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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and investigate possible cardiovascular effects of a sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine protocol in patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery department of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous thiamine (600 mg on the day of surgery, and 400 mg/day on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3) or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary feasibility endpoints were recruitment rate and protocol compliance. Secondary endpoints included markers of possible biological and physiological effects. The mean recruitment rate was 8 patients per month and protocol compliance was 97.5%. There were no differences in median peak postoperative lactate (2.7 mmol/L [interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-4.6] for thiamine v 2.5 mmol/L [IQR 1.4-3.6] for placebo; p = 0.53), median peak postoperative creatinine (104 µmol/L [IQR 92.5-129] for thiamine v 99 µmol/L [IQR 86.5-109.5] for placebo; p = 0.53), median nadir postoperative cardiac index (1.8 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.1] for thiamine v 2.2 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.5] for placebo; p = 0.25), or the number of patients on vasopressor/inotropic agents (thiamine, 12 [63%]; placebo, 12 [60%]; p = 0.80), or in the total inotrope/vasopressor dose 0.14 µg/kg for thiamine v 0.12 µg/kg for placebo; p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: A double-blind trial of sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine supplementation in higher-risk cardiac surgery patients was feasible and appeared to be safe. However, such treatment did not demonstrate evidence of biological or physiological effects.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1877-1882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is gaining importance as a rescue therapy for refractory cardiac arrest. VA-ECMO, especially in the setting of eCPR, is plagued by hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. The authors' aims were to describe the coagulation profile in refractory cardiac arrest and assess its prognostic role. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. SETTING: Cardiac surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-eight patients treated with eCPR for intra-hospital and out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest, between 2008 and 2017. INTERVENTIONS: The authors retrospectively analyzed data from the first blood sample drawn during cannulation for VA-ECMO to understand the association of coagulation parameters with survival to hospital discharge, number of blood components transfused, anticoagulation therapy, serum lactate levels, no-flow time, and low-flow time. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Platelet count was 126 ± 79 × 109/L and in 17% of the population it was lower than 50 × 109/L, prothrombin time was 3.22 ± 4.01, activated partial thromboplastin time was 117 ± 78 seconds, fibrinogen was 186 ± 148 mg/dL, antithrombin was 47 ± 16%, and D-dimer was ≥2-fold the normal upper limit in 95% of patients. Fifty percent of patients had a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score ≥6 (52% among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 33% among in-hospital cardiac arrest), according to the criteria of the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (2016). The median DIC score was 5.5 points (interquartile range 4-8), significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors (4 [3-6] v 6 [4-8], p = 0.007). Every DIC score point contributed to the mortality risk (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.67, p = 0.006). Patients with overt DIC less frequently received anticoagulants (28.6% v 55.9%, p = 0.002), started anticoagulant therapy later (12 [10-23] v 8.5 [5-12] hours, p = 0.045), and received a larger quantity of blood products (11 [4-23] v 3 [0-8.5] units, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Coagulation derangements are frequent in patients with refractory cardiac arrest and have important consequences for eCPR management for anticoagulant therapy and blood product transfusion. The presence of DIC diagnostic criteria should be considered among the prognostic factors in this population of patients.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
6.
J Interv Cardiol ; 31(6): 717-724, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was to assess in-hospital survival rate and the degree of myocardial recovery after MCS treatment (IABP or IMPELLA) at discharge and at 6 months in patients with AMI-CS and planned early percutaneous revascularization. BACKGROUND: All studies on MCS for acute myocardial infarction related cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) focused on its impact on in-hospital mortality; however, few data about its role on myocardial recovery are available. METHODS: Retrospective study on 64 patients: 36 patients (56%) received IABP and 28 (44%) Impella 2.5/CP. RESULTS: Patients treated with Impella were sicker compared to those treated with IABP as shown by a higher need of catecholamines (93% Impella vs 57% IABP, P = 0.002) and higher inotropic score before procedure: 8 (5-15) versus 4.5 (0-9), P = 0.02. In-hospital survival and MCS-related complications were comparable; hemolysis was more frequent in the Impella group (32% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Myocardial damage was lower in those patients who were implanted with IMPELLA before PCI: lower troponin peak [3831 ng/dL (1441-8436) vs 16 581 (7802-23 675), P = 0.004] and lower CPK peak [893 UI/L (584-4082) vs 5797 (2483-9292) P = 0.04]. Impella patients had higher LVEF at 6 months [45 (38-52) vs 40 (33-45)%, P = 0.04]. LVEF increase at 6 months was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.0001), with higher myocardial recovery in patients supported with Impella (absolute delta-LVEF increase 20% vs 10% P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac unloading with IMPELLA in ACS-CS, especially if implanted before PCI, might provide lower myocardial damage and improved myocardial recovery which translates into significantly higher LVEF at 6 months.

