient-years in the sotagliflozin group and 7.5 events per 100 patient-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.88; P<0.001). The rate of deaths from cardiovascular causes per 100 patient-years was 2.2 with sotagliflozin and 2.4 with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.35). For the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, the hazard ratio was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99); for the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91). Diarrhea, genital mycotic infections, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis were more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SCORED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03315143.).

3.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with stable heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors when initiated soon after an episode of decompensated heart failure are unknown. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure were randomly assigned to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure (first and subsequent events). The trial ended early because of loss of funding from the sponsor. RESULTS: A total of 1222 patients underwent randomization (608 to the sotagliflozin group and 614 to the placebo group) and were followed for a median of 9.0 months; the first dose of sotagliflozin or placebo was administered before discharge in 48.8% and a median of 2 days after discharge in 51.2%. Among these patients, 600 primary end-point events occurred (245 in the sotagliflozin group and 355 in the placebo group). The rate (the number of events per 100 patient-years) of primary end-point events was lower in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group (51.0 vs. 76.3; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes was 10.6 in the sotagliflozin group and 12.5 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.22); the rate of death from any cause was 13.5 in the sotagliflozin group and 16.3 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.14). Diarrhea was more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo (6.1% vs. 3.4%), as was severe hypoglycemia (1.5% vs. 0.3%). The percentage of patients with hypotension was similar in the sotagliflozin group and the placebo group (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively), as was the percentage with acute kidney injury (4.1% and 4.4%, respectively). The benefits of sotagliflozin were consistent in the prespecified subgroups of patients stratified according to the timing of the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure, sotagliflozin therapy, initiated before or shortly after discharge, resulted in a significantly lower total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SOLOIST-WHF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03521934.).

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017728, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000670

