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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-14, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608023

RESUMO

Apple is the largest fruit crop produced in temperate regions and is a popular fruit worldwide. It is, however, susceptible to a variety of postharvest fungal pathogens, including Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Monilia spp., and Alternaria spp. Decays resulting from fungal infections severely reduce apple quality and marketable yield. Biological control utilizing bacterial and fungal antagonists is an eco-friendly and effective method of managing postharvest decay in horticultural crops. In the current review, research on the pathogenesis of major decay fungi and isolation of antagonists used to manage postharvest decay in apple is presented. The mode of action of postharvest biocontrol agents (BCAs), including recent molecular and genomic studies, is also discussed. Recent research on the apple microbiome and its relationship to disease management is highlighted, and the use of additives and physical treatments to enhance biocontrol efficacy of BCAs is reviewed. Biological control is a critical component of an integrated management system for the sustainable approaches to apple production. Additional research will be required to explore the feasibility of developing beneficial microbial consortia and novel antimicrobial compounds derived from BCAs for postharvest disease management, as well as genetic approaches, such as the use of CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

2.
Am J Cancer Res ; 12(4): 1535-1555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530288

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistance remains a critical issue in cancer treatment that hinders the effective use of chemotherapeutic drugs. The active components of traditional Chinese medicine have been applied as adjuvants to accentuate the anticancer properties of conventional drugs such as cisplatin. However, their application requires further validation and optimization. This study explored the anticancer activity of ß-elemene, a natural component of traditional Chinese medical formulations. The effect of ß-elemene on the anticancer properties of cisplatin was evaluated in A549 and NCI-H1650 lung cancer cells. Cell apoptosis, stem-like properties, glucose metabolism, multi-drug resistance, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation were assessed via flow cytometry, tumorsphere formation, and western blotting. The target genes of ß-elemene were predicted using bioinformatics tools and validated in both cell lines. A xenograft model of lung cancer was established in nude mice to evaluate the combined effects of ß-elemene and cisplatin in vivo. We found that ß-elemene acted synergistically with cisplatin against non-small cell lung cancer cells by promoting apoptosis and impairing glucose metabolism, multi-drug resistance, and stemness maintenance. These effects were mediated by the inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that RB1 and TP53 are common target genes associated with lung cancer and ß-elemene. The anti-tumorigenic properties of ß-elemene were confirmed in vivo, wherein ß-elemene, along with cisplatin, significantly suppressed tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of non-small cell lung cancer. As such, ß-elemene acted as an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and enhanced the anticancer effect of cisplatin by targeting tumor metabolism, chemoresistance, and stem-like behavior. Thus, ß-elemene is an effective anticancer adjuvant agent with potential clinical applications.

3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 821685, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433778

RESUMO

Probiotics are known to contribute to the anti-oxidation, immunoregulation, and aging delay. Here, we investigated the extension of lifespan by fermented pickles-origin Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and found that PA promoted a significantly extended longevity of wild-type C. elegans. The further results revealed that PA regulated the longevity via promoting the insulin/IGF-1 signaling, JNK/MAPK signaling but not TOR signaling in C. elegans, and that PA reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and modulated expression of genes involved in fatty acids uptake and lipolysis, thus reducing the fat accumulation in C. elegans. Moreover, this study identified the nrfl-1 as the key regulator of the PA-mediated longevity, and the nrfl-1/daf-18 signaling might be activated. Further, we highlighted the roles of one chloride ion exchanger gene sulp-6 in the survival of C. elegans and other two chloride ion channel genes clh-1 and clh-4 in the prolonged lifespan by PA-feeding through the modulating expression of genes involved in inflammation. Therefore, these findings reveal the detailed and novel molecular mechanisms on the longevity of C. elegans promoted by PA.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426609

