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1.
J Food Prot ; 83(5): 844-848, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928413

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Foods that are extensively handled during preparation and stored without refrigeration are often associated with staphylococcal food poisoning. This problem is more confounding when contaminating strains belong to the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) group. In this study, we investigated the survivability of MRSA in two seafood matrices under different storage conditions. MRSA was inoculated at 6 and 3 log CFU/g into all sample groups of peeled shrimp (Parapeneopsis stylifera) stored at -20°C, Bombay duck fish (Harpadon nehereus) stored in ice, and dried Bombay duck fish stored at 30 ± 2°C. The populations of MRSA in frozen peeled shrimp inoculated with MRSA at 6 log CFU/g were reduced by 1.52 log CFU/g, whereas in samples inoculated with 3 log CFU/g levels remained stable after 60 days of storage. In fresh Bombay duck fish inoculated with 6 log CFU/g and stored in ice for 18 days, MRSA levels decreased by 2.75 log CFU/g. In contrast, in fresh fish inoculated with 3 log CFU/g the total viable count increased by 3.02 log CFU/g over 16 days of ice storage. In dried fish stored at 30 ± 2°C, MRSA levels declined by 3.27 log CFU/g in samples inoculated with 6 log CFU/g and by 0.91 log CFU/g in samples inoculated with 3 log CFU/g. These results suggest that the survival of MRSA depends on the temperature of storage and the inoculum level. In our study, MRSA survival was higher when inoculated at 3 log CFU/g regardless of the seafood matrix and storage temperature.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110777, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910524

RESUMO

The occurrence of human norovirus (HuNoV) in fresh seafood was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Samples (n = 104) comprising of oysters, clams, shrimps and finfish were collected from 3 retail markets, a landing center and a rocky intertidal zone. The samples were subjected to virus concentration, followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Of these, 43 (41.34%) samples were positive for HuNoV Group II (GII). The fecal contamination status of the samples was determined by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. All (100%) the samples were fecally contaminated, with the fecal coliform counts ranging from 10 to >1400 MPN/100 g. The study shows that fresh seafood, especially the bivalve mollusks, can act as vehicles for transmission and spread of HuNoV in the community. The high level of HuNoV contamination of seafood not only constitutes a health risk to the domestic consumers, but also compromises the microbiological qualities of seafood meant for international trade.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Norovirus , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Bactérias , Comércio , Humanos , Incidência , Internacionalidade
3.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2256-2260, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334844

RESUMO

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are the foodborne enteric pathogens transmitted by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. In this study, the occurrence of enteric adenoviruses in finfish and shellfish was investigated by virus concentration and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform levels were determined and correlated with the presence of adenovirus. Samples of fish, bivalve mollusks, crustaceans, and cephalopods were collected from supermarkets, landing centers, and retail fish markets of Mumbai, India for the study. Overall, the adenovirus DNA was detected in 21.27% of all the samples analyzed. The highest incidence was detected in clams (14.89%), followed by oysters, shrimps, and finfish (2.13% each). High prevalence of enteric adenovirus in filter-feeding bivalves, such as clams and oysters, as well as in fish suggests persistent fecal contamination of coastal waters in the region of study. The occurrence of adenoviruses in samples showed a positive correlation with the bacteriological indicators of fecal contamination, suggesting that fecal indicator bacteria may be used to monitor the presence of adenoviruses in seafood. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research demonstrates the occurrence of human adenoviruse (HAdV) in fresh seafood and the utility of fecal coliforms as indicators of HAdV presence in seafood. The study emphasizes the need to identify HAdV in seafood as a human health hazard and implement measures to prevent sewage pollution of fish and shellfish harvesting areas in India.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Animais , Bivalves/virologia , Peixes/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Índia , Ostreidae/virologia , Esgotos/virologia , Frutos do Mar/economia
4.
J Food Prot ; 82(8): 1417-1422, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335187

