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1.
Am J Pathol ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866348

RESUMO

Tumor cells can modify the immune response in primary tumors and in the axillary lymph nodes with metastasis (ALN+) in breast cancer (BC), influencing patient outcome. We investigated whether patterns of immune cells in the primary tumor and in the axillary lymph nodes without metastasis (ALN-) differed between patients diagnosed without ALN+ (diagnosed-ALN-) and with ALN+ (diagnosed-ALN+) and the implications for clinical outcome. Eleven immune markers were studied using immunohistochemistry, tissue microarray, and digital image analysis in 141 BC patient samples (75 diagnosed-ALN+ and 66 diagnosed-ALN-). Two logistic regression models were derived to identify the clinical, pathologic, and immunologic variables associated with the presence of ALN+ at diagnosis. There are immune patterns in the ALN- associated with the presence of ALN+ at diagnosis. The regression models revealed a small subgroup of diagnosed-ALN+ with ALN- immune patterns that were more similar to those of the ALN- of the diagnosed-ALN-. This small subgroup also showed similar clinical behavior to that of the diagnosed-ALN-. Another small subgroup of diagnosed-ALN- with ALN- immune patterns was found whose members were more similar to those of the ALN- of the diagnosed-ALN+. This small subgroup had similar clinical behavior to the diagnosed-ALN+. These data suggest that the immune response present in ALN- at diagnosis could influence the clinical outcome of BC patients.

2.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 152(3): 177-193, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300877

RESUMO

Approximately 1.67 million new cases of breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed annually, and patient survival significantly decreases when the disease metastasizes. The axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) are the main doorway for BC tumoral cell escape, through which cells can disseminate to distant organs. The immune response, which principally develops in the lymph nodes, is linked to cancer progression, and its efficacy at controlling tumoral growth is compromised during the disease. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most widely used research techniques for studying the immune response. It allows the measurement of the expression of particular markers related to the immune populations. This review focuses on the role of the immune populations in the primary tumour in the locoregional metastasis of the ALN, and the relationship of the immune response in these regions to distant metastasis. We considered only studies of immune cells using IHC techniques. In particular, lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells all play important roles in BC and have been extensively studied. Although further research is needed, there is much evidence of their role in the invasion of the ALN and distant organs. Their association with tumoral growth or protection has not yet been demonstrated decisively and is very likely to be determined by a combination of factors. Moreover, even though IHC is a widely used technique in cancer diagnosis and research, there is still room for improvement, since its quantification needs to be properly standardized.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Metástase Linfática , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Linfonodo Sentinela/imunologia , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia
3.
J Clin Nurs ; 26(15-16): 2392-2398, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27487318

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the relation between the experience of violence and sociodemographic and clinical factors, and to determine whether diagnosed depression and the presence of anxiety and stress are related to having experienced workplace and domestic violence in different genders and age groups. BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that domestic and workplace violence increase the risk of suffering from depression. However, no studies have evaluated these two types of violence in a same cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study from 317 individuals randomly selected from the population in southern Catalonia (Spain). Sociodemographic and Goldberg anxiety-depression questionnaires were administered by telephone survey to 160 men and 157 women in December 2008. The data obtained were analysed by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: A quarter of the individuals had suffered from violence: 48·29% of them had experienced domestic violence and 32·9% had experienced workplace violence. Nearly half of the individuals with depression had experienced violence. No statistical difference has been observed between domestic and workplace violence regarding diagnosed depression. Women were twice as likely as men to have suffered from violence. People working outside their home and those who claimed to have no social support had a greater risk of suffering from violence. A greater consumption of medication, above all of psychotropic drugs, is associated with experiencing violence and with greater comorbidity. Predictive factors for suffering from depression are being women, having experienced violence, having suffered stress or anxiety, having little or no social support, having overload of task or having no secondary education and no tertiary education. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that when considering depression, anxiety and stress, especially in women, we must take into account whether an individual has suffered violence. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Identifying violence can help health professionals, managers and researchers improve care and reduce suffering in families and communities.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/enfermagem , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(1): 13-18, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-149866