RESUMO

Background Public health policies reflect concerns that certain fruit sources may not have the intended benefits and that vegetables should be preferred to fruit. We assessed the relation of fruit and vegetable sources with cardiovascular outcomes using a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane were searched through June 3, 2019. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale). Data were pooled (fixed effects), and heterogeneity (Cochrane-Q and I2) and certainty of the evidence (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) were assessed. Eighty-one cohorts involving 4 031 896 individuals and 125 112 cardiovascular events were included. Total fruit and vegetables, fruit, and vegetables were associated with decreased cardiovascular disease (risk ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.96]; 0.91 [0.88-0.95]; and 0.94 [0.90-0.97], respectively), coronary heart disease (0.88 [0.83-0.92]; 0.88 [0.84-0.92]; and 0.92 [0.87-0.96], respectively), and stroke (0.82 [0.77-0.88], 0.82 [0.79-0.85]; and 0.88 [0.83-0.93], respectively) incidence. Total fruit and vegetables, fruit, and vegetables were associated with decreased cardiovascular disease (0.89 [0.85-0.93]; 0.88 [0.86-0.91]; and 0.87 [0.85-0.90], respectively), coronary heart disease (0.81 [0.72-0.92]; 0.86 [0.82-0.90]; and 0.86 [0.83-0.89], respectively), and stroke (0.73 [0.65-0.81]; 0.87 [0.84-0.91]; and 0.94 [0.90-0.99], respectively) mortality. There were greater benefits for citrus, 100% fruit juice, and pommes among fruit sources and allium, carrots, cruciferous, and green leafy among vegetable sources. No sources showed an adverse association. The certainty of the evidence was "very low" to "moderate," with the highest for total fruit and/or vegetables, pommes fruit, and green leafy vegetables. Conclusions Fruits and vegetables are associated with cardiovascular benefit, with some sources associated with greater benefit and none showing an adverse association. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03394339.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(11): 880-893, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of developing chronic kidney disease. We examined the effects of semaglutide on kidney function and safety in a large, broad type 2 diabetes population. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of 8416 patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7 randomised controlled trials, and the SUSTAIN 6 cardiovascular outcomes trial, to examine the effects of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide 0·5 mg and 1·0 mg versus comparators (active treatments or placebo) on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and kidney adverse events. Data from SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7 were pooled. eGFR and UACR were also analysed by kidney function and albuminuria status. FINDINGS: In SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, eGFR decreased from baseline to week 12 with all active treatments; estimated treatment differences (ETDs) versus placebo were -2·15 (95% CI -3·47 to -0·83) mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -3·00 (-4·31 to -1·68) mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 1·0 mg; after week 12, eGFR plateaued. In SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, from baseline to end of treatment the decline in eGFR was greater with semaglutide than with placebo (ETD -1·58 [95% CI -2·92 to -0·25] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -2·02 [-3·35 to -0·68] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 6, the decline in eGFR was greater with semaglutide than with placebo from baseline to week 16 (ETD -1·29 [95% CI -2·07 to -0·51] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -1·56 [-2·33 to -0·78] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 1·0 mg), but not from week 16 to week 104 (1·29 [0·30 to 2·28] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 0·5 mg and 2·44 [1·45 to 3·44] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 1·0 mg). Overall (ie, from baseline to week 104), the eGFR decline in SUSTAIN 6 was similar between semaglutide and placebo (ETD 0·07 [95% CI -0·92 to 1·07] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·97 [-0·03 to 1·97] mL/min per 1·73 m2 with semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 1-5, UACR ratios at end of treatment to baseline were 0·917 with semaglutide 0·5 mg, 0·836 with semaglutide 1·0 mg, and 1·239 with placebo; at end of treatment, greater reductions in UACR were observed with semaglutide versus placebo (estimated treatment ratios 0·74 [95% CI 0·64 to 0·85] for semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·68 [0·59 to 0·78] for semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 6, UACR ratios at end of treatment (week 104) to baseline were 0·973 with semaglutide 0·5 mg, 0·858 with semaglutide 1·0 mg, and 1·302 with placebo; at week 104, greater reductions in UACR were observed with semaglutide versus placebo (estimated treatment ratios 0·75 [95% CI 0·66 to 0·85] for semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·66 [0·58 to 0·75] for semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 1-7, eGFR initially declined in patients with normal kidney function (and in those with mild kidney impairment with semaglutide 1·0 mg in SUSTAIN 6), but overall (ie, by week 30 for SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, and week 104 for SUSTAIN 6), eGFR did not differ between semaglutide and placebo. In SUSTAIN 1-6, UACR decreased in patients with pre-existing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria at baseline; it did not change or increased in those with normoalbuminuria at baseline. Kidney adverse events were balanced between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Across the SUSTAIN 1-7 trials, semaglutide was associated with initial reductions in eGFR that plateaued, and marked reductions in UACR. This post-hoc analysis suggests no increase in the risk of kidney adverse events with semaglutide versus the active comparators used across SUSTAIN 1-7. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(5): 649-659.e6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ongoing need exists for safe and effective lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) for patients unable to achieve desired lipid levels with current treatment options. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the safety profile of bempedoic acid, an oral, first-in-class, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase inhibitor that significantly reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 17.4%-28.5% vs placebo. METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of four phase 3, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with hypercholesterolemia who required additional LDL-C lowering, despite stable maximally-tolerated LLT. Patients received 180 mg of bempedoic acid (n = 2424) or placebo (n = 1197) once daily for 12 to 52 weeks. Assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and clinical laboratory tests. RESULTS: Of 3621 patients (the median drug exposure: 363 days), exposure-adjusted TEAE rates were 87.1/100 and 82.9/100 person-years (PY) for bempedoic acid and placebo, respectively. No single TEAE influenced the difference in rates. TEAEs leading to discontinuation occurred at rates of 13.4/100 and 8.9/100 PY for bempedoic acid vs placebo, with the most common cause being myalgia, which occurred less frequently with bempedoic acid vs placebo (1.5/100 vs 2.0/100 PY). Rates of myalgia and muscle weakness were comparable vs placebo. Bempedoic acid was associated with mild increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid and decreases in hemoglobin. These laboratory abnormalities were apparent by week 4, stable over time, and reversible after treatment cessation. Gout incidence was 1.6/100 vs 0.5/100 PY in the bempedoic acid vs placebo groups. New-onset diabetes/hyperglycemia occurred less frequently with bempedoic acid vs placebo (4.7/100 vs 6.4/100 PY). The safety profile was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Bempedoic acid is generally safe and well tolerated among patients with hypercholesterolemia who require additional LLT.

