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1.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424552

RESUMO

Tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to shiny black targets, prefer warmer hosts against colder ones and generally attack them in sunshine. Horizontally polarised light reflected from surfaces means water for water-seeking male and female tabanids. A shiny black target above the ground, reflecting light with high degrees and various directions of linear polarisation is recognised as a host animal by female tabanids seeking for blood. Since the body of host animals has differently oriented surface parts, the following question arises: How does the attractiveness of a tilted shiny black surface to male and female tabanids depend on the tilt angle δ? Another question relates to the reaction of horseflies to horizontal black test surfaces with respect to their surface temperature. Solar panels, for example, can induce horizontally polarised light and can reach temperatures above 55 °C. How long times would horseflies stay on such hot solar panels? The answer of these questions is important not only in tabanid control, but also in the reduction of polarised light pollution caused by solar panels. To study these questions, we performed field experiments in Hungary in the summer of 2019 with horseflies and black sticky and dry test surfaces. We found that the total number of trapped (male and female) tabanids is highest if the surface is horizontal (δ = 0°), and it is minimal at δ = 75°. The number of trapped males decreases monotonously to zero with increasing δ, while the female catch has a primary maximum and minimum at δ = 0° and δ = 75°, respectively, and a further secondary peak at δ = 90°. Both sexes are strongly attracted to nearly horizontal (0° ≤ δ ≤ 15°) surfaces, and the vertical surface is also very attractive but only for females. The numbers of touchdowns and landings of tabanids are practically independent of the surface temperature T. The time period of tabanids spent on the shiny black horizontal surface decreases with increasing T so that above 58 °C tabanids spent no longer than 1 s on the surface. The horizontally polarised light reflected from solar panels attracts aquatic insects. This attraction is adverse, if the lured insects lay their eggs onto the black surface and/or cannot escape from the polarised signal and perish due to dehydration. Using polarotactic horseflies as indicator insects in our field experiment, we determined the magnitude of polarised light pollution (being proportional to the visual attractiveness to tabanids) of smooth black oblique surfaces as functions of δ and T.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267668

RESUMO

High-performance Ag-Se-based n-type printed thermoelectric (TE) materials suitable for room-temperature applications have been developed through a new and facile synthesis approach. A high magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient up to 220 µV K-1 and a TE power factor larger than 500 µW m-1 K-2 for an n-type printed film are achieved. A high figure-of-merit ZT ∼0.6 for a printed material has been found in the film with a low in-plane thermal conductivity κF of ∼0.30 W m-1 K-1. Using this material for n-type legs, a flexible folded TE generator (flexTEG) of 13 thermocouples has been fabricated. The open-circuit voltage of the flexTEG for temperature differences of ΔT = 30 and 110 K is found to be 71.1 and 181.4 mV, respectively. Consequently, very high maximum output power densities pmax of 6.6 and 321 µW cm-2 are estimated for the temperature difference of ΔT = 30 K and ΔT = 110 K, respectively. The flexTEG has been demonstrated by wearing it on the lower wrist, which resulted in an output voltage of ∼72.2 mV for ΔT ≈ 30 K. Our results pave the way for widespread use in wearable devices.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182029

RESUMO

Flexible direct conversion X-ray detectors enable a variety of novel applications in medicine, industry, and science. Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors containing elements of high atomic number combine an efficient X-ray absorption with excellent charge transport properties. Due to their additional cost-effective and low-temperature processability, perovskite semiconductors represent promising candidates to be used as active materials in flexible X-ray detectors. Inspired by the promising results recently reported on X-ray detectors that are based on either triple cation perovskites or inkjet-printed perovskite quantum dots, we here investigate flexible inkjet-printed triple cation perovskite X-ray detectors. The performance of the detectors is evaluated by the X-ray sensitivity, the dark current, and the X-ray stability. Exposed to 70 kVp X-ray radiation, reproducible and highly competitive X-ray sensitivities of up to 59.9 µC/(Gyaircm2) at low operating voltages of 0.1 V are achieved. Furthermore, a significant dark current reduction is demonstrated in our detectors by replacing spin-coated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with sputtered NiOx hole transport layers. Finally, stable operation of a flexible X-ray detector for a cumulative X-ray exposure of 4 Gyair is presented, and the applicability of our devices as X-ray imaging detectors is shown. The results of this study represent a proof of concept toward flexible direct conversion X-ray detectors realized by cost-effective and high-throughput digital inkjet printing.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e1908258, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068919

