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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 622, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, are major public health concerns in Bangladesh where there have been unprecedented levels of transmission reported in recent years. The primary approach to control these diseases is to control the vector Aedes aegypti using pyrethroid insecticides. Although chemical control has long been practiced, no comprehensive analysis of Ae. aegypti susceptibility to insecticides has been conducted to date. The aim of this study was to determine the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti in Bangladesh and investigate the role of detoxification enzymes and altered target site sensitivity as resistance mechanisms. METHODS: Eggs of Aedes mosquitoes were collected using ovitraps from five districts across Bangladesh and in eight neighborhoods of the capital city Dhaka, from August to November 2017. CDC bottle bioassays were conducted for permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion, and bendiocarb using 3- to 5-day-old F0-F2 non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Biochemical assays were conducted to detect metabolic resistance mechanisms, and real-time PCR was performed to determine the frequencies of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations Gly1016, Cys1534, and Leu410. RESULTS: High levels of resistance to permethrin were detected in all Ae. aegypti populations, with mortality ranging from 0 to 14.8% at the diagnostic dose. Substantial resistance continued to be detected against higher (2×) doses of permethrin (5.1-44.4% mortality). Susceptibility to deltamethrin and malathion varied between populations while complete susceptibility to bendiocarb was observed in all populations. Significantly higher levels of esterase and oxidase activity were detected in most of the test populations as compared to the susceptible reference Rockefeller strain. A significant association was detected between permethrin resistance and the presence of Gly1016 and Cys1534 homozygotes. The frequency of kdr (knockdown resistance) alleles varied across the Dhaka Aedes populations. Leu410 was not detected in any of the tested populations. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of widespread pyrethroid resistance and multiple resistance mechanisms highlights the urgency for implementing alternate Ae. aegypti control strategies. In addition, implementing routine monitoring of insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti in Bangladesh will lead to a greater understanding of susceptibility trends over space and time, thereby enabling the development of improved control strategies.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0228695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022007

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, which are of great public health importance in Colombia. Aedes control strategies in Colombia rely heavily on the use of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, providing constant selection pressure and the emergence of resistant populations. In recent years, insecticide use has increased due to the increased incidence of dengue and recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika. In the present study, pyrethroid resistance was studied across six populations of Ae. aegypti from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Susceptibility to λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin was assessed, and resistance intensity was determined. Activity levels of enzymes associated with resistance were measured, and the frequencies of three kdr alleles (V1016I, F1534C, V410L) were calculated. Results showed variations in pyrethroid susceptibility across Ae. aegypti populations and altered enzyme activity levels were detected. The kdr alleles were detected in all populations, with high variations in frequencies: V1016I (frequency ranging from 0.15-0.70), F1534C (range 0.94-1.00), and V410L (range 0.05-0.72). In assays of phenotyped individuals, associations were observed between the presence of V1016I, F1534C, and V410L alleles and resistance to the evaluated pyrethroids, as well as between the VI1016/CC1534/VL410 tri-locus genotype and λ-cyhalothrin and permethrin resistance. The results of the present study contribute to the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the resistance to key pyrethroids used to control Ae. aegypti along the Caribbean coast of Colombia.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mutação , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colômbia , Frequência do Gene , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Fenótipo
3.
Trials ; 21(1): 839, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current urban vector control strategies have failed to contain dengue epidemics and to prevent the global expansion of Aedes-borne viruses (ABVs: dengue, chikungunya, Zika). Part of the challenge in sustaining effective ABV control emerges from the paucity of evidence regarding the epidemiological impact of any Aedes control method. A strategy for which there is limited epidemiological evidence is targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS). TIRS is a modification of classic malaria indoor residual spraying that accounts for Aedes aegypti resting behavior by applying residual insecticides on exposed lower sections of walls (< 1.5 m), under furniture, and on dark surfaces. METHODS/DESIGN: We are pursuing a two-arm, parallel, unblinded, cluster randomized controlled trial to quantify the overall efficacy of TIRS in reducing the burden of laboratory-confirmed ABV clinical disease (primary endpoint). The trial will be conducted in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico (population ~ 1million), where we will prospectively follow 4600 children aged 2-15 years at enrollment, distributed in 50 clusters of 5 × 5 city blocks each. Clusters will be randomly allocated (n = 25 per arm) using covariate-constrained randomization. A "fried egg" design will be followed, in which all blocks of the 5 × 5 cluster receive the intervention, but all sampling to evaluate the epidemiological and entomological endpoints will occur in the "yolk," the center 3 × 3 city blocks of each cluster. TIRS will be implemented as a preventive application (~ 1-2 months prior to the beginning of the ABV season). Active monitoring for symptomatic ABV illness will occur through weekly household visits and enhanced surveillance. Annual sero-surveys will be performed after each transmission season and entomological evaluations of Ae. aegypti indoor abundance and ABV infection rates monthly during the period of active surveillance. Epidemiological and entomological evaluation will continue for up to three transmission seasons. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study will provide robust epidemiological evidence of the efficacy of TIRS in reducing ABV illness and infection. If efficacious, TIRS could drive a paradigm shift in Aedes control by considering Ae. aegypti behavior to guide residual insecticide applications and changing deployment to preemptive control (rather than in response to symptomatic cases), two major enhancements to existing practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04343521 . Registered on 13 April 2020. The protocol also complies with the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Additional file 1). PRIMARY SPONSOR: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984076