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetic hearts are more vulnerable to myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury, which involves decreased mitophagy status with unknown mechanisms. MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, has been shown to have protection against ischemia reperfusion injury through upregulating mitophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MitoQ on myocardium during MIR injury in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Herein, this study discovered that type 2 diabetic hearts with PINK1/Parkin downregulation suffered more MIR injury accompanied by reduced mitophagy. Treatment with MitoQ significantly decreased the levels of CK-MB, LDH, myocardial infarction, myocardial pathological damage, and cardiomyocytes apoptosis, while it improved cardiac function, mitophagy status, and PINK1/Parkin pathway in vivo study. Furthermore, MitoQ significantly reduced high glucose/high fat and hypoxia/reoxygenation induced injury in H9C2 cells as evidenced by reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and ROS production, and increased cell viability, the level of mitochondrial membrane potential, PINK1/Parkin expression. However, mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1), an inhibitor of mitophagy, reversed the improvement and protein expression levels of PINK1/Parkin pathway in vitro models. In conclusion, MIR induced more severe damage in T2D by reduction of mitophagy. MitoQ can confer cardioprotection following MIR in T2D by mitophagy up-regulation via PINK1/Parkin pathway.

5.
Int J Neural Syst ; : 2250017, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306966

RESUMO

Automatic epilepsy detection is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Most detection methods are based on patient-specific models and have achieved good results. However, in practice, new patients do not have their own previous EEG data and therefore cannot be initially diagnosed. If the EEG data of other patients can be used to achieve cross-patient detection, and cross-patient and patient-specific experiments can be combined at the same time, this method will be more widely used. In this work, an EEG classification model based on a self-organizing fuzzy logic (SOF) classifier is proposed for both cross-patient and patient-specific seizure detection. After preprocessing, the features of the original EEG signal are extracted and sent to the SOF classifier. This classification model is free from predefined parameters or a prior assumption regarding the EEG data generation model and only stores the key meta-parameters in memory. Therefore, it is very suitable for large-scale EEG signals in cross-patient detection. Selecting different granularity and classification distance in two different experiments after post-processing will achieve the best results. Experiments were conducted using a long-term continuous scalp EEG database and the [Formula: see text]-mean of cross-patient and patient-specific detection reached 83.35% and 92.04%, respectively. A comparison with other methods shows that there is greater performance and generalizability with this method.

6.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(4): 234-241, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ropivacaine hydrochloride is a commonly used local anesthetic in clinics. However, local injection or continuous infusion of ropivacaine has been associated with several disadvantages. Accordingly, it is important to develop a new controlled release system for local administration of ropivacaine to achieve a prolong anesthetic effect, improve efficacy, and minimize the side effects. METHODS: We developed injectable hydroxypropyl chitin thermo-sensitive hydrogel (HPCH) combined with hyaluronan (HA), which was used to synthesize a ropivacaine (R)-loaded controlled release system. We then conducted drug release test and cytotoxicity assay in vitro. Importantly, we examined the analgesic effects and biocompatibility of this system in vivo by injecting different concentrations of R-HPCH-HA (7.5, 15, 22.5 mg/mL), ropivacaine hydrochloride (RHCL, 7.5 mg/mL), or saline (all in 0.5 mL) near the sciatic nerve in rats. RESULTS: R-HPCH-HA induced concentration-dependent thermal-sensory blockade and motor blockade in vivo. In hot plate test, R-HPCH-HA (22.5 mg/mL) induced a significant longer thermal-sensory blockade (17.7±0.7 hours), as compared with RHCL (7.5 mg/mL, 5.7±0.8 hours, n=6/group, p<0.05). It also produced a more prolonged motor blockade (6.8±0.8 hours) than RHCL (3.5±0.8 hours, p<0.05). R-HPCH-HA caused less cytotoxicity than RHCL, as indicated by the higher cell viability in vitro (n=8/group). CONCLUSION: Our findings in a sciatic nerve block model demonstrated that the injectable, ropivacaine-loaded controlled release system effectively prolonged the local analgesic effect in rats without notable side effects.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Ácido Hialurônico , Amidas/toxicidade , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais , Animais , Quitina , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/toxicidade , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ropivacaina
7.
Nanotechnology ; 33(23)2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026750