RESUMO

Objetivo. Comparar la supervivencia del cáncer de mama en mujeres que han sido cribadas en el programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer de Mama (DPCM) y en las que no han participado en él. Pacientes y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal en el que se han estudiado todos los cánceres de mama registrados en el servicio de Anatomía Patológica del Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta (Tarragona) de mujeres de 50-65 años, que se habían detectado la enfermedad ellas mismas o que la había detectado el programa DPCM, desde junio de 1999 hasta junio de 2003. Se registraron 101 pacientes con cáncer de mama, de las que en 84 se pudieron recoger todos los datos relativos al tumor, la cirugía y el tratamiento. En el 2014, tras un seguimiento de 11,6 ± 1,8 años, se anotó el estado actual. Resultados. No hay diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la supervivencia de los 2 grupos. Pacientes con carcinoma in situ y sin ganglios metastásicos se encuentran entre las fallecidas, mientras que ninguna paciente con carcinoma bien diferenciado falleció. Conclusiones. En nuestro estudio, el cribado del cáncer de mama no mejora la supervivencia y determinados factores en los que se apoyan los programas de cribado, como la detección de carcinomas no infiltrantes y/o de ganglios no metastásicos, no aseguran la curación (AU)


Objective. To compare survival in breast cancer between women diagnosed in an early breast cancer detection programme and those not attending this programme. Patients and methods. We conducted a descriptive and longitudinal study that analysed all types of breast cancer registered in the Pathology Service of the Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta (Tarragona, Spain). Tumour samples were obtained from 50-65-year-old women who had detected alterations on self-examination and from those attending the early breast cancer detection programme from June 1999 to June 2003. All the information relating to the tumour, surgery or treatment was registered. In 2014, after a follow-up of 11.6 ± 1.8 years, the current status of each patient was recorded. Results. There was no significant statistical difference in survival between the two groups of patients. Non-survivors included patients with in situ carcinoma and without lymph node metastases. Survival was 100% in patients with well differentiated carcinoma. Conclusions. Breast cancer screening did not improve survival in our study. The elements on which screening programs are based, such as non-invasive carcinoma detection and/or non- metastatic lymph nodes, do not ensure recovery (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Programas de Rastreamento/classificação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Espanha/etnologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Programas de Rastreamento , Linfonodos/anormalidades , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/normas
5.
Biomed Eng Online ; 14 Suppl 2: S2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26329009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital image (DI) analysis avoids visual subjectivity in interpreting immunohistochemical stains and provides more reproducible results. An automated procedure consisting of two variant methods for quantifying the cytokeratin-19 (CK19) marker in breast cancer tissues is presented. METHODS: The first method (A) excludes the holes inside selected CK19 stained areas, and the second (B) includes them. 93 DIs scanned from complete cylinders of tissue microarrays were evaluated visually by two pathologists and by the automated procedures. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There was good concordance between the two automated methods, both of which tended to identify a smaller CK19-positive area than did the pathologists. The results obtained with method B were more similar to those of the pathologists; probably because it takes into account the entire positive tumoural area, including the holes. However, the pathologists overestimated the positive area of CK19. Further studies are needed to confirm the utility of this automated procedure in prognostic studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Queratina-19/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Automação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Variações Dependentes do Observador
6.
BMJ Open ; 4(8): e005643, 2014 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25091015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lymph nodes are one of the main sites where an effective immune response develops. Normally, axillary nodes are the first place where breast cancer produces metastases. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of immune cells, especially dendritic cells, in the evolution of breast cancer. The goal of the project is to identify differences in the patterns of immune infiltrates, with particular emphasis on dendritic cells, in tumour and axillary node biopsies between patients with and without metastases in the axillary nodes at the time of diagnosis. It is expected that these differences will be able to explain differences in survival, relapse and clinicopathological variables between the two groups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will involve 100 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2007, 50% of whom have metastases in the axillary lymph node at diagnosis. In selected patients, two cylinders from biopsies of representative areas of tumour and axillary nodes (with and without metastasis) will be selected and organised in tissue microarrays. Samples will be stained using immunohistochemical techniques for different markers of immune response and dendritic cells. Two images of each cylinder will be captured under standardised conditions for each marker. Each marker will be quantified automatically by digital image procedures using Image-Pro Plus and Image-J software. Associations of survival, relapse and other clinicopathological variables with the automatically quantified levels of immune infiltrates in patients with and without axillary node metastasis will be sought. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The present project has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII (Ref: 22p/2011). Those patients whose biopsies and clinical data are to be used will give their signed informed consent. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfonodos/imunologia , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 17(2): 97-101, abr.-jun. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-121848

