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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prospective associations between n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are not consistent in individual studies. We aimed to summarize the prospective associations of biomarkers of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with T2D risk through an individual participant-level pooled analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: For our analysis we incorporated data from a global consortium of 20 prospective studies from 14 countries. We included 65,147 participants who had blood measurements of ALA, EPA, DPA, or DHA and were free of diabetes at baseline. De novo harmonized analyses were performed in each cohort following a prespecified protocol, and cohort-specific associations were pooled using inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16,693 incident T2D cases were identified during follow-up (median follow-up ranging from 2.5 to 21.2 years). In pooled multivariable analysis, per interquintile range (difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles for each fatty acid), EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum were associated with lower T2D incidence, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.79 (0.73, 0.85), 0.82 (0.76, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.75, 0.88), respectively (all P < 0.001). ALA was not associated with T2D (HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.92, 1.02]) per interquintile range. Associations were robust across prespecified subgroups as well as in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating biomarkers of seafood-derived n-3 fatty acids, including EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum, were associated with lower risk of T2D in a global consortium of prospective studies. The biomarker of plant-derived ALA was not significantly associated with T2D risk.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103279, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid with multiple biological functions. Rodent experiments suggest EETs play a role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but evidence in humans is limited. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a case-cohort study in the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective cohort among American Indians. METHODS: We measured 4 EET species and 4 species of corresponding downstream metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrieonic acids (DHETs), in plasma samples from 1161 participants, including 310 with type 2 diabetes. We estimated the associations of total (esterified and free) EETs and DHETs with incident diabetes risk, adjusting for known risk factors. We also examined cross-sectional associations with plasma fasting insulin and glucose in the case-cohort and in 271 participants without diabetes from the older Strong Heart Study cohort, and meta-analyzed the results from the 2 cohorts. FINDINGS: We observed no significant association of total EET or DHET levels with incident diabetes. In addition, plasma EETs were not associated with plasma insulin or plasma glucose. However, higher plasma 14,15-DHET was associated with lower plasma insulin and lower plasma glucose. INTERPRETATION: In this first prospective study of EETs and diabetes, we found no evidence for a role of total plasma EETs in diabetes. The novel associations of 14,15-DHET with insulin and glucose warrant replication and exploration of possible mechanisms. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

4.
Cardiology ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent among older adults and is associated with high costs. Although serum total nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been positively associated with HF risk, the contribution of each individual NEFA to HF risk has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of individual fasting NEFAs with HF risk in older adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study of older adults, we measured 35 individual NEFAs in 2,140 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study using gas chromatography. HF was ascertained using review of medical records by an endpoint committee. RESULTS: The mean age was 77.7 ± 4.4 years, and 38.8% were male. During a median follow-up of 9.7 (maximum 19.0) years, 655 new cases of HF occurred. In a multivariable Cox regression model controlling for demographic and anthropometric variables, field center, education, serum albumin, glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, unintentional weight loss, and all other measured NEFAs, we observed inverse associations (HR [95% CI] per standard deviation) of nonesterified pentadecanoic (15:0) (0.73 [0.57-0.94]), γ-linolenic acid (GLA) (0.87 [0.75-1.00]), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0.73 [0.61-0.88]) acids with HF, and positive associations of nonesterified stearic (18:0) (1.30 [1.04-1.63]) and nervonic (24:1n-9) (1.17 [1.06-1.29]) acids with HF. CONCLUSION: Our data are consistent with a higher risk of HF with nonesterified stearic and nervonic acids and a lower risk with nonesterified 15:0, GLA, and DHA in older adults. If confirmed in other studies, specific NEFAs may provide new targets for HF prevention.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels. METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (PCSK9, LPA, LPL, LIPG, ANGPTL4, APOB, APOC3, and CD300LG) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (P=6.65×10-6 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (P=0.013) in SMC5. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003102, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Biomedicines ; 8(6)2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486275