RESUMO

Porous C3N4(PCN) is favored by researchers because it has more surface active sites, higher specific surface area and stronger light absorption ability than traditional g-C3N4. In this study, cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) with mixed valence state of Ce3+and Ce4+were doped into the PCN framework by a two-step method. The results indicate that CeO2-NPs are highly dispersed in the PCN framework, which leads to a narrower band gap, a wider range of the light response and an improved the separation efficiency of photogenerated charge in PCN. Moreover, the specific surface area (145.69 m2g-1) of CeO2-NPs doped PCN is a 25.5% enhancement than that of PCN (116.13 m2g-1). In the experiment of photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol, CeO2-NPs doped porous C3N4exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity, especially Ce-PCN-30. The conversion rate of benzyl alcohol reaches 74.9% using Ce-PCN-30 as photocatalyst by 8 h of illumination, which is 25.7% higher than that of pure porous C3N4. Additionally, CeO2-NPs doped porous C3N4also exhibits better photocatalytic efficiency for other aromatic alcohols.

8.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(1): 48-55, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is associated with doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury. It has been reported that microRNA-24-3p (miR-24-3p) may regulate the Keapl by mRNA degradation, whereas Keapl can suppress the activation of Nrf2. However, the role of miR-24-3p in DOX-related cardiotoxicity remains unclear. METHODS: The mice receiving DOX were used as cardiac injury model. In this study, an adenoassociated virus 9 system was used to deliver miR-24-3p or miR-scramble to mice hearts. The echocardiographic and hemodynamic analyses were used to evaluate the effects of miR-24-3p on cardiac function under DOX stimulation. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to detect protein or mRNA expressions associated with cardiac injury, inflammation response, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Western Blot were used for quantitative analysis of the roles of miR-24-3p in regulating Nrf2 expression. H9C2 cells used to verify the role of miR-24-3p in vitro. RESULTS: We found that miR-24-3p mRNA was significantly decreased in DOX-treated mice and cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-24-3p blocked cardiac injury caused by DOX injection, as reflected by the reduction in the levels of cardiac troponin I, creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB and the N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide. Furthermore, miR-24-3p reduced oxidative stress and cell loss without affecting the inflammation response. As expected, we found that Nrf2 was upregulated by miR-24-3p supplementation, and that the protective efforts of miR-24-3p supplementation were abolished when Nrf2 was silenced. CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that miR-24-3p protects cardiomyocytes against DOX-induced heart injury via activation of the Nrf2 pathway. miR-24-3p supplementation may be a novel strategy to counteract the cardiac side effects of DOX treatment.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismos Cardíacos/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/administração & dosagem
9.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of interlimb-coordinated training on gait and upper limb functional improvement remains unclear. The latest published randomized controlled trials have supported the potential benefits of interlimb-coordinated training to enhance gait function. Upper limb functional recovery may also benefit from interlimb-coordinated training since most everyday activities require the coordinated use of both hands to complete a task. This study investigates the efficacy of interlimb-coordinated training on gait and upper limb functional recovery over a short-medium term period. METHODS: A total of 226 acute stroke patients will be recruited from four centres over four years. Patients will be randomly allocated to either conventional therapy or conventional therapy plus interlimb-coordinated training. Outcomes will be recorded at baseline, after 2 weeks of intervention, and at 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Gait speed is the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures include Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Action Research Arm Test, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial will provide an in-depth understanding of the efficacy of early interlimb-coordinated intervention on gait and upper functional rehabilitation and how it may relate to the neural plasticity process.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19444, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593831

