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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms explaining multimorbidity between asthma, dermatitis and rhinitis (allergic multimorbidity) are not well known. We investigated these mechanisms and their specificity in distinct cell types by means of an interactome-based analysis of expression data. METHODS: Genes associated to the diseases were identified using data mining approaches, and their multimorbidity mechanisms in distinct cell types were characterized by means of an in silico analysis of the topology of the human interactome. RESULTS: We characterized specific pathomechanisms for multimorbidities between asthma, dermatitis and rhinitis for distinct emergent non-eosinophilic cell types. We observed differential roles for cytokine signaling, TLR-mediated signaling and metabolic pathways for multimorbidities across distinct cell types. Furthermore, we also identified individual genes potentially associated to multimorbidity mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the existence of differentiated multimorbidity mechanisms between asthma, dermatitis and rhinitis at cell type level, as well as mechanisms common to distinct cell types. These results will help understanding the biology underlying allergic multimorbidity, assisting in the design of new clinical studies.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352134

RESUMO

Reports of variable cancer penetrance in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) have raised questions regarding the prevalence of pathogenic germline TP53 variants. We previously reported higher-than-expected population prevalence estimates in sequencing databases composed of individuals unselected for cancer history. This study aimed to expand and further evaluate the prevalence of pathogenic and likely pathogenic germline TP53 variants in the gnomAD dataset (version r2.0.2, n = 138,632). Variants were selected and classified based on our previously published algorithm and compared with alternative estimates based on three different classification databases: ClinVar, HGMD, and the UMD_TP53 database. Conservative prevalence estimates of pathogenic and likely pathogenic TP53 variants were within the range of one carrier in 3,555-5,476 individuals. Less stringent classification increased the approximate prevalence to one carrier in every 400-865 individuals, mainly due to the inclusion of the controvertible p.N235S, p.V31I, and p.R290H variants. This study shows a higher-than-expected population prevalence of pathogenic and likely pathogenic germline TP53 variants even with the most conservative estimates. However, these estimates may not necessarily reflect the prevalence of the classical LFS phenotype, which is based upon family history of cancer. Comprehensive approaches are needed to better understand the interplay of germline TP53 variant classification, prevalence estimates, cancer penetrance, and LFS-associated phenotype.

5.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 4: 21, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872544

RESUMO

The development of computational approaches in systems biology has reached a state of maturity that allows their transition to systems medicine. Despite this progress, intuitive visualisation and context-dependent knowledge representation still present a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe the Disease Maps Project, an effort towards a community-driven computationally readable comprehensive representation of disease mechanisms. We outline the key principles and the framework required for the success of this initiative, including use of best practices, standards and protocols. We apply a modular approach to ensure efficient sharing and reuse of resources for projects dedicated to specific diseases. Community-wide use of disease maps will accelerate the conduct of biomedical research and lead to new disease ontologies defined from mechanism-based disease endotypes rather than phenotypes.

6.
BMC Syst Biol ; 12(1): 60, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multilevel data integration is becoming a major area of research in systems biology. Within this area, multi-'omics datasets on complex diseases are becoming more readily available and there is a need to set standards and good practices for integrated analysis of biological, clinical and environmental data. We present a framework to plan and generate single and multi-'omics signatures of disease states. METHODS: The framework is divided into four major steps: dataset subsetting, feature filtering, 'omics-based clustering and biomarker identification. RESULTS: We illustrate the usefulness of this framework by identifying potential patient clusters based on integrated multi-'omics signatures in a publicly available ovarian cystadenocarcinoma dataset. The analysis generated a higher number of stable and clinically relevant clusters than previously reported, and enabled the generation of predictive models of patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This framework will help health researchers plan and perform multi-'omics big data analyses to generate hypotheses and make sense of their rich, diverse and ever growing datasets, to enable implementation of translational P4 medicine.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
8.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 30(1): 30-37, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076964

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite better knowledge of its genetic basis, pancreatic cancer is still highly lethal with very few therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of epigenetic therapies, focusing on lysine methylation signaling and its implication in pancreatic cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Protein lysine methylation, a key mechanism of posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, has emerged as a major cell signaling mechanism regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including cancer. This finely tuned and dynamic signaling mechanism is regulated by lysine methyltransferases (KMT), lysine demethylases (KDM) and signal transducers harboring methyl-binding domains. Recent evidence demonstrates that overexpression of cytoplasmic KMT and resulting enhanced lysine methylation is a reversible event that enhances oncogenic signaling through the Ras and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases pathway in pancreatic cancer, opening perspectives for new anticancer chemotherapeutics aimed at controlling these activities. SUMMARY: The development of potent and specific inhibitors of lysine methylation signaling may represent a hitherto largely unexplored avenue for new forms of targeted therapy in cancer, with great potential for yet hard-to-treat cancers such as pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metilação , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1723-1730, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861920