7.
Artif Organs ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156308

RESUMO

The CytoSorb adsorber, a blood purification therapy, is able to remove molecules in the 5-60 kDa range which comprises the majority of inflammatory mediators and some endogenous molecules. We aimed to evaluate CytoSorb therapy on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. A retrospective case series study, from February 2016 to May 2017, was performed in 40 patients with multiple organ failure who received CytoSorb treatment. There were 28 patients with cardiogenic shock, 2 with septic shock, 9 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 1 with liver failure. Nineteen patients (47%) underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 11 (27%) had an intra-aortic balloon pump, 9 (22%) were implanted with Impella, 6 (15%) had a ventricular assist device, and 18 (45%) were treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. After CytoSorb treatment, total bilirubin decreased from 11.6 ± 9.2 to 6.8 ± 5.1 mg/dL (P = 0.005), lactate from 12.1 ± 8.7 to 2.9 ± 2.5 mmol/L (P < 0.001), CPK from 2416 (670-8615) to 281 (44-2769) U/L (P <0.001) and LDH from 1230 (860-3157) to 787 (536-1148) U/L (P <0.001). The vasoactive-inotropic score after 48 h of treatment was reduced to 10 points, P = 0.009. Thirty-day mortality was 55% and ICU mortality was 52.5% at expected ICU mortality of 80%. Our study shows that CytoSorbTM treatment is effective in reducing bilirubin, lactate, CPK and LDH, in critically ill patients mainly due to cardiogenic shock. There is a need for randomized controlled trials to conclude on the potential benefits blood purification with CytoSorb in critically ill patients.

8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2252-2260, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Corticosteroids have important effects on intermediate outcomes in critically ill patients, but their effect on survival is unknown. The objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the effect on mortality of corticosteroids in critical and perioperative settings. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: PubMed, Embase, BioMed Central, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to February 1, 2018, for randomized trials comparing corticosteroids with placebo or standard care. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill or surgical adult patients. INTERVENTIONS: Corticosteroids compared with placebo or standard care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 44,553 patients from 135 studies were included. Overall, mortality in the corticosteroid group and in the control group were similar (16% v 16%; p = 0.9). Subanalyses identified a beneficial effect of corticosteroids on survival in patients with respiratory system diseases (9% v 13%; p < 0.001) and bacterial meningitis (28% v 32%; p= 0.04), and a detrimental effect on survival in patients with traumatic brain injury (22% v 19%; p < 0.001). No differences in mortality were found in patients with cardiac diseases (7% v 6%; p = 0.7), in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (2.8% v 3.2% p = 0.14), and when treatment duration or patient age were considered. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis documents the safety of corticosteroids in the overall critically ill population with the notable exception of brain injury patients, a setting where the authors confirmed their detrimental effect on survival. A possible beneficial effect of corticosteroids on survival was found among patients with respiratory diseases and in patients with bacterial meningitis.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 127(1): 146-150, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have compared success and complication rates for central line insertion sites with and without ultrasound, few have examined the use of the brachiocephalic vein for central venous access. The aim of this study was to describe the brachiocephalic vein as an alternative site for elective ultrasound vascular cannulation in adults, and to compare it with the more commonly used internal jugular vein site in terms of procedural difficulties, first pass failure rate, overall failure rate, and safety. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, clinical data from consecutive adult patients undergoing elective ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization of upper body were retrieved from the department database. All of these central venous catheters were requested by department team, none was positioned for surgery. Seven hundred nine patients underwent central venous catheterization via the internal jugular approach and 285 patients via the brachiocephalic route. Patients catheterized via the brachiocephalic vein approach were then compared with those catheterized via the internal jugular vein in terms of ease of catheterization, success rate, and complications. Differences between approaches were assessed by univariate analyses and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 994 patients underwent central venous catheterization. A total of 87% had a successful catheter implantation at the first attempt, 6.7% of insertions were difficult, 5.7% were complicated, and 3.4% failed. Procedural difficulty was more frequent with the internal jugular than with the brachiocephalic approach (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.76; P = .007) after correction for potential confounders. Differences between groups in complication rate (6.3% vs 4.1%) or failure rate (3.4% vs 3.5%) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Brachiocephalic cannulation is a reasonable alternative to ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization.