RESUMO

Elevated cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are known to be cardioprotective during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiomyocyte-specific overexpressing cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) transgenic (Tr) mice. Using the same Tr mice, we measured changes in cardiac and erythrocyte membranes EETs following myocardial infarction (MI) to determine if they can serve as reporters for cardiac events. Cardiac function was also assessed in Tr vs. wild-type (WT) mice in correlation with EET changes two weeks following MI. Tr mice (N = 25, 16 female, nine male) had significantly higher cardiac cis- and trans-EETs compared to their WT counterparts (N=25, 18 female, seven male). Total cardiac cis-EETs in Tr mice were positively correlated with total cis-EETs in erythrocyte membrane, but there was no correlation with trans-EETs or in WT mice. Following MI, cis- and trans-EETs were elevated in the erythrocyte membrane and cardiac tissue in Tr mice, accounting for the improved cardiac outcomes observed. Tr mice showed significantly better myocardial remodeling following MI, evidenced by higher % fractional shortening, smaller infarct size, lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, reduced fibrosis and apoptosis, and lower pulmonary edema. A positive correlation between total cardiac cis-EETs and total erythrocyte membrane cis-EETs in a Tr mouse model suggests that erythrocyte cis-EETs may be used as predictive markers for cardiac events. All cis-EET regioisomers displayed similar trends following acute MI; however, the magnitude of change for each regioisomer was markedly different, warranting measurement of each individually.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5329, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210298

RESUMO

CYP2J2, a member of the Cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, is the most abundant epoxygenase in the heart and has multifunctional properties including bioactivation of arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which, in turn, have been implicated in mediating several cardiovascular conditions. Using a proteomic approach, we found that CYP2J2 expression is lower in cardiac tissue from patients with cardiomyopathy compared to controls. In order to better elucidate the complex role played by CYP2J2 in cardiac cells, we performed targeted silencing of CYP2J2 expression in human adult ventricular cardiomyocytes and interrogated whole genome transcriptional responses. We found that knockdown of CYP2J2 elicits widespread alterations in gene expression of ventricular cardiomyocytes and leads to the activation of a diverse repertoire of programs, including those involved in ion channel signaling, development, extracellular matrix, and metabolism. Several members of the differentially up-regulated ion channel module have well-known pathogenetic roles in cardiac dysrhythmias. By leveraging causal network and upstream regulator analysis, we identified several candidate drivers of the observed transcriptional response to CYP2J2 silencing; these master regulators have been implicated in aberrant cardiac remodeling, heart failure, and myocyte injury and repair. Collectively, our study demonstrates that CYP2J2 plays a central and multifaceted role in cardiomyocyte homeostasis and provides a framework for identifying critical regulators and pathways influenced by this gene in cardiovascular health and disease.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014119, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020839

RESUMO

Background De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is an endogenous pathway that converts excess dietary starch, sugar, protein, and alcohol into specific fatty acids (FAs). Although elevated DNL is linked to several metabolic abnormalities, little is known about how long-term habitual levels and changes in levels of FAs in the DNL pathway relate to incident heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We investigated whether habitual levels and changes in serial measures of FAs in the DNL pathway were associated with incident HF among 4249 participants free of HF at baseline. Plasma phospholipid FAs were measured at baseline, 6 years, and 13 years using gas chromatography, and risk factors for HF were measured using standardized methods. Incident HF was centrally adjudicated using medical records. We prospectively evaluated associations with HF risk of (1) habitual FA levels, using cumulative updating to assess long-term exposure, and (2) changes in FA levels over time. During 22.1 years of follow-up, 1304 HF cases occurred. After multivariable adjustment, habitual levels and changes in levels of palmitic acid (16:0) were positively associated with incident HF (interquintile hazard ratio [95% CI]=1.17 [1.00-1.36] and 1.26 [1.03-1.55], respectively). Changes in levels of 7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-9) and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) were each positively associated with risk of HF (1.36 [1.13-1.62], and 1.43 [1.18-1.72], respectively). Habitual levels and changes in levels of myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), stearic acid (18:0), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) were not associated with incident HF. Conclusions Both habitual levels and changes in levels of 16:0 were positively associated with incident HF in older adults. Changes in 16:1n-9 and 18:1n-7 were also positively associated with incident HF. These findings support a potential role of DNL or these DNL-related FAs in the development of HF.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e012853, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019406

