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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(8): 944-954, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical significance, and predictors of early ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients. BACKGROUND: LVAD implantation is increasingly used in patients with end-stage heart failure. Early VAs may occur during the 30-day post-operative period, but many questions remain unanswered regarding their incidence and clinical impact. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in 19 centers between 2006 and 2016. Early VAs were defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation occurring <30 days post-LVAD implantation and requiring appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, external electrical shock, or medical therapy. RESULTS: A total of 652 patients (median age: 59.8 years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 20.7 ± 7.4%; HeartMate 2: 72.8%; HeartWare: 19.5%; Jarvik 2000: 7.7%) were included in the analysis. Early VAs occurred in 162 patients (24.8%), most frequently during the first week after LVAD implantation. Multivariable analysis identified history of VAs prior to LVAD and any combined surgery with LVAD as 2 predictors of early VAs. The occurrence of early VAs with electrical storm was the strongest predictor of 30-day post-operative mortality, associated with a 7-fold increase of 30-day mortality. However, in patients discharged alive from hospital, occurrence of early VAs did not influence long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Early VAs are common after LVAD implantation and increase 30-day post-operative mortality, without affecting long-term survival. Further studies will be needed to analyze whether pre- or pre-operative ablation of VAs may improve post-operative outcomes. (Determination of Risk Factors of Ventricular Arrhythmias After Implantation of Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device With Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device [ASSIST-ICD]; NCT02873169).

2.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) can occur after continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation as a single arrhythmic event or as electrical storm (ES) with multiple repetitive VA episodes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at analyzing the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of ES in LVAD recipients. METHODS: Patients analyzed were those included in the multicenter ASSIST-ICD observational study. ES was consensually defined as occurrence of ≥3 separate episodes of sustained VAs within a 24-hour interval. RESULTS: Of 652 patients with an LVAD, 61 (9.4%) presented ES during a median follow-up period of 9.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-22.1) months. The first ES occurred after 17 (IQR 4.0-56.2) days post LVAD implantation, most of them during the first month after the device implantation (62.9%). The incidence then tended to decrease during the initial years of follow-up and increased again after the third year post LVAD implantation. History of VAs before LVAD implantation and heart failure duration > 84 months were independent predictors of ES. The occurrence of ES was associated with an increased early mortality since 20 patients (32.8%) died within the first 2 weeks of ES. Twenty-two patients (36.1%) presented at least 1 recurrence of ES, occurring 43.0 (IQR 8.0-69.0) days after the initial ES. Patients experiencing ES had a significantly lower 1-year survival rate than did those free from ES (log-rank, P = .039). CONCLUSION: There is a significant incidence of ES in patients with an LVAD. The short-term mortality after ES is high, and one-third of patients will die within 15 days. Whether radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias improves outcomes would require further studies.

3.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies for electrical storm (ES) in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the acute and long-term results of ventricular tachycardia (VT) radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) as a treatment of ES in patients with ARVC. METHODS: This multicenter study retrospectively enrolled 23 consecutive patients with ARVC (mean age 43.6 ± 16.7 years; all men) who underwent 24 RFCA procedures for ES between 2003 and 2015. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (57%) had a previous VT RFCA procedure; 14 (61%) had right ventricular dysfunction and 7 (30%) left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50%. The clinical VT was inducible in 19 procedures (79%). Epicardial ablation was performed in 4 procedures (17%). The median number of targeted VTs was 1 (range 1-6). Complete acute success (no VT inducible) was achieved in 11 procedures (46%) and partial acute success (clinical VT nor inducible) in 11 (46%). After a median follow-up of 3.9 years (range 1 month-10 years), ES recurred in 2 patients and end-stage heart failure developed in 4 (17%), leading to 1 death and 3 heart transplantations. At 1-year follow-up, the probability of freedom from VT recurrence was 75% and did not significantly predict long-term survival. At the last evaluation, 8 patients (35%) were free of non-ß-blocker antiarrhythmic drugs as compared with 1 (4%) at baseline (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Catheter ablation was efficient to prevent ES recurrence in patients with ARVC. However, these patients were at high risk of evolution toward ARVC-related heart failure that was not associated with VT recurrence.