RESUMO

El objetivo del trabajo ha sido evaluar la presencia de infección tuberculosa latente en el personal sanitario del Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta (HTVC). Para ello se analizaron las historias clínicas laborales de 398 trabajadores de dicho hospital a los que se había realizado la prueba de tuberculina durante el periodo 2001-2012. La presencia de infección tuberculosa latente (ITL) se analizó en relación a las variables edad, sexo, categoría profesional, personal de áreas de trabajo de alto y bajo riesgo de exposición a la tuberculosis y personal de riesgo no definido. La prevalencia total de ITL en el grupo estudiado fue del 11,1% (IC 95%: 8,3%-14,5%), estando dicha prevalencia asociada a la edad y al área de trabajo. El análisis multivariable mostró que el riesgo de sufrir ITL se incrementa un 6,4% por cada año de edad. La prevalencia de ITL en el centro de estudio era similar a la de la población profesionalmente no expuesta de España


The aim was to analyze the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors in healthcare personnel at the Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta (Tarragona, Spain). This was a cross-sectional study of 398 workers at this hospital who underwent tuberculin skin testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) between 2001 and 2012.We also analyzed the relationship between LTBI and age, sex, job and work area according to their risk of exposure to tuberculosis(high, low, uncertain). The total prevalence of LTBI in our sample was 11.1% (95%CI 8.3%-14.5%). LBTI was associated with age and work area. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LTBI increased by 6.4% per 1 year increase in age. The prevalence of LTBI in this population approximates that of the general population in Spain


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão
8.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 17(2): 97-101, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24718632

RESUMO

The aim was to analyze the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors in healthcare personnel at the Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta (Tarragona, Spain). This was a cross-sectional study of 398 workers at this hospital who underwent tuberculin skin testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) between 2001 and 2012.We also analyzed the relationship between LTBI and age, sex, job and work area according to their risk of exposure to tuberculosis(high, low, uncertain). The total prevalence of LTBI in our sample was 11.1% (95%CI 8.3%-14.5%). LBTI was associated with age and work area. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LTBI increased by 6.4% per 1 year increase in age. The prevalence of LTBI in this population approximates that of the general population in Spain.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
9.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 28(1): 50-4, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506987

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence and the conceptualizations of depression detected by the healthcare system, identified by the patient or classified/identified in the validated Goldberg's questionnaire in a community. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of 317 patients. The different types of depression diagnosed, identified, current or total were stratified by age and gender groups. The difference in the conceptualization of depression from the medical or ordinary people point of view indicate that depression care requires the understanding of the lifestyle, beliefs, attitudes, family and social networks of the people the physicians and nurses care for.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/enfermagem , Enfermagem de Atenção Primária , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Diagn Pathol ; 8: 48, 2013 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23531405