7.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844557

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the associations between baseline glucose-lowering agents (GLAs) and cardiorenal outcomes with dapagliflozin versus placebo in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 assessed the cardiorenal outcomes of dapagliflozin versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. This post hoc analysis elaborates the efficacy and safety outcomes by baseline GLA for treatment effect and GLA-based treatment interaction. RESULTS: At baseline, 14 068 patients (82.0%) used metformin, 7322 (42.7%) sulphonylureas, 2888 (16.8%) dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 750 (4.4%) glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and 7013 (40.9%) insulin. Dapagliflozin reduced the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) versus placebo regardless of baseline GLA, with greater benefit in the small group of patients with baseline use of GLP-1 RAs (HR [95% CI] 0.37 [0.18, 0.78] vs. 0.86 [0.75, 0.98] in GLP-1 RA users vs. non-users, Pinteraction = .03). The overall HR for major adverse cardiovascular events (CVD, myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke) was 0.93 (95% CI 0.84, 1.03) with dapagliflozin versus placebo, with no interaction by baseline GLA (Pinteraction > .05). The renal-specific outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin versus placebo in the overall cohort (HR [95%CI] 0.53[0.43-0.66]), with no interaction by baseline GLA (Pinteraction > .05). All of these outcomes were similar in those with versus those without baseline metformin use. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dapagliflozin on cardiorenal outcomes were generally consistent regardless of baseline GLA, with consistent benefits regardless of baseline metformin use. The potential clinical benefit of combining sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors with GLP-1 RAs, given some evidence of cardiovascular risk reduction with both classes, should be explored further.

8.
Metabol Open ; 7: 100039, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812924

RESUMO

Context: We examined if empagliflozin was associated with modulation of cardiac autonomic tone among subjects with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) relative to placebo. Methods: Using ambulatory 24-h Holter electrocardiographic data prospectively collected from a randomized trial, we compared changes in heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between empagliflozin- and placebo-assigned subjects over a follow-up period of 6 months. Measured HRV domains included: standard deviation (SD) of NN intervals (SDNN), SD of average NN intervals per 5-min (SDANN), root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD), % successive NN intervals differing >50 ms (ms) (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio (LF:HF). Differences in HRV parameters between the 2 groups were compared with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical measures of significance were reported as adjusted differences between the 2 groups and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: Sixty-six subjects completed 24-h Holter monitoring at baseline and 6-months. Over 6 months, the change in HRV was similar between subjects treated with empagliflozin vs. placebo for the following parameters: RMSSD -1.2 ms (-6.0 to 3.6 ms); pNN50 0.5% (-2.6 to 3.6%); VLF -907.8 ms2 (-2388.8 to 573.1 ms2); LF -341 ms2 (-878.7 to 196.7 ms2); HF -33.8 ms2 (-111.1 to 43.5 ms2); LF:HF -0.1 (-0.4 to 0.2). Subjects who received placebo experienced an increase in SDNN 18.6 ms (2.8-34.3 ms) and SDANN 20.2 ms (3.2-37.3 ms) relative to those treated with empagliflozin. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, empagliflozin did not result in changes in autonomic tone among individuals with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease.

