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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1344-1352, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in humans show increased concentrations of copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP), to be associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute and independent effect of osmotically stimulated AVP, measured via the surrogate marker copeptin, on glucose regulation in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty subjects (30 females) participated in this crossover design study. On 2 trial days, separated by ≥7 d (males) or 1 menstrual cycle (females), subjects were infused for 120 min with either 0.9% NaCl [isotonic (ISO)] or 3.0% NaCl [hypertonic (HYPER)]. Postinfusion, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g) was administered. RESULTS: During HYPER, plasma osmolality and copeptin increased (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during the entire 6-h protocol, whereas renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hormones were within the lower normal physiological range at the beginning of the protocol and declined following infusion. Fasting plasma glucose did not differ between trials (P > 0.05) at baseline and during the 120 min of infusion. During the OGTT the incremental AUC for glucose from postinfusion baseline (positive integer) was greater during HYPER (401.5 ± 190.5 mmol/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (354.0 ± 205.8 mmol/L·min; P < 0.05). The positive integer of the AUC for insulin during OGTT did not differ between trials (HYPER 55,850 ± 36,488 pmol/L·min compared with ISO 57,205 ± 31,119 pmol/L·min). Baseline values of serum glucagon were not different between the 2 trials; however, the AUC of glucagon during the OGTT was also significantly greater in HYPER (19,303 ± 3939 ng/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (18,600 ± 3755 ng/L·min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that acute osmotic stimulation of copeptin induced greater hyperglycemic responses during the oral glucose challenge, possibly due to greater glucagon concentrations.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02761434.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Plasma/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 1917-1925, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because elevated copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, is linked to low water intake and high diabetes risk, we tested the effect of water supplementation on copeptin and fasting glucose. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one healthy adults with high copeptin (>10.7 pmol · L-1 in men and >6.1 pmol·L-1 in women) identified in a population-based survey from 2013 to 2015 and with a current 24-hour urine osmolality of >600 mOsm · kg-1 were included. INTERVENTION: Addition of 1.5 L water daily on top of habitual fluid intake for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pre- and postintervention fasting plasma copeptin concentrations. RESULTS: Reported mean water intake increased from 0.43 to 1.35 L · d-1 (P < 0.001), with no other observed changes in diet. Median (interquartile range) urine osmolality was reduced from 879 (705, 996) to 384 (319, 502) mOsm · kg-1 (P < 0.001); urine volume increased from 1.06 (0.90, 1.20) to 2.27 (1.52, 2.67) L · d-1 (P < 0.001); and baseline copeptin decreased from 12.9 (7.4, 21.9) pmol · L-1 to 7.8 (4.6;11.3) pmol · L-1 (P < 0.001). Water supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose from a mean (SD) of 5.94 (0.44) to 5.74 (0.51) (P = 0.04). The water-associated reduction of both fasting copeptin and glucose concentration in plasma was most pronounced in participants in the top tertile of baseline copeptin. CONCLUSIONS: Water supplementation in persons with habitually low water consumption and high copeptin levels is effective in lowering copeptin. It appears a safe and promising intervention with the potential of lowering fasting plasma glucose and thus reducing diabetes risk. Further investigations are warranted to support these findings.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Água/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/química , Urina/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/sangue , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(5): 1883-1890, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inter-individual variation in median plasma copeptin is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, progression of chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular events. In this study, we examined whether 24-h urine osmolality was associated with plasma copeptin and whether increasing daily water intake could impact circulating plasma copeptin. METHODS: This trial was a prospective study conducted at a single investigating center. Eighty-two healthy adults (age 23.6 ± 2.9 years, BMI 22.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2, 50% female) were stratified based upon habitual daily fluid intake volumes: arm A (50-80% of EFSA dietary reference values), arm B (81-120%), and arm C (121-200%). Following a baseline visit, arms A and B increased their water intake to match arm C for a period of 6 consecutive weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, plasma copeptin was positively and significantly associated with 24-h urine osmolality (p = 0.002) and 24-h urine specific gravity (p = 0.003) but not with plasma osmolality (p = 0.18), 24-h urine creatinine (p = 0.09), and total fluid intake (p = 0.52). Over the 6-week follow-up, copeptin decreased significantly from 5.18 (3.3;7.4) to 3.90 (2.7;5.7) pmol/L (p = 0.012), while urine osmolality and urine specific gravity decreased from 591 ± 206 to 364 ± 117 mOsm/kg (p < 0.001) and from 1.016 ± 0.005 to 1.010 ± 0.004 (p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At baseline, circulating levels of copeptin were positively associated with 24-h urine concentration in healthy young subjects with various fluid intakes. Moreover, this study shows, for the first time, that increased water intake over 6 weeks results in an attenuation of circulating copeptin. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02044679.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/urina , Concentração Osmolar , Urinálise , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 42(3): 483-494, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787716

RESUMO

Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related pathologies.


