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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(1): e1006596, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629588

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among solid malignancies and improved therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcomes. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and patient-derived organoids (PDO) serve as promising tools to identify new drugs with therapeutic potential in PDAC. For these preclinical disease models to be effective, they should both recapitulate the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC and validate patient-specific therapeutic sensitivities. To date however, deep characterization of the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC PDX and PDO models and comparison with matched human tumour remains largely unaddressed at the whole genome level. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the genetic landscape of 16 whole-genome pairs of tumours and matched PDX, from primary PDAC and liver metastasis, including a unique cohort of 5 'trios' of matched primary tumour, PDX, and PDO. We developed a pipeline to score concordance between PDAC models and their paired human tumours for genomic events, including mutations, structural variations, and copy number variations. Tumour-model comparisons of mutations displayed single-gene concordance across major PDAC driver genes, but relatively poor agreement across the greater mutational load. Genome-wide and chromosome-centric analysis of structural variation (SV) events highlights previously unrecognized concordance across chromosomes that demonstrate clustered SV events. We found that polyploidy presented a major challenge when assessing copy number changes; however, ploidy-corrected copy number states suggest good agreement between donor-model pairs. Collectively, our investigations highlight that while PDXs and PDOs may serve as tractable and transplantable systems for probing the molecular properties of PDAC, these models may best serve selective analyses across different levels of genomic complexity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos , Pâncreas/patologia
2.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 267-282.e7, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686769

RESUMO

We integrated clinical, genomic, and transcriptomic data from 224 primaries and 95 metastases from 289 patients to characterize progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Driver gene alterations and mutational and expression-based signatures were preserved, with truncations, inversions, and translocations most conserved. Cell cycle progression (CCP) increased with sequential inactivation of tumor suppressors, yet remained higher in metastases, perhaps driven by cell cycle regulatory gene variants. Half of the cases were hypoxic by expression markers, overlapping with molecular subtypes. Paired tumor heterogeneity showed cancer cell migration by Halstedian progression. Multiple PDACs arising synchronously and metachronously in the same pancreas were actually intra-parenchymal metastases, not independent primary tumors. Established clinical co-variates dominated survival analyses, although CCP and hypoxia may inform clinical practice.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(12): 2672-2680, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188971

RESUMO

Diagnosing pleiotropy is critical for assessing the validity of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. The popular MR-Egger method evaluates whether there is evidence of bias-generating pleiotropy among a set of candidate genetic instrumental variables. In this article, we propose a statistical method-global and individual tests for direct effects (GLIDE)-for systematically evaluating pleiotropy among the set of genetic variants (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) used for MR. As a global test, simulation experiments suggest that GLIDE is nearly uniformly more powerful than the MR-Egger method. As a sensitivity analysis, GLIDE is capable of detecting outliers in individual variant-level pleiotropy, in order to obtain a refined set of genetic instrumental variables. We used GLIDE to analyze both body mass index and height for associations with colorectal cancer risk in data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (multiple studies). Among the body mass index-associated SNPs and the height-associated SNPs, several individual variants showed evidence of pleiotropy. Removal of these potentially pleiotropic SNPs resulted in attenuation of respective estimates of the causal effects. In summary, the proposed GLIDE method is useful for sensitivity analyses and improves the validity of MR.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(6): 1344-1354, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288237

RESUMO

Purpose: To perform real-time whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq) of advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to identify predictive mutational and transcriptional features for better treatment selection.Experimental Design: Patients with advanced PDAC were prospectively recruited prior to first-line combination chemotherapy. Fresh tumor tissue was acquired by image-guided percutaneous core biopsy for WGS and RNASeq. Laser capture microdissection was performed for all cases. Primary endpoint was feasibility to report WGS results prior to first disease assessment CT scan at 8 weeks. The main secondary endpoint was discovery of patient subsets with predictive mutational and transcriptional signatures.Results: Sixty-three patients underwent a tumor biopsy between December 2015 and June 2017. WGS and RNASeq were successful in 62 (98%) and 60 (95%), respectively. Genomic results were reported at a median of 35 days (range, 19-52 days) from biopsy, meeting the primary feasibility endpoint. Objective responses to first-line chemotherapy were significantly better in patients with the classical PDAC RNA subtype compared with those with the basal-like subtype (P = 0.004). The best progression-free survival was observed in those with classical subtype treated with m-FOLFIRINOX. GATA6 expression in tumor measured by RNA in situ hybridization was found to be a robust surrogate biomarker for differentiating classical and basal-like PDAC subtypes. Potentially actionable genetic alterations were found in 30% of patients.Conclusions: Prospective genomic profiling of advanced PDAC is feasible, and our early data indicate that chemotherapy response differs among patients with different genomic/transcriptomic subtypes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1344-54. ©2017 AACR.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 154(3): 719-722.e3, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074453