4.
Am Heart J ; 214: 69-76, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-associated infections may be life-threatening and impact patients' outcome. We aimed to identify the characteristics, risk factors, and prognosis of LVAD-associated infections. METHODS: Patients included in the ASSIST-ICD study (19 centers) were enrolled. The main outcome was the occurrence of LVAD-associated infection (driveline infection, pocket infection, or pump/cannula infection) during follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 652 patients enrolled, 201 (30.1%) presented a total of 248 LVAD infections diagnosed 6.5 months after implantation, including 171 (26.2%), 51 (7.8%), and 26 (4.0%) percutaneous driveline infection, pocket infection, or pump/cannula infection, respectively. Patients with infections were aged 58.7 years, and most received HeartMate II (82.1%) or HeartWare (13.4%). Most patients (62%) had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) before LVAD, and 104 (16.0%) had ICD implantation, extraction, or replacement after the LVAD surgery. Main pathogens found among the 248 infections were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 113' 45.4%), Enterobacteriaceae (n = 61; 24.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 34; 13.7%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 13; 5.2%), and Candida species (n = 13; 5.2%). In multivariable analysis, HeartMate II (subhazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.36; P = .031) and ICD-related procedures post-LVAD (subhazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98; P = .031) were significantly associated with LVAD infections. Infections had no detrimental impact on survival. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular assist device-associated infections affect one-third of LVAD recipients, mostly related to skin pathogens and gram-negative bacilli, with increased risk with HeartMate II as compared with HeartWare, and in patients who required ICD-related procedures post-LVAD. This is a plea to better select patients needing ICD implantation/replacement after LVAD implantation.

5.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(5): 128-132, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous procedures through femoral access in patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) filter may be at risk of complications. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of left atrial appendage (LAA) closure through femoral access in patients previously implanted with IVC filter. METHODS: From November 2011 to March 2018, a total of 5 patients with history of IVC filter implantation were referred to our center for percutaneous LAA closure, representing 3.6% of the 137 procedures performed during the study period. The IVC filter devices were placed from 2 to 26 months before the index procedure. RESULTS: LAA closure was successfully implanted in all cases using an Amulet device in 3 patients and a Watchman device in 2 patients. A femoral approach was performed in all patients using 12 or 14 Fr sheaths. Before crossing IVC filters, venographies did not detect any thrombus. All steps of IVC filter crossing were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. No immediate or late complications related to the procedure occurred after 10.1 ± 3.9 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: LAA closure in patients with previously implanted IVC filter is safe as long as careful x-ray monitoring is observed.

6.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(4): 405-412, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies reported the rate and clinical impact of peridevice leaks (PDL) after percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). METHODS: All consecutive patients with a nonvalvular atrial fibrillation admitted for LAAC between November 2011 and October 2016 were prospectively enrolled. The follow-up included clinical, transesophageal echocardiography, and/or cardiac computed tomography angiogram (CCTA). PDL was defined by the presence of contrast within the left atrial appendage on CCTA, and Major Adverse Cardiac Event (MACE) included stroke, device-related thrombosis, and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Overall, 77 patients (mean CHA2DS2-VASc score = 4.4 ± 1.5 and mean HAS-BLED = 3.4 ± 1.1) were implanted using Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (n = 24), Amulet (n = 37), or Watchman devices (n = 16). Indications were stroke recurrence despite adequate oral anticoagulation (OAC, n = 6) or contraindication to long-term OAC (n = 71). From 3-month to 12-month CCTA follow-up, the PDL rate decreased from 68.5% to 56.7% (P = 0.02), without any difference between the various devices. Patients with PDL were more often in permanent atrial fibrillation, and had a larger landing zone diameter, a lower ratio of device compression, and a more frequent off-axis position of the device. A device compression ratio < 10% was the only parameter associated with PDL occurrence. During follow-up (median 236 days) the MACE rate was 9.1%, with no statistically significant difference between patients with vs without PDL (12% vs 4.3%, P = 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The PDL rate detected by CCTA after LAAC was high, especially in cases with a low device compression ratio (< 10%), but decreased over time. The incidence of MACE was quantitatively greater with PDL, but the difference was not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed to determine the clinical importance of PDL.