Assuntos
Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Desidratação/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Regulação para Cima , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
5.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 68 Suppl 2: 6-11, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27299303

RESUMO

In the last decade, cross-sectional and multiple cohort studies have associated total fluid intake or water intake with the risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and even the risk of developing hyperglycemia. Urine biomarkers have also been linked to the risk of CKD and lithiasis, and these biomarkers respond quickly to variations in fluid intake. High circulating copeptin levels, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, have been associated with metabolic syndrome, renal dysfunction and increased risk for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this paper was to explore how the various findings on water intake, hydration and health are interconnected, to highlight current gaps in our understanding and to propose a model that links water intake, homeostatic mechanisms to maintain water balance and health outcomes. Since plasma copeptin and vasopressin have been demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in water intake, inversely associated with 24-hour urine volume, and associated with urine biomarkers and fluid intake, vasopressin is proposed as the central player in this theoretical physiological model.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Arginina Vasopressina , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hiperglicemia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Modelos Biológicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fatores de Risco , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
6.
J Biotechnol ; 214: 17-26, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26325197

RESUMO

Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Dessecação , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Probióticos
7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 54(2): 175-89, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24188267

RESUMO

Probiotic microorganisms have historically been used to rebalance disturbed intestinal microbiota and to diminish gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea or inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Recent studies explore the potential for expanded uses of probiotics on medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, and metabolic disturbances such as hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress. This review aims at summarizing the proposed molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in probiotic-host interactions and to identify the nature of the resulting beneficial effects. Specific probiotic strains can act by modulating immune response, by producing particular molecules or releasing biopeptides, and by modulating nervous system activity. To date, the majority of studies have been conducted in animal models. New investigations on the related mechanisms in humans need to be carried out to better enable targeted and effective use of the broad variety of probiotic strains.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus , Enzimas , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Hipertensão , Imunidade , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Microbiota , Obesidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Evolution ; 66(9): 2961-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22946816

RESUMO

Sterols, essential lipids of most eukaryotic cells, ensure important structural and signaling functions. The selection pressure that has led to different dominant sterols in the three eukaryotic kingdoms remains unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of the progression in the different steps of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (EBP) on the yeast resistance to transitions from aqueous to aerial media, typical perturbations of the higher fungi habitats. Five mutants of the EBP (ergΔ), accumulating different sterol intermediates in the EBP, and the wild-type (WT) strain were exposed to drying under atmospheric air or nitrogen and wetting. Results show that the progression in the EBP parallels an increase in the yeast resistance to air-drying with a maximal survival rate for the WT strain. When drying/wetting was performed under nitrogen, yeast survival was higher, particularly for the earlier mutants of the EBP. Thus, ergosterol, through its protective role against mechanical and oxidative stress, might have been selected by the pressure induced by drying/wetting cycles occurring in the fungi habitats. These results support the Bloch hypothesis, which postulates that the properties of sterols are gradually optimized for function along the biosynthetic pathway and provide a response to the enduring question "why ergosterol in fungi?".


Assuntos
Dessecação , Ergosterol/biossíntese , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Nitrogênio , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 96(2): 471-80, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22552899

RESUMO

The plasma membrane (PM) is a key structure for the survival of cells during dehydration. In this study, we focused on the concomitant changes in survival and in the lateral organization of the PM in yeast strains during desiccation, a natural or technological environmental perturbation that involves transition from a liquid to a solid medium. To evaluate the role of the PM in survival during air-drying, a wild-type yeast strain and an osmotically fragile mutant (erg6Δ) were used. The lateral organization of the PM (microdomain distribution) was observed using a fluorescent marker related to a specific green fluorescent protein-labeled membrane protein (Sur7-GFP) after progressive or rapid desiccation. We also evaluated yeast behavior during a model dehydration experiment performed in liquid medium (osmotic stress). For both strains, we observed similar behavior after osmotic and desiccation stresses. In particular, the same lethal magnitude of dehydration and the same lethal kinetic effect were found for both dehydration methods. Thus, yeast survival after progressive air-drying was related to PM reorganization, suggesting the positive contribution of passive lateral rearrangements of the membrane components. This study also showed that the use of glycerol solutions is an efficient means to simulate air-drying desiccation.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Viabilidade Microbiana , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Dessecação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/análise , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Cinética , Pressão Osmótica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
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