RESUMO

We conducted a case-control exome-wide association study to discover germline variants in coding regions that affect risk for pancreatic cancer, combining data from 5 studies. We analyzed exome and genome sequencing data from 437 patients with pancreatic cancer (cases) and 1922 individuals not known to have cancer (controls). In the primary analysis, BRCA2 had the strongest enrichment for rare inactivating variants (17/437 cases vs 3/1922 controls) (P = 3.27x10-6; exome-wide statistical significance threshold P < 2.5x10-6). Cases had more rare inactivating variants in DNA repair genes than controls, even after excluding 13 genes known to predispose to pancreatic cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; P = .045). At the suggestive threshold (P < .001), 6 genes were enriched for rare damaging variants (UHMK1, AP1G2, DNTA, CHST6, FGFR3, and EPHA1) and 7 genes had associations with pancreatic cancer risk, based on the sequence-kernel association test. We confirmed variants in BRCA2 as the most common high-penetrant genetic factor associated with pancreatic cancer and we also identified candidate pancreatic cancer genes. Large collaborations and novel approaches are needed to overcome the genetic heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer predisposition.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Exoma , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186518, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of less frequent genetic variants and their effect on complex disease pose new challenges for genomic research. To investigate whether epigenetic data can be used to inform aggregate rare-variant association methods (RVAM), we assessed whether variants more significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) were preferentially located in non-coding regulatory regions, and whether enrichment was specific to colorectal tissues. METHODS: Active regulatory elements (ARE) were mapped using data from 127 tissues and cell-types from NIH Roadmap Epigenomics and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) projects. We investigated whether CRC association p-values were more significant for common variants inside versus outside AREs, or 2) inside colorectal (CR) AREs versus AREs of other tissues and cell-types. We employed an integrative epigenomic RVAM for variants with allele frequency <1%. Gene sets were defined as ARE variants within 200 kilobases of a transcription start site (TSS) using either CR ARE or ARE from non-digestive tissues. CRC-set association p-values were used to evaluate enrichment of less frequent variant associations in CR ARE versus non-digestive ARE. RESULTS: ARE from 126/127 tissues and cell-types were significantly enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations. Strongest enrichment was observed for digestive tissues and immune cell types. CR-specific ARE were also enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations compared to ARE combined across non-digestive tissues (p-value = 9.6 × 10-4). Additionally, we found enrichment of stronger CRC association p-values for rare variant sets of CR ARE compared to non-digestive ARE (p-value = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Integrative epigenomic RVAM may enable discovery of less frequent variants associated with CRC, and ARE of digestive and immune tissues are most informative. Although distance-based aggregation of less frequent variants in CR ARE surrounding TSS showed modest enrichment, future association studies would likely benefit from joint analysis of transcriptomes and epigenomes to better link regulatory variation with target genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11207, 2017 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894120