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The comparative study of the results of various segmentation methods for the digital images of the follicular lymphoma cancer tissue section is described in this paper. The sensitivity and specificity and some other parameters of the following adaptive threshold methods of segmentation: the Niblack method, the Sauvola method, the White method, the Bernsen method, the Yasuda method and the Palumbo method, are calculated. Methods are applied to three types of images constructed by extraction of the brown colour information from the artificial images synthesized based on counterpart experimentally captured images. This paper presents usefulness of the microscopic image synthesis method in evaluation as well as comparison of the image processing results. The results of thoughtful analysis of broad range of adaptive threshold methods applied to: (1) the blue channel of RGB, (2) the brown colour extracted by deconvolution and (3) the 'brown component' extracted from RGB allows to select some pairs: method and type of image for which this method is most efficient considering various criteria e.g. accuracy and precision in area detection or accuracy in number of objects detection and so on. The comparison shows that the White, the Bernsen and the Sauvola methods results are better than the results of the rest of the methods for all types of monochromatic images. All three methods segments the immunopositive nuclei with the mean accuracy of 0.9952, 0.9942 and 0.9944 respectively, when treated totally. However the best results are achieved for monochromatic image in which intensity shows brown colour map constructed by colour deconvolution algorithm. The specificity in the cases of the Bernsen and the White methods is 1 and sensitivities are: 0.74 for White and 0.91 for Bernsen methods while the Sauvola method achieves sensitivity value of 0.74 and the specificity value of 0.99. According to Bland-Altman plot the Sauvola method selected objects are segmented without undercutting the area for true positive objects but with extra false positive objects. The Sauvola and the Bernsen methods gives complementary results what will be exploited when the new method of virtual tissue slides segmentation be develop. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: slide 1: http://diagnosticpathology.slidepath.com/dih/webViewer.php?snapshotId=13617947952577 and slide 2: http://diagnosticpathology.slidepath.com/dih/webViewer.php?snapshotId=13617948230017.


Assuntos
3,3'-Diaminobenzidina , Hematoxilina , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Coloração e Rotulagem , Algoritmos , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
11.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 139(1): 47-54, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23270898

RESUMO

A new method that simplifies the evaluation of the traditional HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) evaluation in breast cancer was proposed. HER2 status was evaluated in digital images (DIs) captured from 423 invasive breast cancer stained sections. All centromeric/CEP17 and HER2 gene signals obtained from separated stacked DIs were manually counted on the screen. The global ratios were compared with the traditional FISH evaluation and the immunohistochemical status. The 2 FISH scores were convergent in 96.93% of cases, showing an "almost perfect" agreement with a weighted k of 0.956 (95% confidence interval, 0.928-0.985). The new method evaluates at least 3 times more nuclei than traditional methods and also has an almost perfect agreement with the immunohistochemical scores. The proposed enhanced method substantially improves HER2 FISH assessment in breast cancer biopsy specimens because the evaluation of HER2/CEP17 copy numbers is more representative, easier, and faster than the conventional method.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Clin Dev Immunol ; 2012: 756353, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22927872

RESUMO

Hodgkin's lymphoma represents one of the most frequent lymphoproliferative syndromes, especially in young population. Although HL is considered one of the most curable tumors, a sizeable fraction of patients recur after successful upfront treatment or, less commonly, are primarily resistant. This work tries to summarize the data on clinical, histological, pathological, and biological factors in HL, with special emphasis on the improvement of prognosis and their impact on therapeutical strategies. The recent advances in our understanding of HL biology and immunology show that infiltrated immune cells and cytokines in the tumoral microenvironment may play different functions that seem tightly related with clinical outcomes. Strategies aimed at interfering with the crosstalk between tumoral Reed-Sternberg cells and their cellular partners have been taken into account in the development of new immunotherapies that target different cell components of HL microenvironment. This new knowledge will probably translate into a change in the antineoplastic treatments in HL in the next future and hopefully will increase the curability rates of this disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Citocinas/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Células de Reed-Sternberg/imunologia , Células de Reed-Sternberg/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 179: 155-71, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22925796