RESUMO

Beyond the physical structures that contain daily routines, urban city dwellers repeatedly encounter strangers that similarly shape their environments. Familiar strangers are neither formal acquaintances nor completely anonymous faces in daily urban life. Due to data limitations, there is a lack of research focused on uncovering the structure of the "Familiar Stranger" phenomenon at a large scale while simultaneously investigating the social relationships between such strangers. Using countrywide mobile phone records from Andorra, we empirically show the existence of such a phenomenon as well as details concerning these strangers' relative social relations. To understand the social and spatial components of familiar strangers more deeply, we study the temporal regularity and spatial structure of collective urban mobility to shed light on the mechanisms that guide these interactions. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between social distances and the number of encounters to show that more significant physical encounters correspond to a shorter social distance. Understanding these social and physical networks has essential implications for epidemics spreading, urban planning, and information diffusion.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27659, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and its incidence and fatality rate are increasing year by year. Due to the large population base in China, the aging population is severely affected by environmental pollution, eating habits, and unhealthy lifestyles. And many other influences have caused the number of new PLC cases and deaths in China to rank first in the world. Acupuncture combined with external application of Chinese medicine to treat PLC is currently one of the commonly used treatments in China. However, this combined treatment still lacks evidence-based medicine support. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with external application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of PLC. METHOD: We will search PubMed, Web of Science, GCBI, Embase, OVID, AMED, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, CBM, and Wanfang databases. As of September 15, 2021, there are no restrictions on search language, publication time, and publication status. We will use the following medical keywords to search, including: "acupuncture", "external application of traditional Chinese medicine", and "primary liver cancer". At the same time, we will manually search all reference lists from relevant systematic reviews to find other eligible studies. We will use the random effects model in REVMAN v5.3 for meta-analysis. The study for acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PLC was a randomized controlled study. Two researchers will independently review the research selection, data extraction, and research quality assessments. Finally, we will observe the outcome measures. RESULTS: This study will provide evidence-based guidance for the treatment of PLC with acupuncture and the external application of traditional Chinese medicine and offers new ideas and methods for the treatment of PLC.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Moxibustão/efeitos adversos , Moxibustão/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 267, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588431

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT-1) alleviated ferroptosis through nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4)-mediated ferritinophagy during diabetes myocardial (DM) ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (IRI). Rat DM + sham (DS), I/R, and DM + I/R (DIR), H9c2 cell high glucose (HG), hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R), and high-glucose hypoxia reoxygenation (HH/R) models were established. DNMT-1 inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) was administered to rat and cell models. The protein level of DNMT-1, NCOA4, FTH, GPX4, Beclin-1, and P62 was detected by western blotting. Compared with normal sham (NS) group, myocardial tissue was injured in DS and I/R models. The level of DNMT-1, NCOA4, and ferroptosis was increased. Moreover, the cell injury was more serious in rat DIR or HH/R model. 5-Aza-CdR could reduce NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy and myocardial injury in DIR and HH/R models. Moreover, the siRNA for NCOA4 could also reduce the level of ferritinophagy and cell injury in HH/R model. 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the protective effect for NCOA4-siRNA in the process of cell injury. Inhibition of DNMT-1 could reduce ferroptosis during DIR, which the NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy might be regulated.

13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7841-7855, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546405