RESUMO

Background Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiological characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether the length of the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide or their sphingomyelin precursors are associated with AF risk is not known. Methods and Results Among 4206 CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) participants (mean age, 76 years; 40% men) who were free of prevalent AF at baseline, we identified 1198 incident AF cases over a median 8.7 years of follow-up. We examined 8 sphingolipid species: ceramide and sphingomyelin species with palmitic acid and species with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids: arachidic; behenic; and lignoceric. In adjusted Cox regression analyses, ceramides and sphingomyelins with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids were associated with reduced AF risk (ie, per 2-fold higher ceramide with behenic acid hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.86; sphingomyelin with behenic acid hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77). In contrast, ceramides and sphingomyelins with palmitic acid were associated with increased AF risk (ceramide with palmitic acid hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66; sphingomyelin with palmitic acid hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.18-2.55). Associations were attenuated with adjustment for NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), but did not differ significantly by age, sex, race, body mass index, or history of coronary heart disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that several ceramide and sphingomyelin species are associated with incident AF, and that these associations differ on the basis of the fatty acid. Ceramides and sphingomyelins with palmitic acid were associated with increased AF risk, whereas ceramides and sphingomyelins with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids were associated with reduced AF risk.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(7): 1084-1090, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies consistently report that diet quality is inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. However, few studies have assessed the association of diet quality with serum lipoproteins, an intermediate marker of cardio-metabolic health, or assessed whether type 2 diabetes modifies these associations. This study assessed associations of diet quality (evaluated using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)), and the interaction of diet quality with diabetes, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) among American Indians (AIs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants comprised AIs who participated in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS)-a study of CVD and its risk factors in 12 AI communities. Generalized estimated equations (GEEs) were used to examine the following associations: (1) the cross-sectional associations of diet quality (as determined by AHEI) with serum lipoproteins (n = 2200); and (2) the prospective associations of the AHEI measured at baseline with serum lipoproteins (n = 1899). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, associations of AHEI with TC (p < 0.0001) LDL-C (p = 0.005), and ApoB (p = 0.002) differed according to diabetes status. In prospective analysis, AHEI was associated with more favorable levels of TC (p = 0.029) and LDL-C (p = 0.008) among participants with diabetes independent of other demographic, behavioral, and health factors; associations of diet quality with TC, LDL-C, and ApoB were much weaker among participants without diabetes. There was no association of diet quality with TG, HDL-C, or ApoA. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of diet quality with TC, LDL-C, and ApoB differ according to diabetes status.

13.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1214-1222, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the associations of ceramides and sphingomyelins (SMs) with diabetes in humans. OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations of 15 circulating ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes in 2 studies. METHODS: The analysis included 435 American-Indian participants from the Strong Heart Study (nested case-control design for analyses; mean age: 57 y; 34% male; median time until diabetes 4.3 y for cases) and 1902 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study (prospective design for analyses; mean age: 37 y; 39% male; median 12.5 y of follow-up). Sphingolipid species were measured using stored plasma samples by sequential LC and MS. Using logistic regression and parametric survival models within studies, and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined associations of 15 ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes. RESULTS: There were 446 cases of incident diabetes across the studies. Higher circulating concentrations of ceramides containing stearic acid (Cer-18), arachidic acid (Cer-20), and behenic acid (Cer-22) were each associated with a higher risk of diabetes. The RRs for incident diabetes per 1 SD of each log ceramide species (µM) were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.37) for Cer-18, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.31) for Cer-20, and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.32) for Cer-22. Although the magnitude of the risk estimates for the association of ceramides containing lignoceric acid (Cer-24) with diabetes was similar to those for Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 (RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.26), the association was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.007). Ceramides carrying palmitic acid (Cer-16), SMs, glucosyl-ceramides, or a lactosyl-ceramide were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of circulating Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 were associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in 2 studies of American-Indian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005134.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Índios Norte-Americanos , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceramidas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Dakota , Oklahoma , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , South Dakota , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Esfingomielinas/sangue
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e012881, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711385

