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1.
Hum Genet ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230195

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (~ 45%) that manifests before 30 years of age. The genetic locus containing COL4A1 (13q33-34) has been implicated in vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), but mutations in COL4A1 have not been reported in CAKUT. We hypothesized that COL4A1 mutations cause CAKUT in humans. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in 550 families with CAKUT. As negative control cohorts we used WES sequencing data from patients with nephronophthisis (NPHP) with no genetic cause identified (n = 257) and with nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to monogenic causes (n = 100). We identified a not previously reported heterozygous missense variant in COL4A1 in three siblings with isolated VUR. When examining 549 families with CAKUT, we identified nine additional different heterozygous missense mutations in COL4A1 in 11 individuals from 11 unrelated families with CAKUT, while no COL4A1 mutations were identified in a control cohort with NPHP and only one in the cohort with NS. Most individuals (12/14) had isolated CAKUT with no extrarenal features. The predominant phenotype was VUR (9/14). There were no clinical features of the COL4A1-related disorders (e.g., HANAC syndrome, porencephaly, tortuosity of retinal arteries). Whereas COL4A1-related disorders are typically caused by glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain (84.4% of variants), only one variant in our cohort is a glycine substitution within the collagenous domain (1/10). We identified heterozygous COL4A1 mutations as a potential novel autosomal dominant cause of CAKUT that is allelic to the established COL4A1-related disorders and predominantly caused by non-glycine substitutions.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105274

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a genetically heterogeneous category of autosomal inherited muscle diseases. Many genes causing LGMD have been identified, and clinical trials are beginning for treatment of some genetic subtypes. However, even with the gene-level mechanisms known, it is still difficult to get a robust and generalizable prevalence estimation for each subtype due to the limited amount of epidemiology data and the low incidence of LGMDs. METHODS: Taking advantage of recently published exome and genome sequencing data from the general population, we used a Bayesian method to develop a robust disease prevalence estimator. RESULTS: This method was applied to nine recessive LGMD subtypes. The estimated disease prevalence calculated by this method was largely comparable with published estimates from epidemiological studies; however, it highlighted instances of possible underdiagnosis for LGMD2B and 2L. CONCLUSION: The increasing size of aggregated population variant databases will allow for robust and reproducible prevalence estimates of recessive disease, which is critical for the strategic design and prioritization of clinical trials.

4.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 10-29, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930166

RESUMO

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.

5.
JCI Insight ; 4(6)2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895940

RESUMO

The clinical application of advanced next-generation sequencing technologies is increasingly uncovering novel classes of mutations that may serve as potential targets for precision medicine therapeutics. Here, we show that a deep intronic splice defect in the COL6A1 gene, originally discovered by applying muscle RNA sequencing in patients with clinical findings of collagen VI-related dystrophy (COL6-RD), inserts an in-frame pseudoexon into COL6A1 mRNA, encodes a mutant collagen α1(VI) protein that exerts a dominant-negative effect on collagen VI matrix assembly, and provides a unique opportunity for splice-correction approaches aimed at restoring normal gene expression. Using splice-modulating antisense oligomers, we efficiently skipped the pseudoexon in patient-derived fibroblast cultures and restored a wild-type matrix. Similarly, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to precisely delete an intronic sequence containing the pseudoexon and efficiently abolish its inclusion while preserving wild-type splicing. Considering that this splice defect is emerging as one of the single most frequent mutations in COL6-RD, the design of specific and effective splice-correction therapies offers a promising path for clinical translation.

6.
Genome Res ; 29(4): 635-645, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894395

RESUMO

Large-scale population analyses coupled with advances in technology have demonstrated that the human genome is more diverse than originally thought. To date, this diversity has largely been uncovered using short-read whole-genome sequencing. However, these short-read approaches fail to give a complete picture of a genome. They struggle to identify structural events, cannot access repetitive regions, and fail to resolve the human genome into haplotypes. Here, we describe an approach that retains long range information while maintaining the advantages of short reads. Starting from ∼1 ng of high molecular weight DNA, we produce barcoded short-read libraries. Novel informatic approaches allow for the barcoded short reads to be associated with their original long molecules producing a novel data type known as "Linked-Reads". This approach allows for simultaneous detection of small and large variants from a single library. In this manuscript, we show the advantages of Linked-Reads over standard short-read approaches for reference-based analysis. Linked-Reads allow mapping to 38 Mb of sequence not accessible to short reads, adding sequence in 423 difficult-to-sequence genes including disease-relevant genes STRC, SMN1, and SMN2 Both Linked-Read whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing identify complex structural variations, including balanced events and single exon deletions and duplications. Further, Linked-Reads extend the region of high-confidence calls by 68.9 Mb. The data presented here show that Linked-Reads provide a scalable approach for comprehensive genome analysis that is not possible using short reads alone.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503522

