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PeerJ ; 7: e8031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799071


Background: The Mosq-ovitrap (MOT) is currently used for routine surveillance of container-breeding Aedes in China. However, the effectiveness of monitoring Aedes albopictus using the MOT and other mosquito monitoring methods, such as the Ovitrap (OT) and the CO2-light trap (CLT), have not been extensively compared. Moreover, little is known about the spatial-temporal correlations of eggs with adult Ae. albopictus abundance among these three types of traps. Methods: Comparative field evaluation of MOT, OT and CLT for Ae. albopictus monitoring was conducted simultaneously at two city parks and three residential neighborhoods in downtown Shanghai for 8 months from April 21 to December 21, 2017. Results: Significantly more Ae. albopictus eggs were collected from both MOTs and OTs when traps remained in the field for 10 d or 7 d compared with 3 d (MOT: 50.16, 34.15 vs. 12.38 per trap, P < 0.001; OT: 3.98, 2.92 vs. 0.63 per trap, P < 0.001). Egg collections of MOTs were significantly greater than OTs for all three exposure durations (Percent positive: X 2 = 72.251, 52.420 and 51.429, P value all < 0.001; egg collections: t = 8.068, 8.517 and 10.021, P value all <0.001). Significant temporal correlations were observed between yields of MOT and CLT in all sampling locations and 3 different MOT exposure durations (correlation coefficient r ranged from 0.439 to 0.850, P values all < 0.05). However, great variation was found in the spatial distributions of Ae. albopictus density between MOT and CLT. MOT considerably underestimated Ae. albopictus abundances in areas with high Ae. albopictus density (>25.56 per day ⋅ trap by CLT). Conclusion: The MOT was more efficient than the OT in percent positive scores and egg collections of Ae. albopictus. The minimum length of time that MOTs are deployed in the field should not be less than 7 d, as Ae. albopictus collections during this period were much greater than for 3 d of monitoring. MOT considerably underestimated Ae. albopictus abundance in areas with high Aedes albopictus density compared to CLT. In areas with moderate Aedes albopictus densities, MOT results were significantly correlated with CLT catches.

J Med Entomol ; 56(3): 656-664, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605531


Culex pipiens molestus Forskål is common in subterranean and aboveground environments in Shanghai, China. However, little is known about its autogeny, fecundity, and other life history traits. In this study, Cx. p. molestus larvae were collected from four different types of underground parking lots and artificially maintained, without blood feeding, in a laboratory. Life history traits parameters were recorded from the F0 to F9 generation. Culex pipiens molestus from Shanghai can autogenously persist for at least 10 generations, and some females can develop more than one egg batch without blood feeding (oviposition rate in Lot C was >100% in some generations). The average number of eggs per raft produced autogenously ranged from 36.94 to 42.19. The average generation time (GT) ranged from 20.06 to 21.30 d, and the pre-oviposition time (POT) ranged from 2.17 to 12.68 d among the generations. Culex pipiens molestus from the four groups had different autogeny, fecundity, and longevity patterns. This variability may result from genetic polymorphism caused by co-occurrence with other Culex pipiens subspecies (Diptera: Culicidae).

Culex/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , China , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Reprodução
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 483, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153868