7.
Europace ; 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891608

RESUMO

AIMS: Current guidelines do not propose any age cut-off for the primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). However, the risk/benefit balance in the very elderly population has not been well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a multicentre French study assessing patients implanted with an ICD for primary prevention, outcomes among patients aged ≥80 years were compared with <80 years old controls matched for sex and underlying heart disease (ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy). A total of 300 ICD recipients were enrolled in this specific analysis, including 150 patients ≥80 years (mean age 81.9 ± 2.0 years; 86.7% males) and 150 controls (mean age 61.8 ± 10.8 years). Among older patients, 92 (75.6%) had no more than one associated comorbidity. Most subjects in the elderly group got an ICD as part of a cardiac resynchronization therapy procedure (74% vs. 46%, P < 0.0001). After a mean follow-up of 3.0 ± 2 years, 53 patients (35%) in the elderly group died, including 38.2% from non cardiovascular causes of death. Similar proportion of patients received ≥1 appropriate therapy (19.4% vs. 21.6%; P = 0.65) in the elderly group and controls, respectively. There was a trend towards more early perioperative events (P = 0.10) in the elderly, with no significant increase in late complications (P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: Primary prevention ICD recipients ≥80 years in the real world had relatively low associated comorbidity. Rates of appropriate therapies and device-related complications were similar, compared with younger subjects. Nevertheless, the inherent limitations in interpreting observational data on this particular competing risk situation call for randomized controlled trials to provide definitive answers. Meanwhile, a careful multidisciplinary evaluation is needed to guide patient selection for ICD implantation in the elderly population.

