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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
4.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 44, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275893

RESUMO

Background: The study of DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) helps dissect regulatory mechanisms underlying genetic associations of human diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide examination of genetic drivers of methylation variation in response to a triglyceride-lowering treatment with fenofibrate (response-meQTL) by using an efficient analytic approach. Methods: Subjects (n = 429) from the GAW20 real data set with genotype and both pre- (visit 2) and post- (visit 4) fenofibrate treatment methylation measurements were included. Following the quality control steps of removing certain cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) probes, the post-/premethylation changes (post/pre) were log transformed and the association was performed on 208,449 CpG sites. An additive linear mixed-effects model was used to test the association between each CpG probe and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around ±1 Mb region, with age, sex, smoke, batch effect, and principal components included as covariates. Bonferroni correction was applied to define the significance threshold (p < 5.6 × 10- 10, given a total of 89,217,303 tests). Finally, we integrated our response-meQTL (re-meQTL) findings with the published genome-wide association study (GWAS) catalog of human diseases/traits. Results: We identified 1087 SNPs as cis re-meQTLs associated with 610 CpG probes/sites located in 351 unique gene loci. Among these 1087 cis re-meQTL SNPs, 229 were unique and 6 were co-localized at 8 unique disease/trait loci reported in the GWAS catalog (enrichment p = 1.51 × 10- 23). Specifically, a lipid SNP, rs10903129, located in intron regions of gene TMEM57, was a re-meQTL (p = 3.12 × 10- 36) associated with the CpG probe cg09222892, which is in the upstream region of the gene RHCE, indicating a new target gene for rs10903129. In addition, we found that SNP rs12710728 has a suggestive association with cg17097782 (p = 1.77 × 10- 4), and that this SNP is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (R2 > 0.8) with rs7443270, which was previously reported to be associated with fenofibrate response (p = 5.00 × 10- 6). Conclusions: By using a novel analytic approach, we efficiently identified thousands of cis re-meQTLs that provide a unique resource for further characterizing functional roles and gene targets of the SNPs that are most responsive to fenofibrate treatment. Our efficient analytic approach can be extended to large response quantitative trait locus studies with large sample sizes and multiple time points data.

5.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 83, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies performed on triglycerides (TGs) have not accounted for epigenetic mechanisms that may partially explain trait heritability. RESULTS: Parent-of-origin (POO) effect association analyses using an agnostic approach or a candidate approach were performed for pretreatment TG levels, posttreatment TG levels, and pre- and posttreatment TG-level differences in the real GAW20 family data set. We detected 22 genetic variants with suggestive POO effects with at least 1 phenotype (P ≤ 10- 5). We evaluated the association of these 22 significant genetic variants showing POO effects with close DNA methylation probes associated with TGs. A total of 18 DNA methylation probes located in the vicinity of the 22 SNPs were associated with at least 1 phenotype and 6 SNP-probe pairs were associated with DNA methylation probes at the nominal level of P < 0.05, among which 1 pair presented evidence of POO effect. Our analyses identified a paternal effect of SNP rs301621 on the difference between pre- and posttreatment TG levels (P = 1.2 × 10- 5). This same SNP showed evidence for a maternal effect on methylation levels of a nearby probe (cg10206250; P = 0.01). Using a causal inference test we established that the observed POO effect of rs301621 was not mediated by DNA methylation at cg10206250. CONCLUSIONS: We performed POO effect association analyses of SNPs with TGs, as well as association analyses of SNPs with DNA methylation probes. These analyses, which were followed by a causal inference test, established that the paternal effect at the SNP rs301621 is induced by treatment and is not mediated by methylation level at cg10206250.

6.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 84, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-probe analyses in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified associations between DNA methylation and many phenotypes, but do not take into account information from neighboring probes. Methods to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) (clusters of neighboring probes associated with a phenotype) may provide more power to detect associations between DNA methylation and diseases or phenotypes of interest. RESULTS: We proposed a novel approach, GlobalP, and perform comparisons with 3 methods-DMRcate, Bumphunter, and comb-p-to identify DMRs associated with log triglycerides (TGs) in real GAW20 data before and after fenofibrate treatment. We applied these methods to the summary statistics from an EWAS performed on the methylation data. Comb-p, DMRcate, and GlobalP detected very similar DMRs near the gene CPT1A on chromosome 11 in both the pre- and posttreatment data. In addition, GlobalP detected 2 DMRs before fenofibrate treatment in the genes ETV6 and ABCG1. Bumphunter identified several DMRs on chromosomes 1 and 20, which did not overlap with DMRs detected by other methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel method detected the same DMR identified by two existing methods and detected two additional DMRs not identified by any of the existing methods we compared.