RESUMO

In the current practice of pathology, the evaluation of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers represents an essential tool. The manual quantification of these markers is still laborious and subjective, and the use of computerized systems for digital image (DI) analysis has not yet resolved the problems of nuclear aggregates (clusters). Furthermore, the volume of DI storage continues to be an important problem in computer-assisted pathology. In the present study we have developed an automated procedure to quantify IHC nuclear markers in DI with a high level of clusters. Furthermore the effects of JPEG compression in the image analysis were evaluated. The results indicated that there was an agreement with the results of both methods (automated vs. manual) in almost 90% of the analyzed images. On the other hand, automated count differences increase as the compression level increase, but only in images with a high number of stained nuclei (>nuclei/image) or with high area cluster (>25µm2). Some corrector factors were developed in order to correct this count differences. In conclusion, the proposed automated procedure is an objective, faster than manual counting and reproducible method that has more than 90% of similarity with manual count. Moreover, the results demonstrate that with correction factors, it is possible to carry out unbiased automated quantifications on IHC nuclear markers in compressed DIs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Compressão de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos
14.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 6: 23, 2011 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22093164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the infectious agents involved in cervical cancer development. Detection of HPVs DNA is part of the cervical cancer screening protocols and HPVs genotyping has been proposed for its inclusion in these preventive programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel genotyping tests, namely Qiagen LQ, RH and PS, in clinical samples with and without abnormalities. For this, 305 cervical samples were processed and the results of the evaluated techniques were compared with those obtained in the HPVs diagnostic process in our lab, by using HC2 and Linear Array (LA) technologies. RESULTS: The concordances and kappa statistics (k) for each technique compared with HC2 were 98.69% (k = 0.94) for LQ, 98.03% (k = 0.91) for RH and 91.80% (k = 0.82) for PS. There was a very good agreement in HPVs type-specific concordance for the most prevalent types HPV16 (kappa range = 0.83-0.90), HPV18 (k.r.= 0.74-0.80) and HPV45 (k.r.= 0.82-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: The three tests showed an overall good concordance for HPVs detection when compared with HR-HC2 system. LQ and RH rendered lower detection rate for multiple infections than LA genotyping. However, our understanding of the clinical significance of multiple HPVs infections is still incomplete and therefore the relevance of the lower ability to detect multiple infections needs to be evaluated.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 52(5): 662-70, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21292671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cell response is restored after successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with AIDS and current or previous toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). METHODS: We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study with 17 healthy T. gondii-positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-uninfected individuals and 90 patients coinfected with HIV-1 and T. gondii distributed in 5 groups according to their CD4(+) T cell counts and T. gondii infection (with or without current or previous TE). We investigated the lymphocyte proliferative response (LPR) and interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to T. gondii soluble antigen extract (SATg) and as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets. RESULTS: SATg-specific LPR and IFN-γ production were not observed in many of the most immunosuppressed patients (CD4(+) T cell count, <200 cells/µL, with or without current or previous TE). By contrast, these responses occurred in a considerable percentage (LPR, 43%; IFN-γ production, 80%) of patients receiving successful cART (CD4(+) T cell count, >200 cells/µL) who presented with TE and had already stopped secondary TE prophylaxis. Similar results were found in immunocompetent asymptomatic patients who did not receive TE prophylaxis. The predictors of SATg-specific T cell responses and IFN-γ production were a cART-mediated increase in CD4(+) T cell count and LPR to phytohemagglutinin and viral suppression and a decrease in the activated (CD38(+)) CD8(+) T cell count, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: cART restores T. gondii-specific CD4 T cell responses in most patients with AIDS who had previous TE. Our data support the safety of withdrawing TE prophylaxis when the CD4(+) T cell count returns to levels >200 cells/µL.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Proliferação de Células , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Virchows Arch ; 458(2): 237-45, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21085985