9.
Circulation ; 142(8): 734-747, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of cardiovascular complications. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduces the risk for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and kidney events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of amputation has been observed with canagliflozin in 1 previous trial. We examined cardiovascular and kidney efficacy and the risk of limb-related events in patients with and without PAD in an exploratory analysis. METHODS: A total of 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including 1025 (6%) with PAD, were randomized. Key efficacy outcomes were MACE (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction, stroke), CV death/HHF, and progression of kidney disease. Amputations, peripheral revascularization, and limb ischemic adverse events were site-reported and categorized by a blinded reviewer. RESULTS: Patients in the placebo arm with PAD versus those without tended to have higher adjusted risk of CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.23 [95% CI, 0.97-1.56], P=0.094) and significantly higher adjusted risk of CV death/HHF (adjusted HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.21-2.12], P=0.0010) and progression of kidney disease (adjusted HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.13 - 2.03], P=0.0058), and limb adverse events (adjusted HR, 8.37, P<0.001). The relative risk reductions with dapagliflozin for CV death/HHF (HR, 0.86, PAD; HR, 0.82, no-PAD; P-interaction=0.79) and progression of kidney disease (HR, 0.78, PAD; HR, 0.76, no-PAD; P-interaction=0.84) were consistent regardless of PAD. There were 560 patients who had at least 1 limb ischemic event, 454 patients with at least 1 peripheral revascularization, and 236 patients with at least 1 amputation, with a total of 407 amputations reported. Overall, there were no significant differences in any limb outcome with dapagliflozin versus placebo including limb ischemic adverse events (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.90-1.26]) and amputation (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.84-1.40]), with no significant interactions by a history of PAD versus not (P-interactions=0.30 and 0.093, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with versus without PAD are at a higher risk of CV death of CV death, HHF, and kidney outcomes, and have a consistent benefits for CV death/HHF and progression of kidney disease with dapagliflozin. Patients with PAD had a higher risk of limb events, with no consistent pattern of incremental risk observed with dapagliflozin. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744418

RESUMO

Associations between body mass index (BMI) and the cardiovascular (CV) and kidney efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are uncertain; therefore, data analysed separately from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 6) were examined. These international, randomized, placebo-controlled trials investigated liraglutide and semaglutide (both subcutaneous) in patients with T2D and at high risk of CV events. In post hoc analyses, patients were categorized by baseline BMI (<25, ≥25-<30, ≥30-<35 and ≥35 kg/m2 ), and CV and kidney outcomes with GLP-1 RA versus placebo were analysed. All baseline BMI data from LEADER (n = 9331) and SUSTAIN 6 (n = 3290) were included (91% and 92% of patients with overweight or obesity, respectively). In SUSTAIN 6, nominally significant heterogeneity of semaglutide efficacy by baseline BMI was observed for CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke (major adverse CV events, primary outcome of both; Pinteraction = .02); otherwise, there was no statistical heterogeneity for either GLP-1 RA versus placebo across BMI categories for key CV and kidney outcomes. The lack of statistical heterogeneity from these cardiorenal outcomes implies that liraglutide and semaglutide may be beneficial for many patients and is probable not to depend on their baseline BMI, but further study is needed.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609313

RESUMO

Importance: Additional lipid-lowering therapy options are needed for patients who cannot achieve sufficient decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins alone or for those who are statin intolerant. Objective: To conduct a pooled analysis of phase 3 randomized clinical trials of bempedoic acid vs placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis pooled data from 4 double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials conducted from 2016 to 2018. Patients were enrolled in North America and Europe. Eligibility criteria included hypercholesterolemia while receiving stable lipid-lowering therapy and high cardiovascular risk or hypercholesterolemia and statin intolerance. Interventions: Patients were randomized 2:1 to bempedoic acid, 180 mg (n = 2425), or placebo (n = 1198) once daily for 12 to 52 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was percentage change from baseline in LDL-C level at week 12 in the intention-to-treat population. Patients were parsed into 2 groups according to enrollment criteria: (1) patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or with both and receiving statins and (2) patients with hypercholesterolemia who were statin intolerant receiving maximally tolerated statins. Results: In this analysis of 3623 patients, the overall mean (SD) patient age was 65.5 (9.2) years (similar in both pools). Among patients with ASCVD or HeFH or both, the mean (SD) baseline LDL-C level was 107.6 (32.7) mg/dL. At week 12, the LDL-C level percentage change from baseline was -16.0% with bempedoic acid vs 1.8% with placebo (difference, -17.8%; 95% CI, -19.5% to -16.0%; P < .001). Patients with statin intolerance had a mean (SD) baseline LDL-C level of 144.4 (38.8) mg/dL. The percentage changes in LDL-C levels at week 12 were -23.0% in the bempedoic acid group and 1.5% in the placebo group (difference, -24.5%; 95% CI, -27.8% to -21.1%; P < .001). The decrease in LDL-C levels with bempedoic acid was sustained during long-term follow-up in both pools (patients with ASCVD or HeFH or both receiving a maximally tolerated statin, difference of -12.7% at week 52; patients with statin intolerance, difference of -22.2% at week 24). Decreases in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were greater with bempedoic acid vs placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events associated more frequently with bempedoic acid than with placebo included increased blood uric acid level (2.1% vs 0.5%), gout (1.4% vs 0.4%), decreased glomerular filtration rate (0.7% vs <0.1%), and increased levels of hepatic enzymes (2.8% vs 1.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Bempedoic acid added to maximally tolerated statins, including moderate- or high-intensity statins or no background statin, was associated with decreased LDL-C levels vs placebo in patients with hypercholesterolemia with an acceptable safety profile. As a nonstatin adjunct or statin alternative, bempedoic acid has potential for use in a broad spectrum of patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02666664, NCT02991118, NCT03001076, and NCT02988115.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e209993, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644139