10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.

11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 109(2): 137-138, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493641

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among nurses, as well as the organizational impact of work-related stress as a consequence of MS among nurses in Italy. To study the organizational models, turnover rates, and job satisfaction among nurses, in a sample of Italian healthcare facilities. BACKGROUND: MS is considered an important metabolic disorder in the modern world, responsible for diseases with economic effects on hospitals. Shift work (SW) seems to be a risk factor for MS, while the Mediterranean diet appears to be protective. Work-related stress causes loss of working days, and generates high costs for hospitals. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: The first step will be to create and validate a questionnaire to investigate the prevalence of MS among Italian nurses. The second step will be to estimate the risk of work-related stress. Data regarding absenteeism and turnover will be collected, as indicators of impact on organization. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to investigate the previously describe SW's factors and their impact on organizing nursing work. This study is relevant for the organizations because it helps to define organizational strategies that permit nurses to remain healthy, to be work efficient and therefore to be able to provide high level care.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(4): 792-800, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282819

RESUMO

AIMS: To correlate the dynamics of platelet activation with the development of thromboembolic events in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The platelet activity state (PAS) assay was utilized to evaluate platelet activation in 68 cf-LVAD patients implanted with the HeartMate II (n = 15, 22%), HeartMate 3 (n = 15, 22%), or HeartWare HVAD (n = 38, 56%). PAS was measured preoperatively, early post-implant, and at long-term follow-up (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-implant). PAS was also measured at the occurrence of adverse events in patients who developed thrombotic complications. Data on patient demographics, medical history, antithrombotic therapy, and coagulation parameters were also analysed. Over a median follow-up of 602 (234-942) days, PAS values did not increase over time in the overall population (P = 0.15). However, PAS measured at event was 15-fold higher in the six patients (9%) who suffered pump thrombosis (n = 2) or ischaemic stroke (n = 4) vs. the rest of the population [6.67% (5.59%-11.98%) vs. 0.45% (0.33%-0.75%); P = 0.012], despite comparable coagulation profile. Pre-implant PAS values were 4.5-fold higher in these patients [1.90% (1.24%-3.17%) vs. 0.42% (0.32%-0.72%); P = 0.006]. Neither preoperative variables nor the type of the pump or the antiplatelet strategy were associated with a higher risk of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombotic events are associated with altered PAS values. Moreover, baseline elevated PAS values in patients who developed thrombotic events suggest patient-specific tendency to post-implant thromboembolic complications. Prospectively, systematic monitoring of PAS might guide the development of refined patient-tailored antithrombotic strategies and the technological improvement of LVAD design.

13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.(AU)