7.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 72, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in popularity and accessibility of DNA methylation data to evaluate epigenetic associations with disease has led to numerous methodological questions. As part of GAW20, our working group of 8 research groups focused on gene searching methods. RESULTS: Although the methods were varied, we identified 3 main themes within our group. First, many groups tackled the question of how best to use pedigree information in downstream analyses, finding that (a) the use of kinship matrices is common practice, (b) ascertainment corrections may be necessary, and (c) pedigree information may be useful for identifying parent-of-origin effects. Second, many groups also considered multimarker versus single-marker tests. Multimarker tests had modestly improved power versus single-marker methods on simulated data, and on real data identified additional associations that were not identified with single-marker methods, including identification of a gene with a strong biological interpretation. Finally, some of the groups explored methods to combine single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and DNA methylation into a single association analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A causal inference method showed promise at discovering new mechanisms of SNP activity; gene-based methods of summarizing SNP and DNA methylation data also showed promise. Even though numerous questions still remain in the analysis of DNA methylation data, our discussions at GAW20 suggest some emerging best practices.

8.
BMC Proc ; 10(Suppl 7): 209-214, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent focus on studying rare variants makes imputation accuracy of rare variants an important issue. Many approaches have been proposed to increase imputation accuracy among rare variants, from reference panel selection to combinations of existing methods to multistage analyses. We aimed to bring the strengths of these new approaches together with our proposed two-stage imputation for family data. METHODS: Our imputation methods were tested on the region from 46.75Mb to 49.25Mb on chromosome 3. We did quality control based on the proportion of missing genotypes per variant and individual, leaving 495 individuals with 761 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) variants only, 45 with 14,077 sequence variants only, and 419 with both GWAS and sequencing data. All data were prephased using SHAPEIT2 with a duo hidden Markov model algorithm prior to performing imputation. Imputations were performed 100 times, each time masking the sequence data for 1 individual and imputing it from the GWAS data. We used well-imputed genotypes, defined as a probability of greater than 0.9, above 2 different minor allele frequency cutoffs-0.01 and 0.05-from Impute2 as input for Merlin, and compared these results to Impute2 and Merlin separately. The imputed results were evaluated using correlation measurement and the imputation quality score. RESULTS: Our method improved imputation accuracy, measured by imputation quality score, for variants with minor allele frequency between 0.01 and 0.40, but failed to improve accuracy for variants with minor allele frequency less than 0.01 when we used a minor allele frequency cutoff of 0.01 for the Impute2 results. In contrast, our 2-stage approach with a minor allele frequency cutoff of 0.05 performed the worst of all methods for variants with minor allele frequency between 0.01 and 0.40. CONCLUSIONS: This method gave promising results, but may be further improved by changing the inclusion criteria of Impute2 variants. More analyses are needed on a larger region with different inclusion thresholds to assess the accuracy of this approach.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(6): 1247-54, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26755824

RESUMO

Over 100 associated genetic loci have been robustly associated with schizophrenia. Gene prioritization and pathway analysis have focused on a priori hypotheses and thus may have been unduly influenced by prior assumptions and missed important causal genes and pathways. Using a data-driven approach, we show that genes in associated loci: (1) are highly expressed in cortical brain areas; (2) are enriched for ion channel pathways (false discovery rates <0.05); and (3) contain 62 genes that are functionally related to each other and hence represent promising candidates for experimental follow up. We validate the relevance of the prioritized genes by showing that they are enriched for rare disruptive variants and de novo variants from schizophrenia sequencing studies (odds ratio 1.67, P = 0.039), and are enriched for genes encoding members of mouse and human postsynaptic density proteomes (odds ratio 4.56, P = 5.00 × 10(-4); odds ratio 2.60, P = 0.049).The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first 2 authors should be regarded as joint First Author.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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