RESUMO

Importance: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars in the development of MetS remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to March 24, 2020, in addition to manual searches of reference lists from included studies using the following search terms: sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit drink, yogurt, metabolic syndrome, and prospective study. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included prospective cohort studies of 1 year or longer that investigated the association of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS in participants free of MetS at the start of the study. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Extreme quantile risk estimates for each food source with MetS incidence were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Dose-response analyses were performed using a 1-stage linear mixed-effects model. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). Results were reported according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled risk ratio (RR) of incident MetS (pairwise and dose response). Results: Thirteen prospective cohort studies (49 591 participants [median age, 51 years; range, 6-90 years]; 14 205 with MetS) that assessed 8 fructose-containing foods and MetS were included. An adverse linear dose-response association for SSBs (RR for 355 mL/d, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) and an L-shaped protective dose-response association for yogurt (RR for 85 g/d, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76) and fruit (RR for 80 g/d, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86) was found. Fruit juices (mixed and 100%) had a U-shaped dose-response association with protection at moderate doses (mixed fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79; 100% fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97). Honey, ice cream, and confectionary had no association with MetS incidence. The certainty of the evidence was moderate for SSBs, yogurt, fruit, mixed fruit juice, and 100% fruit juice and very low for all other food sources. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the adverse association of SSBs with MetS does not extend to other food sources of fructose-containing sugars, with a protective association for yogurt and fruit throughout the dose range and for 100% fruit juice and mixed fruit juices at moderate doses. Therefore, current policies and guidelines on the need to limit sources of free sugars may need to be reexamined.

13.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(7): 582-590, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association between the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist dulaglutide and cognitive impairment as an exploratory analysis within the Researching Cardiovascular Events With a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial. METHODS: REWIND is a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. We included men and women (aged ≥50 years) with either established or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors, glycated haemoglobin of up to 9·5% (80 mmol/mol) on a maximum of two oral glucose-lowering drugs with or without basal insulin, and a body-mass index of at least 23 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) subcutaneous injections once a week of either dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or an equal volume of matching placebo. Randomisation was done using a computer-generated code with stratification by site. Participants and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation until the database was locked. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for the composite primary outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and during follow-up using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). We present here the exploratory primary cognitive outcome, which was the first occurrence of a follow-up score on MoCA or DSST that was 1·5 SDs or more below the baseline mean score in the participant's country. All analyses were done using an intention-to-treat approach. The REWIND trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were randomly assigned to either dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During median follow-up of 5·4 (IQR 5·1-5·9) years, 8828 participants provided a baseline and one or more follow-up MoCA or DSST scores, of whom 4456 were assigned dulaglutide and 4372 were assigned placebo. The cognitive outcome occurred in 4·05 per 100 patient-years in participants assigned dulaglutide and 4·35 per 100 patient-years in people assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·85-1·02; p=0·11). After post-hoc adjustment for individual standardised baseline scores, the hazard of substantive cognitive impairment was reduced by 14% in those assigned dulaglutide (HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·79-0·95; p=0·0018). INTERPRETATION: Long-term treatment with dulaglutide might reduce cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes. Further studies of this drug focused on brain health and cognitive function are clearly indicated. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(9): 1690-1695, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372454