RESUMO

Efficient interventions to reduce blood triglycerides are few; newer and more tolerable intervention targets are needed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying blood triglyceride levels variation is key to identifying new therapies. To explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms on triglyceride levels, a blood methylome scan was conducted in 199 individuals from 5 French-Canadian families ascertained on venous thromboembolism, and findings were replicated in 324 French unrelated patients with venous thromboembolism. Genetic context and functional relevance were investigated. Two DNA methylation sites associated with triglyceride levels were identified. The first one, located in the ABCG1 gene, was recently reported, whereas the second one, located in the promoter of the PHGDH gene, is novel. The PHGDH methylation site, cg14476101, was found to be associated with variation in triglyceride levels in a threshold manner: cg14476101 was inversely associated with triglyceride levels only when triglyceride levels were above 1.12 mmol/L (discovery P-value = 8.4 × 10-6; replication P-value = 0.0091). Public databases findings supported a functional role of cg14476101 on PHGDH expression. PHGDH catalyses the first step in the serine biosynthesis pathway. These findings highlight the role of epigenetic regulation of the PHGDH gene in triglyceride metabolism, providing novel insights on putative intervention targets.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 381, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified 55 genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer risk to date. However, potential causal genes and pathways regulated by these risk variants remain to be characterized. Therefore, we performed gene ontology enrichment and pathway analyses to determine if there was an enrichment of genes in proximity to the colorectal cancer risk variants that could further elucidate the probable causal genes and pathways involved in colorectal cancer biology. RESULTS: For the 65 unique genes that either contained, or were immediately neighboring up- and downstream, of these variants there was a significant enrichment for the KEGG pathway, Pathways in Cancer (p-value = 2.67 × 10-5) and an enrichment for multiple biological processes (FDR < 0.05), such as cell junction organization, tissue morphogenesis, regulation of SMAD protein phosphorylation, and odontogenesis identified through Gene Ontology analysis. To identify potential causal genes, we conducted a cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) analysis using gene expression and genotype data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project portal in normal sigmoid (n = 124) and transverse (n = 169) colon tissue. In addition, we also did a cis-eQTL analysis on colorectal tumor tissue (n = 147) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified two risk alleles that were significant cis-eQTLs for FADS2 (rs1535) and COLCA1 and 2 (rs3802842) genes in the normal transverse colon tissue and two risk alleles that were significant cis-eQTLs for the CABLES2 (rs2427308) and LIPG (rs7229639) genes in the normal sigmoid colon tissue, but not tumor tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reaffirm the potential to identify an enrichment for biological processes and candidate causal genes based on expression profiles correlated with genetic risk alleles of colorectal cancer, however, the identification of these significant cis-eQTLs is context and tissue specific.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Simulação por Computador , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos
10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 26, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) undergo distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations. Expression of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), a mismatch repair gene that corrects DNA replication errors, is lost in up to 15% of sporadic tumours due to mutation or, more commonly, due to DNA methylation of its promoter CpG island. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CpG island of MLH1 (MLH1-93G>A or rs1800734) is associated with CpG island hypermethylation and decreased MLH1 expression in CRC tumours. Further, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA of both CRC cases and non-cancer controls, the variant allele of rs1800734 is associated with hypomethylation at the MLH1 shore, a region upstream of its CpG island that is less dense in CpG sites. RESULTS: To determine whether this genotype-epigenotype association is present in other tissue types, including colorectal tumours, we assessed DNA methylation in matched normal colorectal tissue, tumour, and PBMC DNA from 349 population-based CRC cases recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. Using the semi-quantitative real-time PCR-based MethyLight assay, MLH1 shore methylation was significantly higher in tumour tissue than normal colon or PBMCs (P < 0.01). When shore methylation levels were stratified by SNP genotype, normal colorectal DNA and PBMC DNA were significantly hypomethylated in association with variant SNP genotype (P < 0.05). However, this association was lost in tumour DNA. Among distinct stages of CRC, metastatic stage IV CRC tumours incurred significant hypomethylation compared to stage I-III cases, irrespective of genotype status. Shore methylation of MLH1 was not associated with MSI status or promoter CpG island hypermethylation, regardless of genotype. To confirm these results, bisulfite sequencing was performed in matched tumour and normal colorectal specimens from six CRC cases, including two cases per genotype (wildtype, heterozygous, and homozygous variant). Bisulfite sequencing results corroborated the methylation patterns found by MethyLight, with significant hypomethylation in normal colorectal tissue of variant SNP allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the normal tissue types tested (colorectum and PBMC) experience dynamic genotype-associated epigenetic alterations at the MLH1 shore, whereas tumour DNA incurs aberrant hypermethylation compared to normal DNA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/sangue , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 131-138, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918535