8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(3): 153-161, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long PR intervals may increase cardiovascular complications, including atrial fibrillation. In pacemakers, the SafeR™ mode monitors PR intervals, switching from AAI to DDD when criteria for atrioventricular block are met. AIMS: The PRECISE study evaluated the incidence and predictors of long PR intervals and their association with incident atrial fibrillation after 1 year in patients implanted for sinus node dysfunction and free from significant conduction disorders at baseline. METHODS: This French, prospective, multicentre, observational trial enrolled patients implanted with a REPLY™ dual-chamber pacemaker. Pacemaker memory recorded long PR intervals (defined as first-degree atrioventricular block mode switches occurring after six consecutive PR/AR intervals≥350/450ms) and atrial fibrillation incidence (fallback mode switch>1minute/day). Predictors were identified from baseline variables (age, sex, AR and PR intervals, atrial rhythm disorder and medication) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 291 patients with sinus node dysfunction enrolled, 214 were free from significant conduction disorders at baseline (mean age 79±8 years; 44% men; PR/AR intervals<350/450ms). After 1 year, long PR intervals had occurred in 116 patients (54%) and atrial fibrillation in 63 patients (30%). Amiodarone was the only independent predictor of long PR interval occurrence (odds ratio 2.50, 95% confidence interval 1.20-5.21; P=0.014). There was a strong trend towards an association between long PR interval and atrial fibrillation incidence (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 0.97-3.61; P=0.051). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the patients with pure sinus node dysfunction developed long PR intervals in the year following pacemaker implantation. Amiodarone was the only independent predictor of long PR intervals. There was a strong trend towards an association between long PR intervals and incident atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(11): 1440-1447, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The CRYO4PERSISTENT AF (Cryoballoon Ablation for Early Persistent Atrial Fibrillation) trial aims to report long-term outcomes after a single pulmonary vein isolation (PVI)-only ablation procedure using the second-generation cryoballoon in persistent atrial fibrillation (PerAF) patients. BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation is recognized as the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, including ablation of PerAF. METHODS: The CRYO4PERSISTENT AF trial (NCT02213731) is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm trial designed to assess single-procedure outcomes of PVI using the cryoballoon. The primary endpoint was freedom from AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia ≥30 s after a 90-day blanking period. After enrollment, but before ablation, patients without 100% AF burden (18-h Holter monitoring or 3 consecutive electrocardiograms in a time frame ≥14 days) were excluded. Patients were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months, with 48-h Holter monitoring at 6 and 12 months. Quality of life and symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Arrhythmia recurrence and adverse events were adjudicated by an independent committee. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients (62 ± 11 years of age, 74% men, left ventricular ejection fraction 56 ± 8%, left atrial diameter 43 ± 5 mm) meeting criteria, undergoing cryoballoon-based PVI, with follow-up data, were included. Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia recurrence was 60.7% at 12 months. Compared with baseline, there were significantly fewer patients with arrhythmia-related symptoms at 12 months (16% vs. 92%; p < 0.0001). The symptom reduction was supported by significant improvement in 36-Item Short Form Health Survey composite scores and European Heart Rhythm Association score at 12 months. The only device related event was transient phrenic nerve injury in 2 (2%) patients, with resolution pre-discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Cryoballoon ablation for treatment of PerAF demonstrated 61% single-procedure success at 12 months post-ablation in addition to significant reduction in arrhythmia-related symptoms and improved quality of life. (Cryoballoon Ablation for Early Persistent Atrial Fibrillation [Cryo4 Persistent AF]; NCT02213731).

11.
Eur Heart J ; 39(21): 1981-1987, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566157

RESUMO

Aims: Recent studies have shown that in more than half of apparently unexplained sudden cardiac arrests (SCA), a specific aetiology can be unmasked by a careful evaluation. The characteristics and the extent to which such cases undergo a systematic thorough investigation in real-life practice are unknown. Methods and results: Data were analysed from an ongoing study, collecting all cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Paris area. Investigations performed during the index hospitalization or planned after discharge were gathered to evaluate the completeness of assessment of unexplained SCA. Between 2011 and 2016, among the 18 622 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 717 survivors (at hospital discharge) fulfilled the definition of cardiac SCA. Of those, 88 (12.3%) remained unexplained after electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging yielded the diagnosis in 25 (3.5%) cases, other investigations accounted for 14 (2.4%) additional diagnoses, and 49 (6.8%) patients were labelled as idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) (48.7 ± 15 years, 69.4% male). Among those labelled IVF, only 8 (16.3%) cases benefited from a complete workup (including pharmacological testing). Younger patients [odds ratio (OR) 6.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80-22.26] and those admitted to university centres (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.12-12.45) were more thoroughly investigated. Genetic testing and family screening were initiated in only 9 (18.4%) and 12 (24.5%) cases, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that complete investigations are carried out in a very low proportion of unexplained SCA. Standardized, systematic approaches need to be implemented to ensure that opportunities for specific therapies and preventive strategies (including relatives) are not missed.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of pacemaker mode programming on clinical outcomes in patients with high-degree atrioventricular conduction disturbance (AVCD) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Although high-degree AVCD after TAVI can receive pacemaker, recovery of the AVCD is often observed. Specific pacemaker algorithms (AAI-DDD mode switch) are available which favor spontaneous atrioventricular conduction. METHODS: Of 1,621 consecutive multi-center TAVI patients, 269 (16.4%) received pacemaker. We retrospectively included 91 patients with persistent high-degree AVCD at hospital discharge. Pacemaker dependency was defined as absence, inadequate intrinsic ventricular rhythm, or ventricular pacing time > 95% on pacemaker interrogation during follow-up. Comparison of heart failure hospitalization and death between conventional DDD (cDDD) and other modes was examined (AAI-DDD and VVI). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up duration of 13 months, the pacemaker dependency rate was 52.8%. Patients with cDDD mode (N = 36: 40.0%) had significantly more pacemaker dependency. Multivariate analysis showed that cDDD mode was independently associated with pacemaker dependency (odds ratio = 3.63, P = 0.03). Moreover, cDDD patients had a significant higher incidence of heart failure hospitalization (Hospitalization: cDDD vs. others = 45.4% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.03) and had a higher incidence of mortality (Death: cDDD vs. the others = 27.0% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Up to half of patients implanted for high-degree AVCD after TAVI had conduction recovery. Patients with cDDD programming at hospital discharge had more pacemaker dependency and a worse cardiac prognosis. Thus, pacemaker mode should be systematically set to promote spontaneous atrioventricular conduction in patients with pacemaker implantation after TAVI.