RESUMO

It is unknown if the cardioprotective and renal effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are consistent across blood pressure (BP) categories in patients with type 2 diabetes and at high risk of cardiovascular events. Using data from the LEADER (9340 patients) and SUSTAIN 6 (3297 patients) trials, we evaluated post hoc the cardiorenal effect of liraglutide and semaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and nephropathy by baseline BP categories using a Cox proportional hazards model (treatment and subgroup as factors; adjusted for cardiorenal risk factors). Data from the two trials were analysed separately. In the LEADER and SUSTAIN 6 trials, the prevalence of stage 1 hypertension was 30% and 31%, respectively, and of stage 2 hypertension 41% and 43%, respectively. There was no statistical heterogeneity across the BP categories for the effects of liraglutide (P = .06 for MACE; P = .14 for nephropathy) or semaglutide (P = .40 for MACE; P = .27 for nephropathy) versus placebo. This implies that liraglutide and semaglutide may be beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of their baseline BP.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(8): 1357-1368, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239659

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate comprehensively the safety of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), with emphasis placed on potential safety concerns related to the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor class. METHODS: In the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events - Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 (DECLARE-TIMI 58) study, 17 160 patients with T2DM were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo and followed for a median of 4.2 years. Safety was evaluated in 17 143 patients receiving at least one dose of study drug. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred less frequently with dapagliflozin, and adverse events suggestive of volume depletion were balanced between treatment groups, both irrespective of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, diuretic or loop diuretic use (interaction P values >0.05). Fractures and malignancies were balanced between the groups, irrespective of sex, diabetes duration or smoking (interaction P values >0.05) and fewer cases of bladder cancer occurred in the dapagliflozin versus the placebo group. Diabetic ketoacidosis was very rare, but more frequent with dapagliflozin versus placebo (27 vs. 12 patients with events; P = 0.02), yet signs, symptoms and contributing factors were similar in the two groups. Major hypoglycaemia occurred less frequently with dapagliflozin versus placebo, regardless of baseline use of either insulin or sulphonylureas (interaction P values >0.05). There were more adverse events of genital infections leading to discontinuation of study drug in the dapagliflozin versus the placebo group, but serious genital infections were few and balanced between treatment groups. Urinary tract infections, acute pyelonephritis and urosepsis were also balanced between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin was well tolerated. The long duration and large number of patient-years in DECLARE-TIMI 58 comprehensively addressed previous safety questions, confirming the robust safety profile of dapagliflozin.