RESUMO

Histamine poisoning occurs when temperature-abused marine fish containing elevated levels of histamine are consumed. Histamine-producing bacteria found in fish can colonize processing surfaces and form biofilms. In this study, the biofilm-forming abilities of histamine-producing bacteria from Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and the effect of hypochlorite treatment on biofilm formation were studied. The isolates of this study produced histamine in the range of 471 to 2,126 ppm. The histidine decarboxylase gene hdc was detected in all isolates producing histamine except in one strain each of Psychrobacter pulmonis and Proteus vulgaris. All isolates tested in this study produced moderate biofilms under control conditions, whereas exposure to 1 and 3 ppm of sodium hypochlorite significantly enhanced biofilm formation. However, exposure to 5 ppm of sodium hypochlorite showed an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the isolates except Klebsiella variicola. The results of this study suggest that histamine-producing bacteria can form stable biofilms and that this activity may be enhanced by the application of low levels of sodium hypochlorite, a phenomenon that might influence the persistence of histamine-producing bacteria in fish processing areas.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(3): 2455-2463, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471059

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have evolved into a major challenge to antibiotic therapy worldwide. The problem is more confounding when wider dissemination of CRE occurs in the community and the environment. In this study, six blaNDM-harboring Enterobacteriaceae, four Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Escherichia coli, isolated from seafood, were characterized with respect to their antibiotic resistance and the genetic factors responsible for these resistances. The isolates were resistant to all ß-lactam antibiotics, quinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and were susceptible to colistin, polymixin B, fosfomycin, and tigecycline. Four isolates harbored New Delhi metallo ß-lactamase (blaNDM-5 genes, while one isolate each harbored blaNDM-1 and blaNDM-2 genes, respectively. The blaNDM genes in all the isolates were flanked by an upstream, truncated ISAba125, and downstream bleMBL-trpF genes. Conjugation experiments showed that the NDM plasmids were readily transmissible. Further, the two blaNDM-positive E. coli isolates belonged to the multidrug-resistant ST131 clone. This study highlights the growing danger of seafood as carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria leading to their wider dissemination in the community.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
Vet World ; 11(9): 1285-1290, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410235

RESUMO

Aim: Human enteroviruses in fish and shellfish are a health concern worldwide. Human infections occur due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish or shellfish. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of human enteric viruses belonging to Enterovirus (EV) group in seafood in Mumbai and to correlate their occurrence with the bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Materials and Methods: Samples of fresh fish and shellfish collected from fish landing centers and retail fish markets were analyzed by virus concentration, nucleic acid extraction, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were estimated by the most probable number technique. The relationship between the presence of virus and fecal indicators was determined by statistical analysis. Results: A total of 89 samples comprising of fish, shrimps, oysters, clams, and mussels were screened in this study. EV was detected in 32 (35.95%) samples, and all the virus-positive samples belonged to bivalve molluscan group. None of the finfish and crustacean shellfish samples was positive for the enteric viruses. Clams were found to be the most contaminated with 48.4% of the samples being positive for EV. The prevalence of enteric viruses in seafood samples showed a strong positive correlation with the bacteriological indicators of fecal contamination, suggesting that fecal coliform bacteria are good indicators of EVs in tropical seafood. Conclusion: The presence of EVs in seafood is a public health hazard. Increasing level of coastal water contamination from anthropogenic sources is the primary reason for the contamination of seafood with EVs. Continuous monitoring of coastal waters and seafood for enteric viruses will help to ensure the safety of fish and shellfish for human consumption.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 194: 267-273, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801839

RESUMO

Chitosan is a dietary fibre that possesses numerous functional, technological and physiological properties useful in improving food quality. Owing to its fat absorbing ability, chitosan is widely consumed as a health supplement in the form of tablets and capsules. With a view to enhance it consumption and availability, the current work was taken up to evaluate techno-functional quality improvement of shrimp based extruded snacks fortified with chitosan. Chitosan powder at 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) level was added to the base material (corn flour and rice flour in the ratio of 70:30 and 15% Acetes powder) for extrusion. Addition of chitosan in acetes based snacks significantly reduced expansion ratio, porosity and crispiness and increased the hardness value of the product. Chitosan addition had a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the moisture retention and total protein contents of the products as well. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of chitosan fortified extrudate showed a significantly lower value than the control sample. A higher level of chitosan also resulted in colour reduction of the final product. The FTIR spectra of extrudate confirmed the stability of chitosan during extrusion conditions. The sensory score revealed that extrudate fortified with 1% chitosan was comparable to control sample. From this study it is concluded that 1% chitosan can be incorporated in Acetes based extruded snacks for an increased level of functionality.