RESUMO

Introduction: Malaria is still an important vector-borne disease in the New World tropics. Despite the recent decline in malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa, a rise in Plasmodium infections has been detected in several low malaria transmission areas in Latin America. One of the main obstacles in the battle against malaria is the lack of innovative tools to assess malaria transmission risk, and the behavioral plasticity of one of the main malaria vectors in Latin America, Anopheles darlingi. Methods: We used human IgG antibodies against mosquito salivary gland proteins as a measure of disease risk. Whole salivary gland antigen (SGA) from Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes was used as antigen in Western blot experiments, in which a ~65 kDa protein was visualized as the main immunogenic band and sent for sequencing by mass spectrometry. Apyrase and peroxidase peptides were designed and used as antigens in an ELISA-based test to measure human IgG antibody responses in people with different clinical presentations of malaria. Results: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 17 proteins contained in the ~65 kDa band, with an apyrase and a peroxidase as the two most abundant proteins. Detection of IgG antibodies against salivary antigens by ELISA revealed a significant higher antibody levels in people with malaria infection when compared to uninfected volunteers using the AnDar_Apy1 and AnDar_Apy2 peptides. We also detected a significant positive correlation between the anti-peptides IgG levels and antibodies against the Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum antigens PvMSP1 and PfMSP1. Odd ratios suggest that people with higher IgG antibodies against the apyrase peptides were up to five times more likely to have a malaria infection. Conclusion: Antibodies against salivary peptides from An. darlingi salivary gland proteins may be used as biomarkers for malaria risk.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008576, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of cluster-randomized trials to capture mass or indirect effects is one reason for their increasing use to test interventions against vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue. For the same reason, however, the independence of clusters may be compromised if the distances between clusters is too small to ensure independence. In other words they may be subject to spillover effects. METHODS: We distinguish two types of spatial spillover effect: between-cluster dependence in outcomes, or spillover dependence; and modification of the intervention effect according to distance to the intervention arm, or spillover indirect effect. We estimate these effects in trial of insecticide-treated materials against the dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, in Venezuela, the endpoint being the Breteau index. We use a novel random effects Poisson spatial regression model. Spillover dependence is incorporated via an orthogonalized intrinsic conditional autoregression (ICAR) model. Spillover indirect effects are incorporated via the number of locations within a certain radius, set at 200m, that are in the intervention arm. RESULTS: From the model with ICAR spatial dependence, and the degree of surroundedness, the intervention effect is estimated as 0.74-favouring the intervention-with a 95% credible interval of 0.34 to 1.69. The point estimates are stronger with increasing surroundedness within intervention locations. CONCLUSION: In this trial there is some evidence of a spillover indirect effect of the intervention, with the Breteau index tending to be lower in locations which are more surrounded by locations in the intervention arm.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Dengue/transmissão , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Análise Espacial , Venezuela
6.
Gene ; 754: 144857, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512159