RESUMO

Microbial bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated environments has drawn extensive concern. However, the molecular processes underlying the microbial Cr(VI) tolerance and reduction remain unclear. We isolated a Cr(VI)-reducing Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain 15-4 from soil on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. When grown in 1 mM and 2 mM Cr(VI)-containing medium, strain 15-4 could reduce 100% and 93.7% of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) after 36 h and 60 h of incubation, respectively. To know the molecular processes in response to Cr(VI), transcriptome sequencing was carried out using RNA-Seq technology. The results annotated a total of 3913 expressed genes in the strain. One thousand ninety-eight genes (28.1%) were significantly (fold change ≥ 2, false discovery rate ≤ 0.05) expressed in response to Cr(VI), of which 605 (55.1%) were upregulated and 493 (44.9%) were downregulated. The enrichment analysis showed that a total of 630 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched to 122 KEGG pathways, of which 8 pathways were significantly (p < 0.05) enriched in Cr(VI)-treated sample, including ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (97 DEGs), ribosome (40), sulfur metabolism (16), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis (19), porphyrin metabolism (20), quorum sensing (44), oxidative phosphorylation (17), and histidine metabolism (10), suggesting that these pathways play key roles to cope with Cr(VI) in the strain. The highly upregulated DEGs consisted of 29 oxidoreductase, 18 dehydrogenase, 14 cell redox homeostasis and stress response protein, and 10 DNA damage and repair protein genes. However, seven Na+:H+ antiporter complex-coding DEGs and most of transcriptional regulator-coding DEGs were significantly downregulated in the Cr-treated sample. Many of FMN/NAD(P)H-dependent reductase-encoding genes were greatly induced by Cr, suggesting the involvement of these genes in Cr(VI) reduction in strain 15-4. Sulfur and iron ions as well as the thiol-disulfide exchange reactions might play synergistic roles in Cr reduction.Key points• Lysinibacillus fusiformis 15-4 was able to tolerate and reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III).• Transcriptome analysis revealed that 1098 DEGs and 8 key KEGG pathways significantly responded to Cr(VI).• Sulfur metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and porphyrin metabolism were the key pathways associated with the survival of strain 15-4 in response to Cr(VI).


Assuntos
Bacillaceae , Cromo , Bacillaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oxirredução , Transcriptoma
14.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202445

RESUMO

A critical question relevant to the increasing importance of crowd-sourced-based finance is how to optimize collective information processing and decision-making. Here, we investigate an often under-studied aspect of the performance of online traders: beyond focusing on just accuracy, what gives rise to the trade-off between risk and accuracy at the collective level? Answers to this question will lead to designing and deploying more effective crowd-sourced financial platforms and to minimizing issues stemming from risk such as implied volatility. To investigate this trade-off, we conducted a large online Wisdom of the Crowd study where 2037 participants predicted the prices of real financial assets (S&P 500, WTI Oil and Gold prices). Using the data collected, we modeled the belief update process of participants using models inspired by Bayesian models of cognition. We show that subsets of predictions chosen based on their belief update strategies lie on a Pareto frontier between accuracy and risk, mediated by social learning. We also observe that social learning led to superior accuracy during one of our rounds that occurred during the high market uncertainty of the Brexit vote.

15.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145425

RESUMO

Primary cytoreductive surgery with platinum-taxane-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for ovarian cancer (OC) patients; however, resistance to chemotherapy is a contributing factor to OC mortality. Paclitaxel (PTX), the most widely used taxane, has become the first-line drug against OC. The molecular mechanism of PTX resistance is different from that of platinum-based agents and is still not completely elucidated. Our previous study showed that glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is involved in the resistance of OC cells to PTX. However, little is known regarding endogenous inhibitors of this gene. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression; therefore, we sought to identify miRNA(s) with potential to target GRP78 under the hypothesis that miRNA(s) could serve as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we show that miR-181c, predicted to target GRP78, was downregulated in PTX-resistant OC cells and tissues. MiR-181c downregulated GRP78 expression and induced apoptosis by directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Overexpression of miR-181c sensitized resistant OC to PTX by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings indicate that the delivery of miR-181c can efficiently suppress GRP78 expression and GRP78-mediated PTX resistance in OC and suggest that this strategy has therapeutic potential.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 52032-52045, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999324