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/métodos
15.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless, small randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whether volatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable. DESIGN: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n=10,600) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetic as part of the anesthetic plan, or total intravenous anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point of the study will be one-year mortality (any cause). Secondary endpoints will be 30-day mortality; 30-day death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint); cardiac mortality at 30day and at one year; incidence of hospital re-admission during the one year follow-up period and duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The sample size is based on the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics will reduce 1-year unadjusted mortality from 3% to 2%, using a two-sided alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will determine whether the simple intervention of adding a volatile anesthetic, an intervention that can be implemented by all anesthesiologists, can improve one-year survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Volatilização
16.
Perfusion ; 32(7): 547-553, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, over 1 million cardiac surgical procedures are performed all over the world. Reducing myocardial necrosis could have strong implications in postoperative clinical outcomes. Volatile anaesthetics have cardiac protective properties in the perioperative period of cardiac surgery. However, little data exists on the administration of volatile agents during cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this study was to assess if volatile anaesthetics administration during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cardiac troponin release after cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 942 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a teaching hospital. The only difference between the groups was the management of anaesthesia during CPB. The volatile group received sevoflurane or desflurane while the control group received a combination of propofol infusion and fentanyl boluses. Patients who received volatile anaesthetics during cardiopulmonary bypass (n=314) were propensity-matched 1:2 with patients who did not receive volatile anaesthetics during CPB (n=628). RESULTS: We found a reduction in peak postoperative troponin I, from 7.8 ng/ml (4.8-13.1) in the non-volatile group to 6.8 ng/ml (3.7-11.8) in the volatile group (p=0.013), with no differences in mortality [2 (0.6%) in the volatile group and 2 (0.3%) in the non-volatile group (p=0.6)]. CONCLUSIONS: Adding volatile anaesthetics during cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with reduced peak postoperative troponin levels. Larger studies are required to confirm our data and to assess the effect of volatile agents on survival.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Troponina I/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Crit Care Med ; 45(4): e467-e468, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291119
18.
N Engl J Med ; 376(21): 2021-2031, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute left ventricular dysfunction is a major complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. Meta-analyses of small trials suggest that levosimendan may result in a higher rate of survival among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients in whom perioperative hemodynamic support was indicated after cardiac surgery, according to prespecified criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (in a continuous infusion at a dose of 0.025 to 0.2 µg per kilogram of body weight per minute) or placebo, for up to 48 hours or until discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), in addition to standard care. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The trial was stopped for futility after 506 patients were enrolled. A total of 248 patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 258 to receive placebo. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between the levosimendan group and the placebo group (32 patients [12.9%] and 33 patients [12.8%], respectively; absolute risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.7 to 5.9; P=0.97). There were no significant differences between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in the durations of mechanical ventilation (median, 19 hours and 21 hours, respectively; median difference, -2 hours; 95% CI, -5 to 1; P=0.48), ICU stay (median, 72 hours and 84 hours, respectively; median difference, -12 hours; 95% CI, -21 to 2; P=0.09), and hospital stay (median, 14 days and 14 days, respectively; median difference, 0 days; 95% CI, -1 to 2; P=0.39). There was no significant difference between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in rates of hypotension or cardiac arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who required perioperative hemodynamic support after cardiac surgery, low-dose levosimendan in addition to standard care did not result in lower 30-day mortality than placebo. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; CHEETAH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00994825 .).


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial , Simendana , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Falha de Tratamento
19.
J Invest Surg ; 30(2): 110-115, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ideal surgical approach for pulmonary metastasectomy remains controversial. Thoracoscopic surgery may offer advantages in quality of life outcomes, with equivalent oncologic long-term results. This study aimed to demonstrate the validity of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of lung metastases. METHODS: In all 224 patients who underwent 300 VATS metastasectomies from January 2000 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-nine patients underwent major resection (68 thoracoscopic lobectomies and one pneumonectomy) and 155 patients underwent a wedge resection/segmentectomy. Complete curative pulmonary resections were performed in 219 (97%) cases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves. Univariate and subsequent multivariate Cox model regression were performed to identify independent factors of overall survival. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-six patients developed lung metastases from epithelial tumors, 28 from sarcomas, seven from melanomas, and three from germ cell tumors. The final pathological examination revealed no cases of R1 disease. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, 118 patients (53%) had died. According to a multivariate analysis, a better prognosis was not observed for patients with a particular histological type; in addition, disease-free interval time, age, number of metastases, and type of surgery did not have any statistical influence on long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracoscopic surgery is a safe and efficacious procedure, with a five-year overall survival that is equivalent to open surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Período Perioperatório , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 500 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature about nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. A consensus conference of experts discussed eligible papers. The interventions identified by the conference then were submitted to colleagues worldwide through a web-based survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors identified 11 interventions contributing to increased survival (perioperative hemodynamic optimization, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin for tight glycemic control, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, levosimendan, volatile agents, and remote ischemic preconditioning) and 2 interventions showing increased mortality (beta-blocker therapy and aprotinin). Interventions then were voted on by participating clinicians. Percentages of agreement among clinicians in different countries differed significantly for 6 interventions, and a variable gap between evidence and clinical practice was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified 13 nonsurgical interventions that may decrease or increase perioperative mortality, with variable agreement by clinicians. Such interventions may be optimal candidates for investigation in high-quality trials and discussion in international guidelines to reduce perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Consenso , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
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