RESUMO

Most disease-associated genetic variants are noncoding, making it challenging to design experiments to understand their functional consequences. Identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been a powerful approach to infer the downstream effects of disease-associated variants, but most of these variants remain unexplained. The analysis of DNA methylation, a key component of the epigenome, offers highly complementary data on the regulatory potential of genomic regions. Here we show that disease-associated variants have widespread effects on DNA methylation in trans that likely reflect differential occupancy of trans binding sites by cis-regulated transcription factors. Using multiple omics data sets from 3,841 Dutch individuals, we identified 1,907 established trait-associated SNPs that affect the methylation levels of 10,141 different CpG sites in trans (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). These included SNPs that affect both the expression of a nearby transcription factor (such as NFKB1, CTCF and NKX2-3) and methylation of its respective binding site across the genome. Trans methylation QTLs effectively expose the downstream effects of disease-associated variants.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
13.
PLoS Genet ; 12(10): e1006296, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723779

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/patologia
14.
Nature ; 538(7625): 378-382, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732578

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently. A shortcoming of this model is that clonally expanded precursor lesions do not always belong to the tumour lineage, indicating that the evolutionary trajectory of the tumour lineage and precursor lesions can be divergent. This prevailing model of tumorigenesis has contributed to the clinical notion that pancreatic cancer evolves slowly and presents at a late stage. However, the propensity for this disease to rapidly metastasize and the inability to improve patient outcomes, despite efforts aimed at early detection, suggest that pancreatic cancer progression is not gradual. Here, using newly developed informatics tools, we tracked changes in DNA copy number and their associated rearrangements in tumour-enriched genomes and found that pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis is neither gradual nor follows the accepted mutation order. Two-thirds of tumours harbour complex rearrangement patterns associated with mitotic errors, consistent with punctuated equilibrium as the principal evolutionary trajectory. In a subset of cases, the consequence of such errors is the simultaneous, rather than sequential, knockout of canonical preneoplastic genetic drivers that are likely to set-off invasive cancer growth. These findings challenge the current progression model of pancreatic cancer and provide insights into the mutational processes that give rise to these aggressive tumours.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Mutagênese/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Carcinoma in Situ/genética , Cromotripsia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Poliploidia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética
15.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(30): 3697-3704, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551116

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the link between mutant TP53 and human cancer is unequivocal, a significant knowledge gap exists in clinically actionable molecular targets in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations in TP53. This study surveyed the epigenome to identify functionally and clinically relevant novel genes implicated in LFS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed genome-wide methylation analyses of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA in germline TP53 mutation carriers (n = 72) and individuals with TP53 wild type in whom histologically comparable malignancies developed (n = 111). Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed on a validation cohort of 30 TP53 mutation carriers and 46 patients with TP53 wild type, and candidate sites were evaluated in primary tumors from patients with LFS across multiple histologic tumor types. RESULTS: In 183 patients, distinct DNA methylation signatures were associated with deleterious TP53 mutations in peripheral blood leukocytes. TP53-associated DNA methylation marks occurred in genomic regions that harbored p53 binding sites and in genes encoding p53 pathway proteins. Moreover, loss-of-function TP53 mutations were significantly associated with differential methylation at the locus encoding microRNA miR-34A, a key component of the p53 regulatory network (adjusted P < .001), and validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 76, P < .001). Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing demonstrated that miR-34A was inactivated by hypermethylation across many histologic types of primary tumors from patients with LFS. Moreover, miR-34A tumor hypermethylation was associated with decreased overall survival in a cohort of 29 patients with choroid plexus carcinomas, a characteristic LFS tumor (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Epigenetic dysregulation of miR-34A may comprise an important path in TP53-associated cancer predisposition and represents a therapeutically actionable target with potential clinical relevance.