RESUMO

Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) are RNA N-glycosidases that depurinate a specific adenine residue in the conserved sarcin/ricin loop of the 28S rRNA. The occurrence of RIP genes has been described in a wide range of plant taxa, as well as in several species of bacteria and fungi. A remarkable case is the presence of these genes in metazoans belonging to the Culicinae subfamily. We reported that these genes are derived from a single horizontal gene transfer event, most likely from a bacterial donor species. Moreover, we have shown evidence that mosquito RIP genes are evolving under purifying selection, suggesting that these toxins have acquired a functional role in these organisms. In the present work, we characterized the intra-specific sequence variability of Aedes aegypti RIP genes (RIPAe1, RIPAe2, and RIPAe3) and tested their expression at the mRNA level. Our results show that RIPAe2 and RIPAe3 are transcribed and polyadenylated, and their expression levels are modulated across the developmental stages. Varibility among genes was observed, including the existence of null alleles for RIPAe1 and RIPAe2, with variants showing partial deletions. These results further support the existence of a physiological function for these foreign genes in mosquitoes. The possible nature of this functionality is discussed.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Toxinas Biológicas/genética
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 224, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a serious problem for vector control programmes worldwide. Resistance is commonly attributed to mutations at the insecticide's target site or increased activity of detoxification enzymes. METHODS: We determined the knockdown concentration (KC50) and lethal concentration (LC50) of deltamethrin in six natural populations of adult Aedes aegypti from southeastern Mexico. These populations were then selected over five generations using the LC50 from the preceding generation that underwent selection, and the heritability of deltamethrin resistance was quantified. For each generation, we also determined the frequency of the kdr alleles L410, I1016 and C1534, and the levels of activity of three enzyme families (α- and ß-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferases (GST)) associated with insecticide detoxification. RESULTS: There was an increase in KC50 and LC50 values in the subsequent generations of selection with deltamethrin (FS5vs FS0). According to the resistance ratios (RRs), we detected increases in LC50 ranging from 1.5 to 5.6 times the values of the parental generation and in KC50 ranging from 1.3-3.8 times the values of the parental generation. Triple homozygous mutant individuals (tri-locus, LL/II/CC) were present in the parental generations and increased in frequency after selection. The frequency of L410 increased from 1.18-fold to 2.63-fold after selection with deltamethrin (FS5vs FS0) in the populations analyzed; for I1016 an increase between 1.19-fold to 2.79-fold was observed, and C1534 was fixed in all populations after deltamethrin selection. Enzymatic activity varied significantly over the generations of selection. However, only α- esterase activity remained elevated in multiple populations after five generations of deltamethrin selection. We observed an increase in the mean activity levels of GSTs in two of the six populations analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The high levels of resistance and their association with high frequencies of kdr mutations (V410L, V1016I and F1534C) obtained through artificial selection, suggest an important role of these mutations in conferring resistance to deltamethrin. We highlight the need to implement strategies that involve the monitoring of kdr frequencies in insecticide resistance monitoring and management programmes.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , Esterases/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/metabolismo , Genes de Insetos , Glutationa Transferase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Mutação , Oxirredutases/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008097, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275653