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that affects 7 out of 1,000,000 live births and has been associated with mutations in components of the ribosome. In order to characterize the genetic landscape of this heterogeneous disorder, we recruited a cohort of 472 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of DBA and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES). We identified relevant rare and predicted damaging mutations for 78% of individuals. The majority of mutations were singletons, absent from population databases, predicted to cause loss of function, and located in 1 of 19 previously reported ribosomal protein (RP)-encoding genes. Using exon coverage estimates, we identified and validated 31 deletions in RP genes. We also observed an enrichment for extended splice site mutations and validated their diverse effects using RNA sequencing in cell lines obtained from individuals with DBA. Leveraging the size of our cohort, we observed robust genotype-phenotype associations with congenital abnormalities and treatment outcomes. We further identified rare mutations in seven previously unreported RP genes that may cause DBA, as well as several distinct disorders that appear to phenocopy DBA, including nine individuals with biallelic CECR1 mutations that result in deficiency of ADA2. However, no new genes were identified at exome-wide significance, suggesting that there are no unidentified genes containing mutations readily identified by WES that explain >5% of DBA-affected case subjects. Overall, this report should inform not only clinical practice for DBA-affected individuals, but also the design and analysis of rare variant studies for heterogeneous Mendelian disorders.

9.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(11): 929-939, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345904

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next-generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls. Pathogenic mutations were identified in eight of the 16 families. One Sudanese family of Arab descent residing in Saudi Arabia harbored a homozygous c.464A>G, p.Asn155Ser mutation in PYROXD1, a gene recently reported in association with myofibrillar myopathy and whose protein product reduces thiol residues. Pyroxd1 deficiency in murine C2C12 myoblasts yielded evidence for impairments of cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation, while CG10721 (Pyroxd1 fly homolog) knockdown in Drosophila yielded a lethal phenotype. Further investigations indicated that Pyroxd1 does not localize to mitochondria, yet Pyroxd1 deficiency is associated with decreased cellular respiration. This study identified pathogenic mutations in half of the LGMD families from the cohort, including one in PYROXD1. Developmental impairments were demonstrated in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency and in vivo for CG10721 deficiency, with reduced metabolic activity in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency.

10.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 121, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129428

RESUMO

Short tandem repeat (STR) expansions have been identified as the causal DNA mutation in dozens of Mendelian diseases. Most existing tools for detecting STR variation with short reads do so within the read length and so are unable to detect the majority of pathogenic expansions. Here we present STRetch, a new genome-wide method to scan for STR expansions at all loci across the human genome. We demonstrate the use of STRetch for detecting STR expansions using short-read whole-genome sequencing data at known pathogenic loci as well as novel STR loci. STRetch is open source software, available from github.com/Oshlack/STRetch .

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the advent of gene therapies for inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs), genetic diagnostics will have an increasing role in clinical decision-making. Yet the genetic cause of disease cannot be identified using exon-based sequencing for a significant portion of patients. We hypothesized that noncoding pathogenic variants contribute significantly to the genetic causality of IRDs and evaluated patients with single coding pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1 to test this hypothesis. METHODS: IRD families underwent targeted panel sequencing. Unsolved cases were explored by exome and genome sequencing looking for additional pathogenic variants. Candidate pathogenic variants were then validated by Sanger sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro splicing assays in two cell lines analyzed through amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: Among 1722 families, 3 had biallelic loss-of-function pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1 while 7 had a single disruptive coding pathogenic variants. Exome and genome sequencing revealed potential noncoding pathogenic variants in these 7 families. In 6, the noncoding pathogenic variants were shown to lead to loss of function in vitro. CONCLUSION: Noncoding pathogenic variants were identified in 6 of 7 families with single coding pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1. The results suggest that noncoding pathogenic variants contribute significantly to the genetic causality of IRDs and RPGRIP1-mediated IRDs are more common than previously thought.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079490

RESUMO

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease, manifesting with proteinuria. To identify additional monogenic disease causes, we here performed whole exome sequencing (WES), linkage analysis, and homozygosity mapping in three affected siblings of an Indian family with GAMOS. Applying established criteria for variant filtering, we identify a novel homozygous splice site mutation in the gene WDR4 as the likely disease-causing mutation in this family. In line with previous reports, we observe growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay, and intellectual disability as phenotypic features resulting from WDR4 mutations. However, the newly identified allele additionally gives rise to proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome, a phenotype that was never reported in patients with WDR4 mutations. Our data thus expand the phenotypic spectrum of WDR4 mutations by demonstrating that, depending on the specific mutated allele, a renal phenotype may be present. This finding suggests that GAMOS may occupy a phenotypic spectrum with other microcephalic diseases. Furthermore, WDR4 is an additional example of a gene that encodes a tRNA modifying enzyme and gives rise to GAMOS, if mutated. Our findings thereby support the recent observation that, like neurons, podocytes of the renal glomerulus are particularly vulnerable to cellular defects resulting from altered tRNA modifications.