RESUMO

Background Synthesized fatty acids (FAs) from de novo lipogenesis may affect cardiometabolic health, but longitudinal associations between serially measured de novo lipogenesis-related fatty acid biomarkers and mortality or cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well established. Methods and Results We investigated longitudinal associations between de novo lipogenesis-related fatty acids with all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and incident CVD among 3869 older US adults, mean (SD) age 75 (5) years and free of prevalent CVD at baseline. Levels of plasma phospholipid palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1n-7), stearic (18:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), and other risk factors were serially measured at baseline, 6 years, and 13 years. All-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and incident fatal and nonfatal CVD were centrally adjudicated. Risk was assessed in multivariable-adjusted Cox models with time-varying FAs and covariates. During 13 years, median follow-up (maximum 22.4 years), participants experienced 3227 deaths (1131 CVD, 2096 non-CVD) and 1753 incident CVD events. After multivariable adjustment, higher cumulative levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 were associated with higher all-cause mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 1.35 (1.17-1.56), 1.40 (1.21-1.62), and 1.56 (1.35-1.80), respectively, whereas higher levels of 18:0 were associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio=0.76; 95% CI=0.66-0.88). Associations were generally similar for CVD mortality versus non-CVD mortality, as well as total incident CVD. Changes in levels of 16:0 were positively, and 18:0 inversely, associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.41; and hazard ratio=0.78, 95% CI=0.68-0.90). Conclusions Higher long-term levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 and changes in 16:0 were positively, whereas long-term levels and changes in 18:0 were inversely, associated with all-cause mortality in older adults.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(22): e1900226, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inflamassomos/genética , Resistência à Insulina , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Variação Genética , Humanos
16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(7): e005708, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. These activities may be influenced by the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide (Cer). However, the associations of different circulating Cer species, and their sphingomyelin (SM) precursors, with heart failure have received limited attention. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the associations of plasma Cer and SM species with incident heart failure in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We examined 8 species: Cer and SM with palmitic acid (Cer-16 and SM-16), species with arachidic acid (Cer-20 and SM-20), species with behenic acid (Cer-22 and SM-22), and species with lignoceric acid (Cer-24 and SM-24). During a median follow-up of 9.4 years, we identified 1179 cases of incident heart failure among 4249 study participants. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for risk factors, higher levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 were associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (hazard ratio for one SD increase:1.25 [95% CI, 1.16-1.36] and 1.28 [1.18-1.40], respectively). In contrast, higher levels of Cer-22 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in multivariable analyses further adjusted for Cer-16 (hazard ratio, 0.85 [0.78-0.92]); and higher levels of SM-20, SM-22 and SM-24 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in analyses further adjusted for SM-16 (hazard ratios, 0.83 [0.77-0.90], 0.81 [0.75-0.88], and 0.83 [0.77-0.90], respectively). No statistically significant interactions with age, sex, black race, body mass index, or baseline coronary heart disease were detected. Similar associations were observed for heart failure with preserved (n=529) or reduced (n=348) ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows associations of higher plasma levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 with increased risk of heart failure and higher levels of Cer-22, SM-20, SM-22, and SM-24 with decreased risk of heart failure. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00005133.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
17.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genes/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
18.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 473-484, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate breakfast skipping genetic variants through a proxy-phenotype genome-wide association study (GWAS) for breakfast cereal skipping, a commonly assessed correlated trait. METHODS: We leveraged the statistical power of the UK Biobank (n = 193,860) to identify genetic variants related to breakfast cereal skipping as a proxy-phenotype for breakfast skipping and applied several in silico approaches to investigate mechanistic functions and links to traits/diseases. Next, we attempted validation of our approach in smaller breakfast skipping GWAS from the TwinUK (n = 2,006) and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (n = 11,963). RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, we identified 6 independent GWAS variants, including those implicated for caffeine (ARID3B/CYP1A1), carbohydrate metabolism (FGF21), schizophrenia (ZNF804A), and encoding enzymes important for N6-methyladenosine RNA transmethylation (METTL4, YWHAB, and YTHDF3), which regulates the pace of the circadian clock. Expression of identified genes was enriched in the cerebellum. Genome-wide correlation analyses indicated positive correlations with anthropometric traits. Through Mendelian randomization (MR), we observed causal links between genetically determined breakfast skipping and higher body mass index, more depressive symptoms, and smoking. In bidirectional MR, we demonstrated a causal link between being an evening person and skipping breakfast, but not vice versa. We observed association of our signals in an independent breakfast skipping GWAS in another British cohort (P = 0.032), TwinUK, but not in a meta-analysis of non-British cohorts from the CHARGE consortium (P = 0.095). CONCLUSIONS: Our proxy-phenotype GWAS identified 6 genetic variants for breakfast skipping, linking clock regulation with food timing and suggesting a possible beneficial role of regular breakfast intake as part of a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/genética , Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Desjejum , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epigenômica , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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