RESUMO

Future lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics will employ visible-light-communication schemes to interact within indoor environments. Organic photodiodes are particularly well suited for such technologies as they enable chemically tailored optoelectronic performance and fabrication by printing techniques on thin and flexible substrates. However, previous methods have failed to address versatile functionality regarding wavelength selectivity without increasing fabrication complexity. This work introduces a general solution for printing wavelength-selective bulk-heterojunction photodetectors through engineering of the ink formulation. Nonfullerene acceptors are incorporated in a transparent polymer donor matrix to narrow and tune the response in the visible range without optical filters or light-management techniques. This approach effectively decouples the optical response from the viscoelastic ink properties, simplifying process development. A thorough morphological and spectroscopic investigation finds excellent charge-carrier dynamics enabling state-of-the-art responsivities >102 mA W-1 and cutoff frequencies >1.5 MHz. Finally, the color selectivity and high performance are demonstrated in a filterless visible-light-communication system capable of demultiplexing intermixed optical signals.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000490

RESUMO

Achieving efficient devices while maintaining a high fabrication yield is a key challenge in the fabrication of solution-processed, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). In this respect, pinholes in the solution-processed perovskite layers are a major obstacle. These are usually mitigated using organic electron-conducting planarization layers. However, these organic interlayers are unstable under applied bias in air and suffer from limited charge carrier mobility. In this work, we present a high brightness p-i-n PeLED based on a novel blade-coated silver microflake (SMF) rear electrode, which allows for a low-cost nanocrystalline ZnO inorganic electron-transporting layer to be used. This novel SMF contact is crucial for achieving high performance as it prevents the electrical shorting suffered when standard thermally evaporated silver rear contacts are used. The fabricated PeLEDs exhibit an excellent maximum luminance of 98,000 cd/m2, a maximum current efficiency of 22.3 cd/A, and a high external quantum efficiency of 4.6% under 5.9 V forward bias. The SMF rear contact can be printed and scaled at low cost to large areas and applied to flexible devices.

6.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920075

RESUMO

Single-walled carbon nanotubes as emerging quantum-light sources may fill a technological gap in silicon photonics due to their potential use as near-infrared, electrically driven, classical or nonclassical emitters. Unlike in photoluminescence, where nanotubes are excited with light, electrical excitation of single tubes is challenging and heavily influenced by device fabrication, architecture, and biasing conditions. Here we present electroluminescence spectroscopy data of ultra-short-channel devices made from (9,8) carbon nanotubes emitting in the telecom band. Emissions are stable under current biasing, and no enhanced suppression is observed down to 10 nm gap size. Low-temperature electroluminescence spectroscopy data also reported exhibit cold emission and line widths down to 2 meV at 4 K. Electroluminescence excitation maps give evidence that carrier recombination is the mechanism for light generation in short channels. Excitonic and trionic emissions can be switched on and off by gate voltage, and corresponding emission efficiency maps were compiled. Insights are gained into the influence of acoustic phonons on the line width, absence of intensity saturation and exciton-exciton annihilation, environmental effects such as dielectric screening and strain on the emission wavelength, and conditions to suppress hysteresis and establish optimum operation conditions.