13.
Blood Rev ; 32(4): 272-279, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402471

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated in the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the use of DOACs in unusual VTE, including cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT), and in patients with biological thrombophilia including minor thrombophilia (Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A), major innate thrombophilia (protein C and S deficiency, and antithrombin) and major acquired thrombophilia (antiphospholipid syndrome [APS]), remains controversial due to the paucity of available data. There are some reports of DOACs use in the initial treatment or long-term maintenance of patients with either CVT or SVT, but their efficacy remains unclear. The efficacy of DOACs may be suitable in patients with biological minor or major thrombophilia. The use of DOACs for the long-term maintenance of patients with APS is more contentious. Randomized clinical trials, which are currently underway, should offer definitive insight into the efficacy and safety profiles of DOACs in these patient populations.

14.
Heart Rhythm ; 15(1): 99-106, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infrequent intraprocedural premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) may impede radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) outcome, and pharmacologic induction is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether PVC circadian variation could help predict drug response. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for RFA with detailed Holter monitoring and frequent monomorphic PVCs were included. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on hourly PVC count relationship to corresponding mean heart rate (HR) during each of the 24 hours on Holter: fast-HR-dependent PVC (F-HR-PVC) type for a positive correlation (Pearson, P <.05), slow-HR-dependent PVC (S-HR-PVC) type for a negative correlation, and independent-HR-PVC (I-HR-PVC) when no correlation was found. RESULTS: Fifty-one of the 101 patients (50.5%) had F-HR-PVC, 39.6% I-HR-PVC, and 9.9% S-HR-PVC; 30.7% had infrequent intraprocedural PVC requiring drug infusion. The best predictor of infrequent PVC was number of hours with PVC count <120/h on Holter (area under the curve 0.80, sensitivity 83.9%, specificity 74.3%, for ≥2 h). Only F-HR-PVC patients responded to isoproterenol. Isoproterenol washout or phenylephrine infusion was successful for the 3 S-HR-PVC patients, and no drug could increase PVC frequency in the 12 I-HR-PVC patients. Long-term RFA success rate in patients with frequent PVCs at baseline (82.9%) was similar to those with infrequent PVC who responded to a drug (77.8%; P = .732) but significantly higher than for those who did not respond to any drug (15.4%; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: A simple analysis of Holter PVC circadian variability provides incremental value to guide pharmacologic induction of PVCs during RFA and predict outcome. Patients with infrequent I-HR-PVC had the least successful outcomes from RF ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/cirurgia
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(2): 149-155, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153773