BACKGROUND: Human landing catch (HLC) is the most efficient method for Aedes monitoring, but it is not ethical due to its high risk of human exposure to pathogens. We designed trials to assess the performance of an alternative human-baited double net trap (HDN) for field Aedes albopictus monitoring compared with the standard HLC. METHODS: Outdoor HDN and HLC catches were conducted simultaneously at 15 field sites on two sunny days in mid-July and August. The tests were performed 3 h apart: an early morning period (7:30-8:30 h), a pre-sunset period (16:30-17:30 h) and a post-sunset period (18:30-19:30 h). A total of 90 comparisons were made between the two methods. Field comparisons were designed to minimize half-hour bias and human-bait attraction bias. RESULTS: Two mosquito species were collected by HDN and HLC, with the predominated species being Ae. albopictus (HDN: n = 1325, 97.35% of total; HLC: n = 531, 92.51% of total). A small proportion were adults of the Culex pipiens complex (HDN: n = 36, 2.65% of total; HLC: n = 43, 7.49% of total). Although the mean Ae. albopictus catch per hour of HLC was significantly higher than HDN (14.72 vs 5.90 per h, t(178) = 3.151, P = 0.003), there were significant positive spatial and temporal correlations between HLC and HDN for Ae. albopictus sampling among different sites and hours (r(90) = 0.785, P < 0.001; r(90) = 0.785, P < 0.001). Both methods proved that Ae. albopictus was most active during the hours before sunset and least active after sunset. No significant variation was observed in Ae. albopictus catch size of HDN between groups of more attractive and less attractive humans (3.38 vs 2.51 per 30 min, t(88) = 1.283, P = 0.201). CONCLUSIONS: With moderate sampling efficiency, significantly positive spatial correlation with HLC, and less human-bait attraction bias, HDN appears to be a safer alternative to HLC for Ae. albopictus monitoring in Shanghai. With mosquito activity peaking in the pre-sunset hours, Ae. albopictus catches of HDN should be performed in the hours before dark. The trap design could be improved to make it more portable and easier for field operation.

Aedes/fisiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , China , Cidades , Culex/fisiologia , Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201607, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092041


BACKGROUND: The near-surface urban drainage system in Shanghai is highly complex, with hundreds of thousands of catch basins (CBs) and manhole chambers (MCs). Comparatively little is known about the breeding of mosquitoes in this vast system, especially for the locally predominant species Aedes albopictus. A cross-sectional mosquito sampling study was conducted from late July to early August of 2017 using 539 CBs and 309 MCs located in 10 communities of downtown Shanghai. We measured the water-holding status of the drainage systems and density of mosquito larvae. Mosquito species were examined on site and in the laboratory later. RESULTS: The CBs were characterized by a lower percentage of standing water compared to MCs (47.0% vs. 79.9%, respectively; X2 = 76.407, P<0.001), but CBs contained a higher percentage of stagnant water percent than MCs (45.2% vs. 35.3%, respectively; X2 = 11.465, P = 0.001). There were exclusively two species of mosquito larvae found in the drainage systems, Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens complex. Compared with MCs, the structures of CBs were more conducive to larval production and yielded more larvae-positive samples (43.4% vs 14.2%, X2 = 53.136, P<0.001) and higher larval density (8.23 vs. 4.09 per dipper, t = 3.287, P = 0.001). Aedes albopictus was the predominant species in CBs, with a constituent ratio of 71.7%. Regarding structures with different features in different locations, CBs that had a vertical grate with an unsealed lid and MCs with plastic composite covers were the most favorable types for mosquito breeding, and residential neighborhoods yielded the highest number of Ae. albopictus. CONCLUSION: Aedes albopictus was the predominant species in both CBs and stormwater MCs, especially in residential neighborhoods. CBs, particularly those with vertical grates, were a major source of mosquito production in downtown Shanghai. MCs featured more running water and fewer larvae by percentage, and few larvae were found in Sewage MCs. However, due to the tremendous baseline amount, MCs were still an important breeding source of mosquitoes. We suggest that Aedes control in Shanghai should focus on CBs or other potential larvae habitats in and around residential neighborhoods. The use of permeable materials and completely sealed covers should be adopted in the construction of CBs and MCs henceforth.

Aedes/fisiologia , Drenagem Sanitária , Controle de Mosquitos , Esgotos/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Estudos Transversais , Reforma Urbana
Acta Trop ; 163: 121-9, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515809


Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes.

Aedes , Cidades , Culex , Larva , Rios , Animais , China , Demografia , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Dinâmica Populacional , Poluição da Água , Qualidade da Água