13.
Skelet Muscle ; 8(1): 23, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dystroglycanopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that are typically characterised by limb-girdle muscle weakness. Mutations in 18 different genes have been associated with dystroglycanopathies, the encoded proteins of which typically modulate the binding of α-dystroglycan to extracellular matrix ligands by altering its glycosylation. This results in a disruption of the structural integrity of the myocyte, ultimately leading to muscle degeneration. METHODS: Deep phenotypic information was gathered using the PhenoTips online software for 1001 patients with unexplained limb-girdle muscle weakness from 43 different centres across 21 European and Middle Eastern countries. Whole-exome sequencing with at least 250 ng DNA was completed using an Illumina exome capture and a 38 Mb baited target. Genes known to be associated with dystroglycanopathies were analysed for disease-causing variants. RESULTS: Suspected pathogenic variants were detected in DPM3, ISPD, POMT1 and FKTN in one patient each, in POMK in two patients, in GMPPB in three patients, in FKRP in eight patients and in POMT2 in ten patients. This indicated a frequency of 2.7% for the disease group within the cohort of 1001 patients with unexplained limb-girdle muscle weakness. The phenotypes of the 27 patients were highly variable, yet with a fundamental presentation of proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we have identified 27 patients with suspected pathogenic variants in dystroglycanopathy-associated genes. We present evidence for the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the dystroglycanopathies as a disease group, while also highlighting the advantage of incorporating next-generation sequencing into the diagnostic pathway of rare diseases.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Distroglicanas/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glicosilação , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2123-2138, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of CKD. The discovery of monogenic causes of SRNS has revealed specific pathogenetic pathways, but these monogenic causes do not explain all cases of SRNS. METHODS: To identify novel monogenic causes of SRNS, we screened 665 patients by whole-exome sequencing. We then evaluated the in vitro functional significance of two genes and the mutations therein that we discovered through this sequencing and conducted complementary studies in podocyte-like Drosophila nephrocytes. RESULTS: We identified conserved, homozygous missense mutations of GAPVD1 in two families with early-onset NS and a homozygous missense mutation of ANKFY1 in two siblings with SRNS. GAPVD1 and ANKFY1 interact with the endosomal regulator RAB5. Coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated interaction between GAPVD1 and ANKFY1 proteins, which also colocalized when expressed in HEK293T cells. Silencing either protein diminished the podocyte migration rate. Compared with wild-type GAPVD1 and ANKFY1, the mutated proteins produced upon ectopic expression of GAPVD1 or ANKFY1 bearing the patient-derived mutations exhibited altered binding affinity for active RAB5 and reduced ability to rescue the knockout-induced defect in podocyte migration. Coimmunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated a physical interaction between nephrin and GAPVD1, and immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of these proteins in rat glomeruli. The patient-derived GAPVD1 mutations reduced nephrin-GAPVD1 binding affinity. In Drosophila, silencing Gapvd1 impaired endocytosis and caused mistrafficking of the nephrin ortholog. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in GAPVD1 and probably in ANKFY1 are novel monogenic causes of NS. The discovery of these genes implicates RAB5 regulation in the pathogenesis of human NS.

15.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

17.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(7): 614-618, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910097

RESUMO

We describe two Finnish siblings in whom an incidentally detected elevated creatine kinase activity eventually led to a diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (Type C12; MDDGC12). When diagnosed at age 10 and 13 years, they were mildly affected with a slow or non-progressive disease course. The main symptoms comprised infrequent hip cramps triggered by flexion, neck cramps triggered by yawning, transient growing pains, calf hypertrophy and mild proximal muscle weakness. Their cognitive and motor developments were unremarkable and they were physically active. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations, both of which were novel, in the protein O-mannosyl kinase (POMK) gene in both siblings; a missense mutation, p.Pro322Leu (c.965C > T), and a nonsense mutation, p.Arg46Ter (c.136C > T). The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, showing that the parents were heterozygous carriers of one mutation each. This report adds to the literature by providing phenotype and genotype data on this ultra-rare POMK-related dystroglycanopathy.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 858-873, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727687