RESUMO

Most of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) secondary prevention studies have been published 2 decades ago. We aimed to describe a contemporary cohort of patients who have undergone implantation of an ICD after an aborted-sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively evaluated consecutive patients referred to our centers between 2005 and 2013. Predictors of overall mortality or heart transplant were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 250 patients (76.4% male, 48.7 ± 16.7 years) were included (mean follow-up = 49.6 ± 35 months). The presence of a structural heart disease (SHD) was considered as the primary cause of the aborted-SCA in 160 patients (64%). In 90 patients (36%), no SHD was observed, with patients much younger (40.9 ± 16.2 years vs 53.0 ± 15.5 years in the SHD group, p < 0.0001). The 5-year estimated rates of death or heart transplant were 14.3% and 5.2% in the group with and without SHD, respectively (hazard ratio = 4.65, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 15.6, p = 0.014). The 5-year estimated rates of appropriate ICD therapy in the ventricular fibrillation zone were 16.7% and 25.1% in patients without and with SHD (p = 0.24), respectively. Only left ventricular ejection fraction remained independently associated with mortality or heart transplant (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.97, p = 0.0004). Overall, 69 patients (27.6%) experienced at least 1 ICD-related complication. In conclusion, compared with secondary prevention pivotal studies, the current patients who have undergone implantation of an ICD after aborted-SCA are younger, with a high proportion of structurally normal hearts. Compared with patients without SHD, who depicted a relatively favorable outcome, patients with SHD present a fourfold higher risk of death during follow-up. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction remains the major influencing factor.

16.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 111(2): 85-94, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988597

RESUMO

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) - dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban - are well established in terms of preventing stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and high thromboembolism risk. When prescribed incorrectly, NOACs are associated with an increased risk of ischaemic events and bleeding. Current NOAC labels explicitly address dose adjustments according to age, body weight, renal function and concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The required dose adjustments vary significantly from molecule to molecule, thereby creating a complex dose adjustment environment. Furthermore, recommendations support assessment of individual risk using thromboembolic and bleeding risk scores. Evidence-based medicine also provides data about specific patient profiles. In particular, some patients who are at higher risk of bleeding, such as patients on polymedication, are often at higher risk of stroke. More and more patients are being treated with NOACs. The question of appropriate dosing has become important, as studies are starting to show that reduced doses are being prescribed at very high rates. Although these data have not been evaluated in light of individual risk assessments, in everyday practice, physicians are often more concerned about drug-related bleeding than about the spontaneous evolution of the disease (stroke/systemic embolism), leading to high rates of prescription of inadequately low doses. Recent results have shown that only certain risk criteria justify dose reduction. Thus, the right dose needs to be prescribed for the right patient in order to obtain, in real-life practice, the benefits of NOACs that have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 3(7): 703-714, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study the authors determined the extent of cellular infiltration and dispersion, and regional vascularization in electrophysiologically (EP) defined zones in post-myocardial infarction (MI) swine ventricle. BACKGROUND: The critical isthmus (CI) in post-MI re-entrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a target for catheter ablation. In vitro evidence suggests that myofibroblasts (MFB) within the scar border zone (BZ) may increase the susceptibility to slow conduction and VT, but whether this occurs in vivo remains unproven. METHODS: Six weeks after mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, EP catheter-based mapping was used to assess susceptibility to VT induction. EP data were correlated with detailed cellular profiling of ventricular zones using immunohistochemistry and spatial distribution analysis of cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, MFB, and vascularization. RESULTS: In pigs with induced sustained monomorphic VT (mean cycle length: 353 ± 89 ms; n = 6) the area of scar that consisted of the BZ (i.e., between the normal and the low-voltage area identified by substrate mapping) was greater in VT-inducible hearts (iVT) than in noninducible hearts (non-VT) (p < 0.05). Scar in iVT hearts was characterized by MFB accumulation in the CI (>100 times that in normal myocardium and >5 times higher than that in the BZ in non-VT hearts) and by a 1.7-fold increase in blood vessel density within the dense scar region extending towards the CI. Sites of local abnormal ventricular activity potentials exhibited cellularity and vascularization that were intermediate to the CI in iVT and BZ in non-VT hearts. CONCLUSIONS: The authors reported the first cellular analysis of the VT CI following an EP-based zonal analysis of iVT and non-VT hearts in pigs post-MI. The data suggested that VT susceptibility was defined by a remarkable number of MFB in the VT CI, which appeared to bridge the few remaining dispersed clusters of cardiomyocytes. These findings define the cellular substrate for the proarrhythmic slow conduction pathway.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(5): 838-843, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688703