RESUMO

Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases, resulting in an estimated hundreds of millions of infections annually throughout the tropics. Control of dengue is heavily dependent upon control of its primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Innovative interventions that are effective at targeting the adult stage of the mosquito are needed to increase the options for effective control. The use of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) has previously been shown to significantly reduce the abundance of Ae. aegypti in and around homes, but the impact of ITCs on dengue virus (DENV) transmission has not been rigorously quantified. A parallel arm cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in Iquitos, Peru to quantify the impact of ITCs on DENV seroconversion as measured through plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Seroconversion data showed that individuals living in the clusters that received ITCs were at greater risk to seroconverting to DENV, with an average seroconversion rate of 50.6 per 100 person-years (PY) (CI: 29.9-71.9), while those in the control arm had an average seroconversion rate of 37.4 per 100 PY (CI: 15.2-51.7). ITCs lost their insecticidal efficacy within 6 months of deployment, necessitating re-treatment with insecticide. Entomological indicators did not show statistically significant differences between ITC and non-ITC clusters. It's unclear how the lack of protective efficacy reported here is attributable to simple failure of the intervention to protect against Ae. aegypti bites, or the presence of a faulty intervention during much of the follow-up period. The higher risk of dengue seroconversion that was detected in the ITC clusters may have arisen due to a false sense of security that inadvertently led to less routine protective behaviors on the part of households that received the ITCs. Our study provides important lessons learned for conducting cluster randomized trials for vector control interventions against Aedes-transmitted virus infections.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Peru , Soroconversão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 881-890, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310079

RESUMO

In 2016, four clusters of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission were identified in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, generating "red zones" (areas into which pregnant women were advised against traveling). The Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control Division initiated intensive control activities, including property inspections, community education, and handheld sprayer applications of larvicides and adulticides. For the first time, the Mosquito Control Division used a combination of areawide ultralow-volume adulticide and low-volume larvicide spraying to effectively control Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary Zika virus vector within the county. The number of mosquitoes rapidly decreased, and Zika virus transmission was interrupted within the red zones immediately after the combination of adulticide and larvicide spraying.

10.
Rev. salud bosque ; 10(1): 8-20, 2020. Tab, Ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1104254

RESUMO

Background: School absenteeism is a considerable problem generally related to higher dropout rates, poor academic achievement and school lag. This study determined the frequency and causes of overall and illness-related absenteeism of students in rural schools from two Colombian municipalities. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study was conducted in a population of 948 school children from 34 rural schools. Absenteeism data were collected for 2013 academic year consisted of the number of students registered and absent by grade, school, day and reason for absence. Absence rates (overall and illness-related absenteeism) were recorded, based on full or partial days absence, measured both as episodes, and accumulating the number of days. Results: From the students included in the study, 55.1% were male and 71.6% were between 5 and 9 years old. The overall absence rate was 5.7 episodes per child-year (95% confidence interval 5.5 to 5.8) and 8.6 days per child-year (8.4 to 8.9). The main reasons for non-attendance were illness (24.4%), medical or dental check-up (12.9%), travel (12.3%), lack of motivation to attend school (10.0%) and bad weather (9.3%). The illness- related absence rate was 1.4 episodes per child-year (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 1.5) and 2.5 days per child-year (2.4 to 2.6). The main reasons for illness-related absence were cold (37.0%), nonspecific fever (10.9%) and stomach pain or vomiting (8.4%). Conclusions: In this study, the most common reasons for non-attendance were illness-related. The importance of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in absenteeism was evident, showing rates similar to other urban school studies. Then, the results of this study provide knowledge on the magnitude and reasons for absenteeism in rural schoolchildren.


Antecedentes. El ausentismo escolar es un problema importante relacionado con altas tasas de abandono escolar, bajo rendimiento académico y rezago escolar. Este estudio determinó la frecuencia y las causas del ausentismo general y el ausentismo relacionado con la enfermedad en estudiantes de escuelas rurales de dos municipios de Colombia. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en una población de 948 escolares de 34 escuelas rurales. Los datos de ausentismo recopilados para el año 2013 consistieron en el número de episodios y días de ausentismo por grado y motivo de ausencia general y por enfermedad. Se calcularon las tasas de ausentismo general y por enfermedad. Resultados. El 55,1% de la población participante eran hombres y el 71,6% tenían entre 5 y 9 años. La tasa de ausentismo general fue 5,7 episodios por niño-año, IC 95% (5,5-5,8) y 8,6 días por niño-año, IC 95% (8,4-8,9). Las principales razones del ausentismo fueron enfermedades (24,4%), chequeo médico u odontológico (12,9%), viajes (12,3%), falta de motivación para asistir a la escuela (10,0%) y mal clima (9,3%). La tasa de ausentismo por enfermedad fue 1,4 episodios por niño-año IC 95% (1,3-1,5) y 2,5 días por niño-año IC 95% (2,4-2,6). Las principales razones del ausentismo por enfermedad fueron el resfriado común (37,0%), la fiebre inespecífica (10,9%) y el dolor de estómago o vómito (8,4%). Conclusiones. Las razones más comunes para la no asistencia estuvieron relacionadas con la enfermedad. La importancia de las infecciones respiratorias y gastrointestinales en el absentismo fue evidente, mostrando tasas similares a las de otros estudios en escuelas urbanas. Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan conocimiento sobre la magnitud y las razones del absentismo en la población escolar rural.