7.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636928

RESUMO

The introduction of two-photon polymerization (TPP) into the area of Carbon Micro Electromechanical Systems (C-MEMS) has enabled the fabrication of three-dimensional glassy carbon nanostructures with geometries previously unattainable through conventional UV lithography. Pyrolysis of TPP structures conveys a characteristic reduction of feature size-one that should be properly estimated in order to produce carbon microdevices with accuracy. In this work, we studied the volumetric shrinkage of TPP-derived microwires upon pyrolysis at 900 °C. Through this process, photoresist microwires thermally decompose and shrink by as much as 75%, resulting in glassy carbon nanowires with linewidths between 300 and 550 nm. Even after the thermal decomposition induced by the pyrolysis step, the linewidth of the carbon nanowires was found to be dependent on the TPP exposure parameters. We have also found that the thermal stress induced during the pyrolysis step not only results in axial elongation of the nanowires, but also in buckling in the case of slender carbon nanowires (for aspect ratios greater than 30). Furthermore, we show that the calculated residual mass fraction that remains after pyrolysis depends on the characteristic dimensions of the photoresist microwires, a trend that is consistent with several works found in the literature. This phenomenon is explained through a semi-empirical model that estimates the feature size of the carbon structures, serving as a simple guideline for shrinkage evaluation in other designs.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(8): A507-A523, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052923

RESUMO

Energy yield (EY) modelling is an indispensable tool to minimize payback time of emerging perovskite-based multi-junction photovoltaics (PV) but it relies on many assumptions about device architecture and environmental conditions. Here, we propose a comprehensive framework that enables rapid simulation of complex architectures of perovskite-based multi-junction PV and detailed calculation of their power output under realistic irradiation conditions in various climatic zones. Applying the framework to perovskite/silicon multi-junction solar modules, we showcase the impact of tracking on energy losses arising from spectral variations. Moreover, we demonstrate the strong dependency of the EY of bifacial multi-junction solar modules on the albedo.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(26): e1806702, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932255

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite semiconductors provide opportunities and challenges for the fabrication of low-cost thin-film photovoltaic devices. The opportunities are clear: the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of small-area perovskite photovoltaics has surpassed many established thin-film technologies. However, the large-scale solution-based deposition of perovskite layers introduces challenges. To form perovskite layers, precursor solutions are coated or printed and these must then be crystallized into the perovskite structure. The nucleation and crystal growth must be controlled during film formation and subsequent treatments in order to obtain high-quality, pin-hole-free films over large areas. A great deal of understanding regarding material engineering during the perovskite film formation process has been gained through spin-coating studies. Based on this, significant progress has been made on transferring material engineering strategies to processes capable of scale-up, such as blade coating, spray coating, inkjet printing, screen printing, relief printing, and gravure printing. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies that led to devices deposited by these scalable techniques with PCEs as high as 21%. Finally, the opportunities to fully close the shrinking gap to record spin-coated solar cells and to scale these efficiencies to large areas are highlighted.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 988, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816111

RESUMO

Sustained stimulated emission under continuous-wave (CW) excitation is a prerequisite for new semiconductor materials being developed for laser gain media. Although hybrid organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites have attracted much attention as optical gain media, the demonstration of room-temperature CW lasing has still not been realized. Here, we present a critical step towards this goal by demonstrating CW amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a phase-stable perovskite at temperatures up to 120 K. The phase-stable perovskite maintains its room-temperature phase while undergoing cryogenic cooling and can potentially support CW lasing also at higher temperatures. We find the threshold level for CW ASE to be 387 W cm-2 at 80 K. These results indicate that easily-fabricated single-phase perovskite thin films can sustain CW stimulated emission, potential at higher temperatures as well, by further optimization of the material quality in order to extend the carrier lifetimes.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5231, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914697

RESUMO

A variety of medical, industrial, and scientific applications requires highly sensitive and cost-effective x-ray detectors for photon energies ranging from keV to MeV. Adapting the thickness of polycrystalline or single crystal conversion layers especially to high-energy applications increases the complexity of fabrication and potentially decreases the performance of conventional direct conversion x-ray detectors. To tackle the challenges with respect to the active layer thickness and to combine the superior performance of single crystal materials with the low-cost nature of polycrystalline conversion layers, we investigate thin film x-ray detector technologies based on a folded device architecture. Analytical models simulating the sensitivity and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are used to evaluate the performance of folded detectors based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors in various layout configurations and for different photon energies. Simulations of folded perovskite devices show high sensitivities. The DQE analysis introduces additional noise related boundary conditions for the folding length. A comparison with conventional detectors based on state of the art conversion materials at different photon energies demonstrates the potential of the folded detector layout as simulated sensitivities are comparable to single crystal detectors.