16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: siRNA-based targeting of PCSK9 represents a novel therapeutic approach that may provide a convenient, infrequent and safe dosing schedule to robustly lower LDL-C. Given the long duration of action, however, establishing safety in particular with respect to immunogenicity is of paramount importance. In earlier clinical studies of other RNA-targeted treatment approaches (antisense oligonucleotide therapy) immunological and haematological adverse-effects, in particular thrombocytopenia and pro-inflammatory effects, have been reported. Here, we present the pre-specified safety analysis from ORION-1 evaluating platelets, immune cells, immunological markers, antidrug antibodies and clinical immunogenicity adverse events under PCSK9 siRNA treatment with inclisiran. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pre-specified safety analysis from ORION-1 was performed in 6 different inclisiran dosing regimens in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease with elevated LDL-C levels. Patients received either a single-dose (SD: 200mg, n = 60; 300mg, n = 62 or 500mg, n = 66) or double-dose starting regimen (DD: 100mg, n = 62; 200mg, n = 63; or 300mg, n = 61 on days 1 and 90) of inclisiran or placebo (single-dose: n = 65; double-dose: n = 62). The effects of inclisiran on haematological parameters including platelet counts, lymphocytes and monocytes as well as on the immune markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were examined after 180 days. Immunogenicity was further evaluated by analysis of anti-drug-antibodies (ADA) towards inclisiran in 6068 study samples and by careful analysis of immunogenicity adverse events as part of the pharmacovigilance strategy.At day 180 no significant alterations of platelet counts were observed in any of the dosing groups (change from baseline, single dose: 200mg: 0.8%; 300mg: -0.5%; 500mg: -1.8%; double dose: 100mg: 1.3%; 200mg: -0.5%; 300mg: 1.0%; no significant difference for any group as compared to placebo). No significant effects on other immune cells, including leukocytes, monocytes or neutrophils were detected. Notably, no significant increase of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6 or TNF-α) with either the single or double dose regimen became evident. There was no evidence for immunogenicity based on ADA level analysis and careful review of clinical immunogenicity adverse events in none of the treatment regimens. CONCLUSIONS: In this pre-specified safety analysis of ORION-1 for the siRNA therapeutic inclisiran, no adverse effects on measures of inflammation or immune activation nor adverse effects on platelets or clinical immunogenicity adverse events were observed over at least 6-months treatment. These safety findings in the largest analysis of an RNAi study in humans to date provide strong reassurance about the safety of inclisiran and the potential of cardiovascular RNA-targeted therapies.

17.
Diabetes Ther ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323156

RESUMO

This review addresses the question of the cardiovascular (CV) safety of sulfonylureas (SUs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) when directly tested against comparator agents in CV outcome trials. Presented at a recent symposium entitled "SUs in the treatment of T2DM: a fresh look and new insights" held on Wednesday September 18, 2019 during the 55th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona Spain, this review discusses the initial evidence that sparked concerns over the CV safety of SUs as well as more recent findings from large studies of SUs (i.e. ADVANCE, TOSCA.IT and CAROLINA trials), highlighting the differences in CV and hypoglycaemia risks among the various SUs. Finally, the impact of glycaemic control on CV outcomes is also discussed, where the data suggest that the recent positive CV outcomes with some antihyperglycaemic agents may have been driven in part by improved glycaemic control.

18.
Circulation ; 141(19): e779-e806, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279539

RESUMO

Although cardiologists have long treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), T2DM has traditionally been considered just a comorbidity that affected the development and progression of the disease. Over the past decade, a number of factors have shifted that have forced the cardiology community to reconsider the role of T2DM in CAD. First, in addition to being associated with increased cardiovascular risk, T2DM has the potential to affect a number of treatment choices for CAD. In this document, we discuss the role that T2DM has in the selection of testing for CAD, in medical management (both secondary prevention strategies and treatment of stable angina), and in the selection of revascularization strategy. Second, although glycemic control has been recommended as a part of comprehensive risk factor management in patients with CAD, there is mounting evidence that the mechanism by which glucose is managed can have a substantial impact on cardiovascular outcomes. In this document, we discuss the role of glycemic management (both in intensity of control and choice of medications) in cardiovascular outcomes. It is becoming clear that the cardiologist needs both to consider T2DM in cardiovascular treatment decisions and potentially to help guide the selection of glucose-lowering medications. Our statement provides a comprehensive summary of effective, patient-centered management of CAD in patients with T2DM, with emphasis on the emerging evidence. Given the increasing prevalence of T2DM and the accumulating evidence of the need to consider T2DM in treatment decisions, this knowledge will become ever more important to optimize our patients' cardiovascular outcomes.