9.
Vet World ; 11(3): 379-385, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657433

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important pathogens of global significance. STEC are responsible for numerous food-borne outbreaks worldwide and their presence in food is a potential health hazard. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence of STEC in fresh seafood in Mumbai, India, and to characterize STEC with respect to their virulence determinants. Materials and Methods: A total of 368 E. coli were isolated from 39 fresh seafood samples (18 finfish and 21 shellfish) using culture-based methods. The isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the genes commonly associated with STEC. The variant Shiga toxin genes were confirmed by Southern blotting and hybridization followed by DNA sequencing. Results: One or more Shiga toxins genes were detected in 61 isolates. Of 39 samples analyzed, 10 (25.64%) samples harbored STEC. Other virulence genes, namely, eaeA (coding for an intimin) and hlyA (hemolysin A) were detected in 43 and 15 seafood isolates, respectively. The variant stx1 genes from 6 isolates were sequenced, five of which were found to be stx1d variants, while one sequence varied considerably from known stx1 sequences. Southern hybridization and DNA sequence analysis suggested putative Shiga toxin variant genes (stx2) in at least 3 other isolates. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the occurrence of STEC in seafood harboring one or more Shiga toxin genes. The detection of STEC by PCR may be hampered due to the presence of variant genes such as the stx1d in STEC. This is the first report of stx1d gene in STEC isolated from Indian seafood.

10.
AIMS Microbiol ; 4(1): 1-18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294201

RESUMO

Variants of the microorganism Staphylococcus aureus which are resistant to antimicrobial agents exist as causative agents of serious infectious disease and constitute a considerable public health concern. One of the main antimicrobial resistance mechanisms harbored by S. aureus pathogens is exemplified by integral membrane transport systems that actively remove antimicrobial agents from bacteria where the cytoplasmic drug targets reside, thus allowing the bacteria to survive and grow. An important class of solute transporter proteins, called the major facilitator superfamily, includes related and homologous passive and secondary active transport systems, many of which are antimicrobial efflux pumps. Transporters of the major facilitator superfamily, which confer antimicrobial efflux and bacterial resistance in S. aureus, are good targets for development of resistance-modifying agents, such as efflux pump inhibition. Such modulatory action upon these antimicrobial efflux systems of the major facilitator superfamily in S. aureus may circumvent resistance and restore the clinical efficacy of therapy towards S. aureus infection.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(6): 2393-2401, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.), which is rich in protein. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130-144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100-200 g kg-1 ) and feed moisture (140-200 g kg-1 ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables. RESULTS: Extrusion temperature significantly influenced all the response variables, while Acetes inclusion influenced all variables except porosity. Feed moisture content showed a significant quadratic effect on all responses and an interactive effect on expansion ratio and hardness. Shrimp powder incorporation increased the protein and mineral content of the final product. The extruded snack made with the combination of extrusion temperature 144.59 °C, feed moisture 178.5 g kg-1 and Acetes inclusion level 146.7 g kg-1 was found to be the best one based on sensory evaluation. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that use of Acetes species for the development of extruded snacks will serve as a means of utilization of Acetes as well as being a rich source of proteins for human consumption, which would otherwise remain unexploited as a by-catch. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pandalidae/química , Lanches , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dureza , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/química , Controle de Qualidade , Temperatura
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 263: 32-37, 2017 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028568