RESUMO

The exosome is a conserved multi-protein complex that is essential for correct RNA processing. Recessive variants in exosome components EXOSC3, EXOSC8, and RBM7 cause various constellations of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and central nervous system demyelination. Here, we report on four unrelated affected individuals with recessive variants in EXOSC9 and the effect of the variants on the function of the RNA exosome in vitro in affected individuals' fibroblasts and skeletal muscle and in vivo in zebrafish. The clinical presentation was severe, early-onset, progressive SMA-like motor neuronopathy, cerebellar atrophy, and in one affected individual, congenital fractures of the long bones. Three affected individuals of different ethnicity carried the homozygous c.41T>C (p.Leu14Pro) variant, whereas one affected individual was compound heterozygous for c.41T>C (p.Leu14Pro) and c.481C>T (p.Arg161∗). We detected reduced EXOSC9 in fibroblasts and skeletal muscle and observed a reduction of the whole multi-subunit exosome complex on blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RNA sequencing of fibroblasts and skeletal muscle detected significant >2-fold changes in genes involved in neuronal development and cerebellar and motor neuron degeneration, demonstrating the widespread effect of the variants. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of exosc9 in zebrafish recapitulated aspects of the human phenotype, as they have in other zebrafish models of exosomal disease. Specifically, portions of the cerebellum and hindbrain were absent, and motor neurons failed to develop and migrate properly. In summary, we show that variants in EXOSC9 result in a neurological syndrome combining cerebellar atrophy and spinal motoneuronopathy, thus expanding the list of human exosomopathies.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007329, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795570

RESUMO

As part of a broader collaborative network of exome sequencing studies, we developed a jointly called data set of 5,685 Ashkenazi Jewish exomes. We make publicly available a resource of site and allele frequencies, which should serve as a reference for medical genetics in the Ashkenazim (hosted in part at https://ibd.broadinstitute.org, also available in gnomAD at http://gnomad.broadinstitute.org). We estimate that 34% of protein-coding alleles present in the Ashkenazi Jewish population at frequencies greater than 0.2% are significantly more frequent (mean 15-fold) than their maximum frequency observed in other reference populations. Arising via a well-described founder effect approximately 30 generations ago, this catalog of enriched alleles can contribute to differences in genetic risk and overall prevalence of diseases between populations. As validation we document 148 AJ enriched protein-altering alleles that overlap with "pathogenic" ClinVar alleles (table available at https://github.com/macarthur-lab/clinvar/blob/master/output/clinvar.tsv), including those that account for 10-100 fold differences in prevalence between AJ and non-AJ populations of some rare diseases, especially recessive conditions, including Gaucher disease (GBA, p.Asn409Ser, 8-fold enrichment); Canavan disease (ASPA, p.Glu285Ala, 12-fold enrichment); and Tay-Sachs disease (HEXA, c.1421+1G>C, 27-fold enrichment; p.Tyr427IlefsTer5, 12-fold enrichment). We next sought to use this catalog, of well-established relevance to Mendelian disease, to explore Crohn's disease, a common disease with an estimated two to four-fold excess prevalence in AJ. We specifically attempt to evaluate whether strong acting rare alleles, particularly protein-truncating or otherwise large effect-size alleles, enriched by the same founder-effect, contribute excess genetic risk to Crohn's disease in AJ, and find that ten rare genetic risk factors in NOD2 and LRRK2 are enriched in AJ (p < 0.005), including several novel contributing alleles, show evidence of association to CD. Independently, we find that genomewide common variant risk defined by GWAS shows a strong difference between AJ and non-AJ European control population samples (0.97 s.d. higher, p<10-16). Taken together, the results suggest coordinated selection in AJ population for higher CD risk alleles in general. The results and approach illustrate the value of exome sequencing data in case-control studies along with reference data sets like ExAC (sites VCF available via FTP at ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3/) to pinpoint genetic variation that contributes to variable disease predisposition across populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Judeus/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Algoritmos , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 845-857, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706347

RESUMO

Loss of expression of ACTN3, due to homozygosity of the common null polymorphism (p.Arg577X), is underrepresented in elite sprint/power athletes and has been associated with reduced muscle mass and strength in humans and mice. To investigate ACTN3 gene dosage in performance and whether expression could enhance muscle force, we performed meta-analysis and expression studies. Our general meta-analysis using a Bayesian random effects model in elite sprint/power athlete cohorts demonstrated a consistent homozygous-group effect across studies (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) but substantial heterogeneity in heterozygotes. In mouse muscle, rAAV-mediated gene transfer overexpressed and rescued α-actinin-3 expression. Contrary to expectation, in vivo "doping" of ACTN3 at low to moderate doses demonstrated an absence of any change in function. At high doses, ACTN3 is toxic and detrimental to force generation, to demonstrate gene doping with supposedly performance-enhancing isoforms of sarcomeric proteins can be detrimental for muscle function. Restoration of α-actinin-3 did not enhance muscle mass but highlighted the primary role of α-actinin-3 in modulating muscle metabolism with altered fatiguability. This is the first study to express a Z-disk protein in healthy skeletal muscle and measure the in vivo effect. The sensitive balance of the sarcomeric proteins and muscle function has relevant implications in areas of gene doping in performance and therapy for neuromuscular disease.

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