12.
Opt Express ; 27(4): A25-A38, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876002

RESUMO

We develop a facile, fast, and cost-effective method based on the electrowetting effect to fabricate concave microlens arrays (MLA) with a tunable height-to-radius ratio, namely aspect ratio (AR). The electric parameters including voltage and frequency are demonstrated to play an important role in the MLA forming process. With the optimized frequency of 5 Hz, the AR of MLA are tuned from 0.057 to 0.693 for an increasing voltage from 0 V to 180 V. The optical properties of the MLA, including their transmittance and light diffusion capability, are investigated by spectroscopic measurements and ray-tracing simulations. We show that the overall transmittance can be maintained above around 90% over the whole visible range, and that an AR exceeding 0.366 is required to sufficiently broaden the transmitted light angular distribution. These properties enable to apply the developed MLA films to correlated-color-temperature (CCT)-tunable light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) to enhance their angular color uniformity (ACU). Our results show that the ACU of CCT-tunable LEDs is significantly improved while preserving almost the same lumen output, and that the MLA with the highest AR exhibits the best ACU performance.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17483, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504924

RESUMO

The concept of sequence-definition in the sense of polymer chemistry is introduced to conjugated, rod-like oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s via an iterative synthesis procedure. Specifically, monodisperse sequence-defined trimers and pentamers were prepared via iterative Sonogashira cross-coupling and deprotection. The reaction procedure was extended to tetra- and pentamers for the first time yielding a monodisperse pentamer with 18% and a sequence-defined pentamer with 3.2% overall yield. Furthermore, three novel trimers with a 9H-fluorene building block at predefined positions within the phenylene ethynylene chain were synthesised in 23-52% overall yields. Hence, it was confirmed that a functionality of interest can be incorporated selectively at a pre-defined position of these monodisperse oligomers. All respective intermediate structures were fully characterised by proton and carbon NMR, mass spectrometry, size-exclusion chromatography, and IR spectroscopy. Additionally, thermal and optical transitions are reported for the different oligomers.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(49): 42733-42739, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430828

RESUMO

Digitally printed organic photodiodes (OPDs) are of great interest for the cost-efficient additive manufacturing of single and multidevice detection systems with full freedom of design. Recently reported high-performance non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) can address the crucial demands of future applications in terms of high operational speed, tunable spectral response, and device stability. Here, we present the first demonstration of inkjet and aerosol-jet printed OPDs based on the high-performance NFA, IDTBR, in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene), exhibiting a spectral response up to the near-infrared (NIR) region. These digitally printed devices reach record responsivities up to 300 mA/W in the visible and NIR spectrum, competing with current commercially available technologies based on Si. Furthermore, their fast dynamic response with cutoff frequencies surpassing 2 MHz outperforms most of the state-of-the-art OPDs. The successful process translation from spin-coating to printing is highlighted by the marginal loss in performance compared to the reference devices, which reach responsivities of 400 mA/W and detection speeds of more than 4 MHz. The achieved high device performance and the industrial relevance of the developed fabrication process provide NFAs with an enormous potential for the development of printed photodetection systems.