Antecedentes. O absentismo escolar é um grande problema relacionado às altas taxas de evasão escolar, baixo desempenho acadêmico e atraso escolar. Este estudo determinou a frequência e causas do não comparecimento geral e por doenças em estudantes de escolas rurais de dois municípios da Colômbia. Métodos. Estudo descritivo, realizado em uma população de 948 escolares de 34 escolas rurais. Os dados de absentismo coletados para 2013 consistiram no número de episódios e dias de não comparecimento por grau e motivo da ausência geral e por doença, foram calculadas as taxas de cada evento. Resultados. 55,1% da população participante eram crianças masculinas do primeiro grau, 71,6% entre 5 e 9 anos de idade. A taxa geral de absentismo foi de 5,7 episódios por criança-ano, IC95% (5,5-5,8) e 8,6 dias por criança-ano, IC95% (8,4-8,9). Os principais motivos do não comparecimento foram doenças (24,4%), check-up médico ou odontológico (12,9%), viagens (12,3%), falta de motivação para frequentar a escola (10,0%) e mau tempo (9,3%). A taxa de absentismo da doença foi de 1,4 episódios por IC95% criança-ano (1,3-1,5) e 2,5 dias por IC95% criança-ano (2,4-2,6). Os principais motivos da ausência de doença foram resfriado comum (37,0%), febre inespecífica (10,9%) e dor de estômago ou vômito (8,4%). Conclusões. Os motivos mais comuns de não comparecimento foram relacionados à doença. A importância das infecções respiratórias e gastrointestinais no absenteísmo foi evidente, mostrando taxas semelhantes às de outros estudos em escolas urbanas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem informações sobre a magnitude e as razões para evasão escolar na população escolar rural.


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Evasão Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Causalidade , Colômbia , Absenteísmo , Sucesso Acadêmico
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 494, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and Zika are a growing threat to areas where Aedes aegypti are present. The efficacy of chemical control of Ae. aegypti is threatened by the increasing frequency of insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility status as well as the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in three populations of Ae. aegypti in high risk areas of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika in Peru. METHODS: Bioassays were conducted on adult Ae. aegypti to evaluate their susceptibility to insecticides used currently or historically for mosquito control in Peru, including six pyrethroids, three organophosphates and one organochlorine, in populations of Ae. aegypti from the districts of Chosica (Department of Lima), Punchana (Department of Loreto) and Piura (Department of Piura). Resistance mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays to assess activity levels of key detoxification enzyme groups (nonspecific esterases, multi-function oxidases, glutathione S-transferases and insensitive acetylcholinesterase). Real-time PCR assays were used to detect two kdr mutations (V1016I and F1534C) on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. RESULTS: Resistance to DDT was detected in all three populations, and resistance to pyrethroids was detected in all populations except the population from Chosica, which still exhibited susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to organophosphates was also detected, with the exception of populations from Punchana and Piura, which still demonstrated susceptibility to malathion. In general, no increase or alteration of activity of any enzyme group was detected. Both 1016I and 1534C alleles were detected in Punchana and Piura, while only the 1534C allele was detected in Chosica. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that resistance to multiple classes of insecticides exist in areas important to Ae. aegypti-borne disease transmission in Peru. The F1534C mutation was present in all 3 populations and the V1016I mutation was present in 2 populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 1016I and 1534C in Ae. aegypti in Peru. The absence of highly elevated enzymatic activity suggests that target site resistance is a key mechanism underlying insecticide resistance in these populations, although further research is needed to fully understand the role of metabolic resistance mechanisms in these populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , DDT/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Peru , Piretrinas/farmacologia
12.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 478-490, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Studies on dengue in rural areas are scarce since the disease is considered mainly urban. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge (K), attitudes (A) and practices (P) of dengue in an endemic area in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 515 pupils (7-16 years old) in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa municipalities during 2011. Each KAP category was evaluated independently by a scoring system and then categorized into high, medium or low. RESULTS: Pupils recognized knowledge variables such as the symptoms (fever, bone pain), transmission route (mosquito bites), and mosquito breeding sites (uncovered water tanks, solid waste). Average scores on attitude were high in both municipalities indicating a well-developed perception of disease severity. Seeking treatment in medical centers and self-medication for fever management and the use of mosquito net and space-spraying of insecticides were the most frequently identified practices. DISCUSSION: This is the first KAP dengue study performed in a rural area in Colombia and as such it contributes to the understanding of dengue perceptions by the inhabitants of these areas. It showed a medium level of knowledge about dengue and a lower level of preventive practices in pupils from rural schools. It also showed that pupils considered space-spraying as crucial for vector control. The presence of the vector in rural areas of the country underlines the need to improve surveillance and education to more effectively control the vector and promote prevention methods including community participation.