16.
Nat Biotechnol ; 34(5): 531-8, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065010

RESUMO

Genetic studies of human disease have traditionally focused on the detection of disease-causing mutations in afflicted individuals. Here we describe a complementary approach that seeks to identify healthy individuals resilient to highly penetrant forms of genetic childhood disorders. A comprehensive screen of 874 genes in 589,306 genomes led to the identification of 13 adults harboring mutations for 8 severe Mendelian conditions, with no reported clinical manifestation of the indicated disease. Our findings demonstrate the promise of broadening genetic studies to systematically search for well individuals who are buffering the effects of rare, highly penetrant, deleterious mutations. They also indicate that incomplete penetrance for Mendelian diseases is likely more common than previously believed. The identification of resilient individuals may provide a first step toward uncovering protective genetic variants that could help elucidate the mechanisms of Mendelian diseases and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Br J Cancer ; 114(2): 221-9, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use has been consistently associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in women. Our aim was to use a genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis to identify genetic modifiers of CRC risk associated with use of MHT. METHODS: We included 10 835 postmenopausal women (5419 cases and 5416 controls) from 10 studies. We evaluated use of any MHT, oestrogen-only (E-only) and combined oestrogen-progestogen (E+P) hormone preparations. To test for multiplicative interactions, we applied the empirical Bayes (EB) test as well as the Wald test in conventional case-control logistic regression as primary tests. The Cocktail test was used as secondary test. RESULTS: The EB test identified a significant interaction between rs964293 at 20q13.2/CYP24A1 and E+P (interaction OR (95% CIs)=0.61 (0.52-0.72), P=4.8 × 10(-9)). The secondary analysis also identified this interaction (Cocktail test OR=0.64 (0.52-0.78), P=1.2 × 10(-5) (alpha threshold=3.1 × 10(-4)). The ORs for association between E+P and CRC risk by rs964293 genotype were as follows: C/C, 0.96 (0.61-1.50); A/C, 0.61 (0.39-0.95) and A/A, 0.40 (0.22-0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that rs964293 modifies the association between E+P and CRC risk. The variant is located near CYP24A1, which encodes an enzyme involved in vitamin D metabolism. This novel finding offers additional insight into downstream pathways of CRC etiopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
19.
Hum Genet ; 134(11-12): 1249-1262, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404086

RESUMO

Over 50 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying additional loci has the potential to help elucidate aspects of the underlying biological processes leading to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. We re-evaluated a GWAS by excluding controls that have family history of CRC or personal history of colorectal polyps, as we hypothesized that their inclusion reduces power to detect associations. This is supported empirically and through simulations. Two-phase GWAS analysis was performed in a total of 16,517 cases and 14,487 controls. We identified rs17094983, a SNP associated with risk of CRC [p = 2.5 × 10(-10); odds ratio estimated by re-including all controls (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.91; minor allele frequency (MAF) = 13%]. Results were replicated in samples of African descent (1894 cases and 4703 controls; p = 0.01; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.97; MAF = 16 %). Gene expression data in 195 colon adenocarcinomas and 59 normal colon tissues from two different studies revealed that this locus has genotypes that are associated with RTN1 (Reticulon 1) expression (p = 0.001), a protein-coding gene involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells which is highly expressed in normal colon tissues but has significantly reduced expression in tumor cells (p = 1.3 × 10(-8)).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
Genomics ; 106(6): 340-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26368860

RESUMO

Blood-based epigenome-wide association studies that aim at comparing CpG methylation between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and controls can lead to the discovery of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Numerous confounders can lead to spurious associations. We aimed to see if 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin chemotherapy administered to cases prior to the collection of their blood has an effect on methylation. 304 patients who received treatment and 273 who did not were profiled on the HumanMethylation450 array. Association tests were adjusted for confounders, including proxies for leukocyte cell counts. There were substantial methylation differences between these two groups that vanished once the leukocyte heterogeneity was accounted for. We observed a significant decrease of T cells in the treatment group (CD4+: p=10(-6); CD8+: p=0.036) and significant increase of NK cells (p=0.05) and monocytes (p=0.0006). 5-FU/leucovorin has no effect on global and local blood-based methylation profiles, other than through differences in the leukocyte compositions that the treatment induced.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar
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