19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(5): 418-435, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials for glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in people with or at risk of type 2 diabetes, we reported a modest reduction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular events and an increased risk of heart failure, but with heterogeneous effects by drug or intervention type. In view of the completion of many large cardiovascular outcome trials since our previous analysis, including trials of novel drugs that have shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes, we aimed to update our analysis to incorporate these findings. METHODS: We did an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in people with or at risk of type 2 diabetes. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for reports of trials published from Nov 15, 2013 to Nov 20, 2019. We included randomised controlled trials with a minimum of 1000 adults (aged ≥19 years) with or at risk of type 2 diabetes, with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) as an outcome, and with follow-up of at least 12 months. We excluded trials with patients enrolled with an acute cardiovascular event. The main outcomes of interest were MACE (generally defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and heart failure. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs with inverse-variance random-effects models, did meta-regression to analyse treatment effects per difference in bodyweight achieved, and explored results stratified by baseline subgroups. FINDINGS: Our updated search yielded 30 eligible trials (n=225 305). The mean age of participants was 63·0 years (SD 8·4) and mean duration of diabetes was 9·4 years (6·6). After a mean follow-up of 3·8 years (1·8), 23 016 (10·2%) participants had MACE and 8169 (3·6%) had a heart failure event. Glucose-lowering drugs or strategies lowered the risk of MACE compared with standard care or placebo (RR 0·92, 95% CI 0·89-0·95, p<0·0001), with no overall effect on the risk of heart failure (0·98, 0·90-1·08, p=0·71). However, across drug classes or strategies, the magnitude and directionality of RR for heart failure varied (pinteraction<0·0001), with meta-regression showing that a decrease in bodyweight of 1 kg was associated with a 5·9% (3·9-8·0) relative decrease in the risk of heart failure (p<0·0001). Among trials that assessed drug classes or strategies associated with weight loss (intensive lifestyle changes, GLP-1 receptor agonists, or SGLT2 inhibitors), the risk reduction for MACE was consistent among participants with (0·87, 0·83-0·92) and without (0·92, 0·83-1·02) established cardiovascular disease at baseline (pinteraction=0·33). For heart failure, the RR for drug classes or strategies associated with weight loss was consistent among participants with (0·80, 0·73-0·89) and without (0·84, 0·74-0·95) cardiovascular disease at baseline (pinteraction=0·63). INTERPRETATION: Glucose-lowering drugs or strategies overall reduced the risk of fatal and non-fatal atherosclerotic events. The effect on heart failure was neutral overall but varied substantially by intervention type, with interventions associated with weight loss showing a beneficial effect. The cardiovascular and heart failure benefits of interventions associated with weight loss might extend to patients without established cardiovascular disease. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(16): 1507-1519, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclisiran inhibits hepatic synthesis of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9. Previous studies suggest that inclisiran might provide sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with infrequent dosing. METHODS: We enrolled patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ORION-10 trial) and patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk equivalent (ORION-11 trial) who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels despite receiving statin therapy at the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either inclisiran (284 mg) or placebo, administered by subcutaneous injection on day 1, day 90, and every 6 months thereafter over a period of 540 days. The coprimary end points in each trial were the placebo-corrected percentage change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline to day 510 and the time-adjusted percentage change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline after day 90 and up to day 540. RESULTS: A total of 1561 and 1617 patients underwent randomization in the ORION-10 and ORION-11 trials, respectively. Mean (±SD) LDL cholesterol levels at baseline were 104.7±38.3 mg per deciliter (2.71±0.99 mmol per liter) and 105.5±39.1 mg per deciliter (2.73±1.01 mmol per liter), respectively. At day 510, inclisiran reduced LDL cholesterol levels by 52.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.8 to 55.7) in the ORION-10 trial and by 49.9% (95% CI, 46.6 to 53.1) in the ORION-11 trial, with corresponding time-adjusted reductions of 53.8% (95% CI, 51.3 to 56.2) and 49.2% (95% CI, 46.8 to 51.6) (P<0.001 for all comparisons vs. placebo). Adverse events were generally similar in the inclisiran and placebo groups in each trial, although injection-site adverse events were more frequent with inclisiran than with placebo (2.6% vs. 0.9% in the ORION-10 trial and 4.7% vs. 0.5% in the ORION-11 trial); such reactions were generally mild, and none were severe or persistent. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in LDL cholesterol levels of approximately 50% were obtained with inclisiran, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. More injection-site adverse events occurred with inclisiran than with placebo. (Funded by the Medicines Company; ORION-10 and ORION-11 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03399370 and NCT03400800.).


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacocinética , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/efeitos adversos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco
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