Assuntos
Dengue , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Rural , Adolescente , Cruzamento , Criança , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/terapia , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/virologia , Inseticidas , Masculino , Mosquiteiros , Instituições Acadêmicas , Avaliação de Sintomas
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(10): 1959-1961, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538919

RESUMO

In response to the 2016 Zika outbreak, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from 38 locations across Puerto Rico were screened using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays for sensitivity to insecticides used for mosquito control. All populations were resistant to pyrethroids. Naled, an organophosphate, was the most effective insecticide, killing all mosquitoes tested.

14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 478-490, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038808

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Dengue is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Studies on dengue in rural areas are scarce since the disease is considered mainly urban. Objective: To determine the knowledge (K), attitudes (A) and practices (P) of dengue in an endemic area in Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 515 pupils (7-16 years old) in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa municipalities during 2011. Each KAP category was evaluated independently by a scoring system and then categorized into high, medium or low. Results: Pupils recognized knowledge variables such as the symptoms (fever, bone pain), transmission route (mosquito bites), and mosquito breeding sites (uncovered wáter tanks, solid waste). Average scores on attitude were high in both municipalities indicating a well-developed perception of disease severity. Seeking treatment in medical centers and self-medication for fever management and the use of mosquito net and space-spraying of insecticides were the most frequently identified practices. Discussion: This is the first KAP dengue study performed in a rural area in Colombia and as such it contributes to the understanding of dengue perceptions by the inhabitants of these areas. It showed a medium level of knowledge about dengue and a lower level of preventive practices in pupils from rural schools. It also showed that pupils considered space-spraying as crucial for vector control. The presence of the vector in rural areas of the country underlines the need to improve surveillance and education to more effectively control the vector and promote prevention methods including community participation.


Resumen Introducción. El dengue es un problema de salud pública en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Los estudios sobre la enfermedad en áreas rurales son escasos debido a que se presenta principalmente en los núcleos urbanos. Objetivo. Determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas sobre el dengue en un área rural endémica en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal con 515 estudiantes, entre los 7 y los 16 años de edad en 34 escuelas rurales de los municipios de Anapoima y La Mesa en el 2011. Cada categoría se evaluó por separado con un puntaje clasificado como alto, medio o bajo. Resultados. Los estudiantes reconocieron los síntomas (fiebre, dolor de huesos), la ruta de transmisión (picadura de mosquitos) y los criaderos (depósitos de agua destapados, residuos sólidos). El promedio de los puntajes de actitudes fue alto en ambos municipios, lo que indica que percibían la gravedad del dengue. Las prácticas más frecuentes de tratamiento de la fiebre fueron la consulta médica y la automedicación, en tanto que los métodos de control más frecuentes fueron el uso de mosquiteros y el rociamiento con insecticidas. Discusión. Este es el primer estudio de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el dengue en un área rural de Colombia. Los resultados contribuyen a entender las percepciones de la enfermedad en sus habitantes y evidenciaron niveles medios de conocimiento y puntuaciones bajas en cuanto a las prácticas entre los estudiantes de las escuelas rurales. Los estudiantes consideraron que la fumigación es importante para el control del vector. La presencia del mosquito en áreas rurales del país resalta la necesidad de mejorar la vigilancia y la educación para lograr un control efectivo del vector y promover métodos de prevención que incluyan la participación comunitaria.