RESUMO

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard format is one of the most widely used in image compression technologies. More recently, JPEG2000 format has emerged as a state-of-the-art technology that provides substantial improvements in picture quality at higher compression ratios. However, there has been no attempt to date to determine which of the two compression formats produces less variability in the automated evaluation of immunohistochemically stained digital images in agreement with their compression rates and complexity degrees. The evaluation of Ki67 and FOXP3 immunohistochemical nuclear markers was performed in a total of 329 digital images: 47 were captured in uncompressed Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), 141 were converted to three JPEG compressed formats (47 each with 1:3, 1:23 and 1:46 compression) and 141 were converted to three JPEG2000 compressed formats (47 each with 1:3, 1:23 and 1:46 compression). The count differences between images in TIFF versus JPEG formats were compared with those obtained between images in TIFF versus JPEG2000 formats at the three levels of compression. It was found that, using JPEG2000 compression, the results of the stained nuclei count are close enough to the results obtained with uncompressed images, especially in highly complex images at minimum and medium compression. Otherwise, in images of low complexity, JPEG and JPEG2000 had similar count efficiency to that of the original TIFF images at all compression levels. These data suggest that JPEG2000 could give rise to an efficient means of storage, reducing file size and storage capacity, without compromise on the immunohistochemical analytical quality.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Compressão de Dados/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Automação , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem
17.
Hematol Rep ; 2(1): e5, 2010 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22184518

RESUMO

Hodgkin's disease is, in general, a lymph node-based disease. It usually starts in an area within the lymphatic system and spreads, in an orderly manner, along the lymphatic chain to contiguous lymph node areas. There have been sporadic case reports of acute liver failure caused by hematological malignancies. Generally, liver failure is a feature of stage IV end-stage disease, when it occurs in lymphoma. Thus, hepatic involvement usually occurs late in the course of Hodgkin's disease or with advanced-stage disease, and primary presentation in the liver with acute liver failure is extremely rare. In most cases, the diagnosis was made at autopsy. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's disease presenting with acute liver failure. This is a very unusual Hodgkin's disease form of presentation, because the acute liver failure was the presenting feature of the disease. Furthermore, the lymphoma occurred as a very late relapse, twenty years after the first diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been described to date.

18.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 132(4): 469-77, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19652993

RESUMO

The volume of digital image (DI) storage continues to be an important problem in computer-assisted pathology. DI compression enables the size of files to be reduced but with the disadvantage of loss of quality. Previous results indicated that the efficiency of computer-assisted quantification of immunohistochemically stained cell nuclei may be significantly reduced when compressed DIs are used. This study attempts to show, with respect to immunohistochemically stained nuclei, which morphometric parameters may be altered by the different levels of JPEG compression, and the implications of these alterations for automated nuclear counts, and further, develops a method for correcting this discrepancy in the nuclear count. For this purpose, 47 DIs from different tissues were captured in uncompressed TIFF format and converted to 1:3, 1:23 and 1:46 compression JPEG images. Sixty-five positive objects were selected from these images, and six morphological parameters were measured and compared for each object in TIFF images and those of the different compression levels using a set of previously developed and tested macros. Roundness proved to be the only morphological parameter that was significantly affected by image compression. Factors to correct the discrepancy in the roundness estimate were derived from linear regression models for each compression level, thereby eliminating the statistically significant differences between measurements in the equivalent images. These correction factors were incorporated in the automated macros, where they reduced the nuclear quantification differences arising from image compression. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to carry out unbiased automated immunohistochemical nuclear quantification in compressed DIs with a methodology that could be easily incorporated in different systems of digital image analysis.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Compressão de Dados/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Software
20.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 70(2): 103-13, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18996025

RESUMO

In lymphoproliferative syndromes, tumoural-immune cell interactions depend on a number of factors related to tumoural and immune cells. Recent gene expression data tend to confirm the decisive role of the reactive microenvironment in the development and clinical behaviour of lymphoproliferative syndromes, and encourage particular interest in the role of T cells and accessory cells. This systematic review brings together the accumulated knowledge about "immune signatures" in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Extracted results revealed that the presence of T lymphocytes, regulatory T cells and non-activated CTL in the reactive microenvironment appear commonly to be related with a favourable outcome in the majority of lymphoproliferative syndromes, whereas the presence of TAM, NK cells and activated CTLs appear more usually related with a poor prognosis. The direct involvement of these "immune signatures" in the histopathological morphology, classification, clinicobiological characteristics and outcome of affected patients stimulates the search for new and more appropriate immunotherapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
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