16.
Langmuir ; 34(21): 5964-5970, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718677

RESUMO

Digital printing enables solution processing of functional materials and opens a new route to fabricate low-cost electronic devices. One crucial parameter that affects the wettability of inks for all printing techniques is the surface free energy (SFE) of the substrate. Siloxanes, with their huge variety of side chains and their ability to form self-assembled monolayers, offer exhaustive control of the substrate SFE from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Thus, siloxane treatment is a suitable approach to adjust the substrate conditions to the desired ink, instead of optimizing the ink to an arbitrary substrate. In this work, the influence of different fluorinated and nonfluorinated siloxanes on the SFE of different substrates, such as polymers, glasses, and metals, are examined. By mixing several siloxanes, we demonstrate the fine tuning of the surface energy. The polar and dispersive components of the SFE are determined by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble (OWRK) method. Furthermore, the impact of the siloxanes and therefore the SFE on the pinning of droplets and wet films are assessed via dynamic contact angle measurements. SFE-optimized substrates enable tailoring the resolution of inkjet printed silver structures. A nanoparticulate silver ink was used for printing single drops, lines, and source-drain electrodes for transistors. These were examined in terms of diameter, edge quality, and functionality. We show that by adjusting the SFE of an arbitrary substrate, the printed resolution is substantially increased by minimizing the printed drop size by up to 70%.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7833, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777156

RESUMO

A method for the realization of low-loss integrated optical components is proposed and demonstrated. This approach is simple, fast, inexpensive, scalable for mass production, and compatible with both 2D and 3D geometries. The process is based on a novel dual-step soft nano imprint lithography process for producing devices with smooth surfaces, combined with fast sol-gel technology providing highly transparent materials. As a concrete example, this approach is demonstrated on a micro ring resonator made by direct laser writing (DLW) to achieve a quality factor improvement from one hundred thousand to more than 3 million. To the best of our knowledge this also sets a Q-factor record for UV-curable integrated micro-ring resonators. The process supports the integration of many types of materials such as light-emitting, electro-optic, piezo-electric, and can be readily applied to a wide variety of devices such as waveguides, lenses, diffractive elements and more.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(19): 16390-16399, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687715

RESUMO

This paper reports on the impact of outdoor temperature variations on the performance of organo metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It shows that the open-circuit voltage ( VOC) of a PSC decreases linearly with increasing temperature. Interestingly, in contrast to these expected trends, the current density ( JSC) of PSCs is found to decline strongly below 20% of the initial value upon cycling the temperatures from 10 to 60 °C and back. This decline in the current density is driven by an increasing series resistance and is caused by the fast temperature variations as it is not apparent for solar cells exposed to constant temperatures of the same range. The effect is fully reversible when the devices are kept illuminated at an open circuit for several hours. Given these observations, an explanation that ascribes the temperature variation-induced performance decline to ion accumulation at the contacts of the solar cell because of temperature variation-induced changes of the built-in field of the PSC is proposed. The effect might be a major obstacle for perovskite photovoltaics because the devices exposed to real outdoor temperature profiles over 4 h showed a performance decline of >15% when operated at a maximum power point.

19.
Nanoscale ; 10(14): 6651-6659, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582026

RESUMO

In this work, we have improved the absorption properties of thin film solar cells by introducing light trapping reflectors deposited onto self-assembled nanostructures. The latter consist of a disordered array of nanopillars and are fabricated by polymer blend lithography. Their broadband light scattering properties are exploited to enhance the photocurrent density of thin film devices, here based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon active layers. We demonstrate that these light scattering nanopillars yield a short-circuit current density increase of +33%rel with respect to equivalent solar cells processed on a planar reflector. Moreover, we experimentally show that they outperform randomly textured substrates that are commonly used for achieving efficient light trapping. Complementary optical simulations are conducted on an accurate 3D model to analyze the superior light harvesting properties of the nanopillar array and to derive general design rules. Our approach allows one to easily tune the morphology of the self-assembled nanostructures, is up-scalable and operated at room temperature, and is applicable to other photovoltaic technologies.

20.
Opt Lett ; 43(3): 527-530, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400832

RESUMO

We discuss invisibility cloaking of metal grid electrodes on Lambertian light emitters by using dielectric free-form surfaces. We show that cloaking can be ideal in geometrical optics for all viewing directions if reflections at the dielectric-air interface are negligible. We also present corresponding white-light proof-of-principle experiments that demonstrate close-to-ideal cloaking for a wide range of viewing angles. Remaining imperfections are analyzed by ray-tracing calculations. The concept can potentially be used to enhance the luminance homogeneity of large-area organic light-emitting diodes.

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