15.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(2): 140-146, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442128

RESUMO

We evaluated the efficacy of aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in field bioassays with caged Aedes aegypti in May 2017 in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. The insecticides tested included an organophosphate (Mosquitocida UNO ULV) and a neonicotinoid-pyrethroid combination (Cielo). Two Ae. aegypti populations were evaluated: a field pyrethroid-resistant local strain (Puerto Vallarta) and an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain (New Orleans). Knockdown after 1 h by both products was ≥97.0%, and mortality after 24 h was ≥98% for the susceptible laboratory strain. Knockdown of the local Puerto Vallarta field strain by both products after 1 h was ≥96.5%; and mosquito mortality after 24 h was also very high (≥98%). Meteorological conditions during this evaluation were favorable for aerial mosquito control and represented conditions that typically occur during adulticide space spray applications. Temperature oscillated between 24°C and 26°C with winds between 6 and 10 km/h. The majority of droplets met the droplet distribution criteria required for the insecticides. The evaluation demonstrated an acceptable performance of both products for Ae. aegypti control when applied undiluted at a rate of 199.4 ml/ha and 73.07 ml/ha for Mosquitocida UNO ULV and Cielo, respectively. The volume median diameter (VMD) droplet size was characterized at 31.3 µm and 37.3 µm, respectively.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Feminino , México
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 331, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269996

RESUMO

The past 40 years have seen a dramatic emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases transmitted primarily by mosquitoes. The frequency and magnitude of the epidemics, especially those transmitted by urban Aedes species, have progressively increased over time, accelerating in the past 10 years. To reduce the burden and threat of vector-borne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently adopted the Global Vector Control Response (GVCR) in order to support countries in implementing effective sustainable vector control. The evidence-base to support vector control is however limited for arboviral diseases which make prioritization difficult. Knowledge gaps in the distribution, mechanisms and impact of insecticide resistance on vector control impedes the implementation of locally tailored Aedes control measures. This report summarizes the main outputs of the second international conference of the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN) on "Integrated approaches and innovative tools for combating insecticide resistance in arbovirus vectors" held in Singapore, 1-3 October 2018. The aims of the conference were to review progress and achievements made in insecticide resistance surveillance worldwide, and to discuss the potential of integrated vector management and innovative technologies for efficiently controlling arboviral diseases. The conference brought together 150 participants from 26 countries.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
17.
Malar J ; 18(1): 202, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America. METHODS: Degenerate primers were designed to amplify a partial fragment on the VGSC and Ace-1 genes. Wild-caught individuals for Anopheles albimanus (also historical samples and individuals from a laboratory strain), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis were used to optimize the PCR assays. All samples were sequenced to validate the PCR results and DNA alignments were constructed for each gene using the unique haplotypes observed. RESULTS: Primers designed successfully amplified the VGSC gene in An. albimanus, An. darlingi, An. vestitipennis and An. pseudopunctipennis, and the Ace-1 gene in both An. albimanus and An. darlingi. DNA sequencing revealed that compared with Anopheles gambiae, there were a total of 29, 28, 21 and 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the VGSC gene for An. albimanus (308 bp), An. darlingi (311 bp), An. pseudopunctipennis (263 bp) and An. vestitipennis (254 bp), respectively. On the 459 bp fragment of the Ace-1 gene, a total of 70 SNPs were detected in An. darlingi and 59 SNPs were detected in An. albimanus compared with An. gambiae. The SNPs detected on the VGSC gene were all synonymous. On the Ace-1 gene, non-synonymous substitutions were identified on three different codons. All species showed the homozygous wild-type kdr allele (coding for leucine) at codon 995 (formerly reported as codon 1014) on the VGSC gene, but one sample was heterozygous at codon 280 (formerly reported as codon 119) on the Ace-1 gene, coding for both the resistant (serine) and susceptible (glycine) amino acids. CONCLUSIONS: New molecular assays to amplify and screen the regions of the VGSC and Ace-1 genes associated with insecticide resistance are reported for An. albimanus, An. darlingi, An. vestitipennis, and An. pseudopunctipennis. The development of these PCR assays presents an important advance in the analysis of target-site resistance in malaria vectors in the Americas, and will further facilitate the characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in these species.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/análise , Animais , Anopheles/genética , América Latina , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105066, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226251