RESUMO

Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging pathogen isolated from animals, food and the environment. In this study, 147 A. butzleri isolated from seafood and the coastal environment were tested for the presence of ten putative virulence genes (cadF, cj1349, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA, hecA, hecB, irgA, iroE) and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Majority of the isolates harbored mviN (100%), cj1349 (97.2%), ciaB (95.9%), tlyA (91.8%), pldA (91.1%) and cadF (89.7%). Lower detection rates were observed for hecA (10.8%), hecB (19%), iroE (12.9%) and irgA (17.6%). Three A. butzleri isolates harbored all ten virulence genes. The occurrence of cj1349, ciaB, pldA, tlyA and hecA genes was significantly different (P≤0.05) among the isolates from different sources. All (100%) A. butzleri isolates were resistant to vancomycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin and sulphamethizole and susceptible to polymyxin-B, kanamycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and imipenem. Resistance to clinically important antibiotics such as cefotaxime (99.3%), ceftazidime (87.7%), nalidixic acid (70.7%), ampicillin (72.1%), ertapenem and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (41.9%) was observed in A. butzleri from the environment. The isolates were highly susceptible to norfloxacin (97.9%) and colistin (97.2%), followed by ciprofloxacin (88.4%), meropenem (74.8%), chloramphenicol (72.7%) and erythromycin (69.3%). A. butzleri from different sources were not significantly different with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Multidrug resistance was observed in 66 (81.4%) isolates from fish, 29 (72.5%) isolates from shellfish and 17 (65.3%) isolates from coastal water. A. butzleri harboring virulence genes and resistance to multiple antibiotics found in seafood could be a potential health risk to seafood handlers and consumers. Continuous monitoring of seafood for potentially pathogenic A. butzleri is important to understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance in this emerging food pathogen and to determine the antimicrobial therapy regimen in the event of food-borne A. butzleri infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Arcobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Arcobacter/genética , Arcobacter/patogenicidade , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
13.
Microorganisms ; 5(3)2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867789

RESUMO

Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae include several human pathogens that can be acquired through contaminated food and water. In this study, the incidence of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria was investigated in fresh seafood sold in retail markets. The ESBL-positive phenotype was detected in 169 (78.60%) isolates, with Escherichia coli being the predominant species (53), followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (27), and K. pneumoniae (23). More than 90% of the isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to the monobactam drug aztreonam, 40.82% to ertapenem, and 31.36% to meropenem. Resistance to at least five antibiotics was observed in 38.46% of the isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis of ESBL-encoding genes detected blaCTX, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes in 76.92%, 63.3%, and 44.37% of the isolates, respectively. Multiple ESBL genes were detected in majority of the isolates. The recently discovered New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1) was detected in two ESBL⁺ isolates. Our study shows that secondary contamination of fresh seafood with enteric bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics may implicate seafood as a potential carrier of antibiotic resistant bacteria and emphasizes an urgent need to prevent environmental contamination and dissemination of such bacteria.

14.
Microorganisms ; 5(1)2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335438

RESUMO

Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal-associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water.

15.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(11): 4007-4013, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035156

RESUMO

The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous-vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous-vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X1), cooking time (X2) and cooking temperature (X3) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y1). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous-vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous-vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius.

16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 232: 87-9, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261768

RESUMO

Arcobacter is an emerging pathogen associated with foods of animal origin. Members of the genus Arcobacter are increasingly being isolated from fish, shellfish and the aquatic environment. In the present study, we analyzed fish, shellfish and water samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp. by conventional isolation as well as by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Of 100 samples comprising of 42 finfish, 34 shellfish and 24 water samples analyzed, Arcobacter spp. was isolated from 8 (19%) finfish, 5 (14.7%) shellfish and 5 (20.8%) water samples. Arcobacter DNA was detected in 24 (24%) samples by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Based on m-PCR specific to different Arcobacter spp. and 16S rRNA sequence analyses, majority (19) of the isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, while two isolates were Arcobacter mytili. All Arcobacter butzleri isolates harbored putative virulence genes cadF, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA and cj1349. The two isolates of A. mytili harbored mviN and cj1349 genes only. The study highlights emerging problem of the contamination of aquatic environment and fresh seafood with potentially pathogenic Arcobacter spp.


Assuntos
Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Arcobacter/classificação , Arcobacter/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Tipagem Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Microbiologia da Água
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