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the predictability of QRS duration (QRSd) for temporary pacing catheter removal in patients implanted with CoreValve. Permanent pacemaker implantation is a known complication after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) with CoreValve. Although post-TAVI QRSd is highly predictive for advanced atrioventricular block (AVB), management of delayed AVB after TAVI remains unclear. We conducted a multicentric, prospective study of 156 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with CoreValve between December 2010 and January 2013. Patients who had acute AVB after TAVI were excluded (n = 25). We classified the patients into 2 groups based on the post-TAVI QRSd. Patients with QRSd <120 ms were assigned to early pacing catheter removal group (n = 34), and patients with QRSd ≥120 ms were assigned to keep the pacing catheter with monitoring group (n = 97). No patient required permanent pacemaker implantation in the early pacing catheter removal group, whereas 38 patients with QRSd ≥120 ms had a delayed AVB (QRSd <120 ms vs ≥120 ms: 0% vs 39%, p = 0.0001). The intensive care unit stay length, 30-day mortality, and incidence of complications were lower in the early catheter removal group. Post-TAVI QRSd allows patient selection for early removal of pacing catheter in patients implanted with CoreValve.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Cateteres Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 28(8): 876-881, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dormant conduction unmasked by adenosine predicts clinical recurrences of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) dependent atrial flutter following catheter ablation. Conventional practice involves a waiting period of 20 to 30 minutes after achievement of a bidirectional line of block (BDB) to monitor for recovery of conduction. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether abolition of dormant conduction with adenosine immediately after CTI ablation and BDB can predict the lack of CTI conduction recovery during the following 30 minutes. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation for CTI-dependent atrial flutter were studied. Following the completion of CTI ablation and documentation of BDB, adenosine (≥12 mg IV) was administered immediately. In cases of dormant conduction, the CTI was ablated again until its abolition. After the achievement of BDB without dormant conduction, spontaneous CTI reconnection during the following 30 minutes and dormant conduction with adenosine at 30 minutes were evaluated. RESULTS: A CTI block was achieved in 171 patients. Nine patients (5.3%) had dormant conduction across the CTI immediately after ablation and BDB, and required further ablation. Two patients (1.2%) had subsequent spontaneous time-dependent reconnection within 30 minutes. Two other patients (1.2%) developed late dormant conduction with adenosine at 30 minutes. All 4 patients underwent further ablation. CONCLUSION: A negative adenosine challenge immediately after CTI ablation with bidirectional block, or after abolition of dormant conduction with further ablation, strongly predicted the absence of subsequent spontaneous reconnection within 30 minutes. Based on these results, the conventional waiting period is unnecessary in 97.6% patients without dormant conduction after CTI-dependent flutter ablation.


Assuntos
Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Flutter Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/induzido quimicamente , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Valva Tricúspide/efeitos dos fármacos , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia
20.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 37(6): 421-423, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28350641

RESUMO

DETAILS OF THE CLINICAL CASE: An aortic valve thrombus (AVT) is a rare complication after HeartMate II implantation. In a 44-year-old man, a large AVT was discovered 6 weeks after implantation of a HeartMate II for severe dilated cardiomyopathy. The aortic valve was permanently closed. DISCUSSION: After a followup of 3 months without embolic events, the patient started a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program involving aerobic exercise, resistance exercises, group gymnastics, and relaxation exercise, and completed the program without any complications, resulting in a significant functional benefit. SUMMARY: CR might not be systematically contraindicated in patients with HeartMate II and an AVT, in particular, if there is no opening of the aortic valve at rest.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Fenindiona/análogos & derivados , Fenindiona/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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