RESUMO

Population displacement and other forced movement patterns following natural disasters, armed conflicts or due to socioeconomic reasons contribute to the global emergence of Aedes-borne viral disease epidemics. In particular, dengue epidemiology is critically affected by situations of displacement and forced movement patterns, particularly within and across borders. In this respect, waves of human movements have been a major driver for the changing epidemiology and outbreaks of the disease on local, regional and global scales. Both emerging dengue autochthonous transmission and outbreaks in countries known to be non-endemic and co-circulation and hyperendemicity with multiple dengue virus serotypes have led to the emergence of severe disease forms such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. This paper reviews the emergence of dengue outbreaks driven by population displacement and forced movements following natural disasters and conflicts within the context of regional and sub-regional groupings.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Dengue/transmissão , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
ISME J ; 13(10): 2447-2464, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171859

RESUMO

A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance is needed to mitigate its threat to malaria vector control. Following previously identified associations between mosquito microbiota and insecticide resistance, we demonstrate for the first time, the effects of pyrethroid exposure on the microbiota of F1 progeny of field-collected Anopheles albimanus. Larval and adult mosquitoes were exposed to the pyrethroids alphacypermethrin (only adults), permethrin, and deltamethrin. While there were no significant differences in bacterial composition between insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible mosquitoes, bacterial composition between insecticide-exposed and non-exposed mosquitoes was significantly different for alphacypermethrin and permethrin exposure. Along with other bacterial taxa not identified to species, Pantoea agglomerans (a known insecticide-degrading bacterial species) and Pseudomonas fragi were more abundant in insecticide-exposed compared to non-exposed adults, demonstrating that insecticide exposure can alter mosquito bacterial communities. We also show for the first time that the cuticle surfaces of both larval and adult An. albimanus harbor more diverse bacterial communities than their internal microbial niches. Together, these findings demonstrate how insecticide pressure could be selecting for certain bacteria within mosquitoes, especially insecticide-metabolizing bacteria, thus potentially contributing to insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Anopheles/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171922

RESUMO

In the wake of the Zika epidemic, there has been intensified interest in the surveillance and control of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, yet many existing surveillance systems could benefit from improvements. Vector control programs are often directed by national governments, but are carried out at the local level, resulting in the discounting of spatial heterogeneities in ecology and epidemiology. Furthermore, entomological and epidemiological data are often collected by separate governmental entities, which can slow vector control responses to outbreaks. Colombia has adopted several approaches to address these issues. First, a web-based, georeferenced Aedes surveillance system called SIVIEN AEDES was developed to allow field entomologists to record vector abundance and insecticide resistance data. Second, autocidal gravid oviposition (AGO) traps are deployed as an alternative way to measure vector abundance. Third, data collected by SIVIEN AEDES are used to develop mathematical models predicting Ae. aegypti abundance down to a city block, thus allowing public health authorities to target interventions to specific neighborhoods within cities. Finally, insecticide resistance is monitored through bioassays and molecular testing in 15 high-priority cities, providing a comprehensive basis to inform decisions about insecticide use in different regions. The next step will be to synchronize SIVIEN AEDES data together with epidemiological and climatic data to improve the understanding of the drivers of local variations in arbovirus transmission dynamics. By integrating these surveillance data, health authorities will be better equipped to develop tailored and timely solutions to control and prevent Aedes-borne arbovirus outbreaks.

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