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution has attracted global concern. In the present study, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the amelioration of 24-epibrassinolide (eBL) and abscisic acid (ABA) on Cd tolerance of roots, stems, and leaves in mung bean seedlings were comparatively analyzed. Foliar application of eBL markedly ameliorated the growth of mung bean seedling exposed to 100 µM Cd. eBL alone had no significant effects on the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and polyphenols in the three organs whereas significantly increased the root, stem, and leaf proline contents on average by 54.9%, 39.9%, and 94.4%, respectively, and leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content on average by 69.0% compared with the controls. When the plants were exposed to Cd, eBL significantly reversed the Cd-increased root ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, root polyphenol, proline, and GSH levels, leaf chlorophyll contents, and MDA levels in the three organs. eBL significantly restored the Cd-decreased leaf catalase (CAT) activity and leaf polyphenol levels. These results indicated that eBL played roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and evidently alleviated Cd-caused membrane lipid peroxidation via controlling the activity of antioxidative systems. eBL mediated the differential responses of cellular biochemical processes in the three organs to Cd exposure. Furthermore, a comparative analysis revealed that, under Cd stress, the effects of eBL on the biochemical processes were very similar to those of ABA, suggesting that ABA and eBL improve plant Cd tolerance via some common downstream pathways.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Vigna , Ácido Abscísico , Antioxidantes , Brassinosteroides , Catalase , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula , Esteroides Heterocíclicos , Superóxido Dismutase
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801332

RESUMO

Research on older adults' behaviors, living environments, and their quality of life (QoL) has grown rapidly. Viewing behaviors, although broadly acknowledged as critical for older adults' QoL, have not been systematically examined in situ. What affects the viewing behaviors of older adults in neighborhood open space (NOS) is still unclear. This study conducted unobtrusive continuous observations in NOS of two residential estates in Hong Kong. With spatio-temporal analyses with ArcGIS Pro and statistical analyses with SPSS, principal influential factors to viewing behaviors of older adults in NOS were identified, including distances for viewing, landscape attractiveness, body supporting elements, as well as moving and interactive behaviors. How these factors would affect older adults' well-being and QoL is discussed from the perspectives of supportive landscape design, sense of control, prospect and refuge, and social support, etc. Corresponding design implications are proposed to enrich existing NOS design knowledge for older adults' quality of life.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Apoio Social
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(30): 3676-3679, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725083

RESUMO

High-entropy crystalline materials are attracting more attention. In principle, high-entropy metal carbides (HMCs) that contain five or more metal ions, possess more negative free energy value during catalysis. But its preparation is challenging because of the immiscibility of multi metal cations in a single carbide solid solution. Here, a rational strategy for preparing HMC is proposed via a coordination-assisted crystallization process in the presence of Br-based poly(ionic liquids). Through this method, Mo0.2W0.2V0.2Cr0.2Nb0.2C nanoparticles, with a single cubic phase structure, incorporated on porous carbon, are obtained (HMC@NC). By combination of well dispersed small particle size (∼4 nm), high surface area (∼270 m2 g-1), and high-entropy phase, HMC@NC can function as a promising catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Unexpected activity (EB conv.: 73%) and thermal stability (>100 h on steam) at 450 °C are observed. Such a facile synthetic strategy may inspire the fabrication of other types of HMCs for more specific tasks.

20.
Nanotechnology ; 32(23)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621964

RESUMO

Polymeric carbon nitride (C3N4) is currently the most potential nonmetallic photocatalyst, but it suffers from low catalytic activity due to rapid electron-hole recombination behavior and low specific surface area. The morphology control of C3N4is one of the effective methods used to achieve higher photocatalytic performance. Here, bulk, lamellar and coralloid C3N4were synthesized using different chemical methods. The as-prepared coralloid C3N4has a higher specific surface area (123.7 m2 · g-1) than bulk (5.4 m2 · g-1) and lamellar C3N4(2.8 m2 · g-1), thus exhibiting a 3.15- and 2.59-fold higher photocatalytic efficiency for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol than bulk and lamellar C3N4, respectively. Optical characterizations of the photocatalysts suggest that coralloid C3N4can effectively capture electrons and accelerate carrier separation, which is caused by the presence of more nitrogen vacancies. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that superoxide radicals (·O2-) and holes (h+) play major roles in the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol using C3N4as a photocatalyst.

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