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer predisposition disorder associated with pathogenic germline variants in TP53, with a high penetrance over an individual's lifetime. The actual population prevalence of pathogenic germline TP53 mutations is still unclear, most likely due to biased selection of cancer affected families. The aim of this study was to estimate the population prevalence of potentially pathogenic TP53 exonic variants in three sequencing databases, totaling 63,983 unrelated individuals. Potential pathogenicity was defined using an original algorithm combining bioinformatic prediction tools, suggested clinical significance, and functional data. We identified 34 different potentially pathogenic TP53 variants in 131 out of 63,983 individuals (0.2%). Twenty-eight (82%) of these variants fell within the DNA-binding domain of TP53, with an enrichment for specific variants that were not previously identified as LFS mutation hotspots, such as the p.R290H and p.N235S variants. Our findings reveal that the population prevalence of potentially pathogenic TP53 variants may be up to 10 times higher than previously estimated from family-based studies. These results point to the need for further studies aimed at evaluating cancer penetrance modifiers as well as the risk associated between cancer and rare TP53 variants.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Variação Genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(6): 067007, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to adverse health effects in children; however, underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during different time periods on mRNA expression as well as circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in children. METHODS: We measured a panel of 10 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 670 8-y-old children in the Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) birth cohort. Outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare, and school addresses using dispersion modeling. Time-weighted average exposures during infancy and at biosampling were linked to serum cytokine levels using linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gene expression data from 16-year-olds in BAMSE (n=238) were used to evaluate links between air pollution exposure and expression of genes coding for the studied inflammatory markers. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 exposure during infancy was associated with a 13.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8; 28.1%) increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as with a 27.8% (95% CI: 4.6, 56.2%) increase in IL-10 levels, the latter limited to children with asthma. However, no clear associations were observed for current exposure. Results were similar using PM10, which showed a high correlation with NO2. The functional analysis identified several differentially expressed genes in response to air pollution exposure during infancy, including IL10, IL13, and TNF;. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate alterations in systemic inflammatory markers in 8-y-old children in relation to early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP460.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Citocinas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179125, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms explaining the co-existence of asthma, eczema and rhinitis (allergic multimorbidity) are largely unknown. We investigated the mechanisms underlying multimorbidity between three main allergic diseases at a molecular level by identifying the proteins and cellular processes that are common to them. METHODS: An in silico study based on computational analysis of the topology of the protein interaction network was performed in order to characterize the molecular mechanisms of multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. As a first step, proteins associated to either disease were identified using data mining approaches, and their overlap was calculated. Secondly, a functional interaction network was built, allowing to identify cellular pathways involved in allergic multimorbidity. Finally, a network-based algorithm generated a ranked list of newly predicted multimorbidity-associated proteins. RESULTS: Asthma, eczema and rhinitis shared a larger number of associated proteins than expected by chance, and their associated proteins exhibited a significant degree of interconnectedness in the interaction network. There were 15 pathways involved in the multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis, including IL4 signaling and GATA3-related pathways. A number of proteins potentially associated to these multimorbidity processes were also obtained. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly support the existence of an allergic multimorbidity cluster between asthma, eczema and rhinitis, and suggest that type 2 signaling pathways represent a relevant multimorbidity mechanism of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we identified new candidates contributing to multimorbidity that may assist in identifying new targets for multimorbid allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Comorbidade , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Rinite/etiologia , Rinite/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(10): 1373-1383, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901618

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent and may depend on genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. METHODS: We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctors' diagnoses of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n = 1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS (Children's Health Study) and CAPPS/SAGE (Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study/Study of Asthma, Genetics and Environment) (n = 1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively). We assessed expression quantitative trait locus effects in human lung specimens and blood, as well as associations among air pollution exposure, methylation, and transcriptomic patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the European cohorts, 186 SNPs had an interaction P < 1 × 10-4 and a look-up evaluation of these disclosed 8 SNPs in 4 loci, with an interaction P < 0.05 in the large CHS study, but not in CAPPS/SAGE. Three SNPs within adenylate cyclase 2 (ADCY2) showed the same direction of the interaction effect and were found to influence ADCY2 gene expression in peripheral blood (P = 4.50 × 10-4). One other SNP with P < 0.05 for interaction in CHS, rs686237, strongly influenced UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5 (B4GALT5) expression in lung tissue (P = 1.18 × 10-17). Air pollution exposure was associated with differential discs, large homolog 2 (DLG2) methylation and expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that gene-environment interactions are important for asthma development and provided supportive evidence for interaction with air pollution for ADCY2, B4GALT5, and DLG2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos , Asma/genética , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(1): 104-110, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker, and epigenome-wide cord blood DNA methylation. METHODS: We meta-analyzed the associations between NO2 exposure at residential addresses during pregnancy and cord blood DNA methylation (Illumina 450K) in four European and North American studies (n = 1,508) with subsequent look-up analyses in children ages 4 (n = 733) and 8 (n = 786) years. Additionally, we applied a literature-based candidate approach for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. To assess influence of exposure at the transcriptomics level, we related mRNA expression in blood cells to NO2 exposure in 4- (n = 111) and 16-year-olds (n = 239). RESULTS: We found epigenome-wide significant associations [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05] between maternal NO2 exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in newborns for 3 CpG sites in mitochondria-related genes: cg12283362 (LONP1), cg24172570 (3.8 kbp upstream of HIBADH), and cg08973675 (SLC25A28). The associations with cg08973675 methylation were also significant in the older children. Further analysis of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes revealed differentially methylated CpGs in CAT and TPO in newborns (FDR p < 0.05). NO2 exposure at the time of biosampling in childhood had a significant impact on CAT and TPO expression. CONCLUSIONS: NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with differential offspring DNA methylation in mitochondria-related genes. Exposure to NO2 was also linked to differential methylation as well as expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense pathways. Citation: Gruzieva O, Xu CJ, Breton CV, Annesi-Maesano I, Antó JM, Auffray C, Ballereau S, Bellander T, Bousquet J, Bustamante M, Charles MA, de Kluizenaar Y, den Dekker HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104-110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Gravidez
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