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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299793

RESUMO

Grounded in SDT, several studies have highlighted the role of teachers' motivating and demotivating styles for students' motivation, learning, and physical activity in physical education (PE). However, most of these studies focused on a restricted number of motivating strategies (e.g., offering choice) or dimensions (e.g., autonomy support). Recently, researchers have developed the Situations-in-School (i.e., SIS-Education) questionnaire, which allows one to gain a more integrative and fine-grained insight into teachers' engagement in autonomy-support, structure, control, and chaos through a circular structure (i.e., a circumplex). Although teaching in PE resembles teaching in academic courses in many ways, some of the items of the original situation-based questionnaire (e.g., regarding homework) are irrelevant to the PE context. In the present study, we therefore sought to develop a modified, PE-friendly version of this earlier validated SIS-questionnaire-the SIS-PE. Findings in a sample of Belgian (N = 136) and French (N = 259) PE teachers, examined together and as independent samples, showed that the variation in PE teachers' motivating styles in this adapted version is also best captured by a circumplex structure, with four overarching styles and eight subareas differing in their level of need support and directiveness. The SIS-PE possesses excellent convergent and concurrent validity. With the adaptations being successful, great opportunities for future research on PE teachers (de-)motivating styles are created.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Motivação , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(1): 64-73, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720307

RESUMO

Identifying the specificity of students' individual interest in physical education is necessary to capture the different facets of this construct. In contrast to existing questionnaires in education which assess the multidimensionality of individual interest, the current scale used in physical education consists of a single-item measurement which rates students' individual interest for multiple physical activities taught during lessons. Even if this single-item rating provides a basis for classifying interest relative to others, it does not provide information about the nature and internal components of individual interest. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire measuring the multidimensionality of students' individual interest in physical education. Four stages were followed: (1) the development of a preliminary version based on the findings of a literature review on individual interest and a committee process validation; (2) a first study conducted on 481 secondary school students to establish the factor structure, and internal reliability of this questionnaire; (3) a second study based on 243 secondary school students to confirm its factor structure and to test its temporal stability; and finally, (4) a third study with 253 students to test its concurrent validity. The final form of the questionnaire consists of a three-factor structure based on 14 items that measure students' individual interest in physical education: positive affect and willingness to reengage (five items), stored utility value (four items), and stored attainment value and knowledge-seeking intentions (five items).


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(3): 412-420, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105185

RESUMO

Both doping (e.g. Hodge, K., Hargreaves, E. A., Gerrard, D. F., & Lonsdale, C. (2013). Psychological mechanisms underlying doping attitudes in sport: Motivation and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 419-432.) and eating behaviours (e.g. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Harris, J. (2006). From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behaviour: Testing a motivational sequence in two behavioural contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 131-148.) have been studied independently within the SDT framework, but no research has examined these variables concomitantly to better understand the relationships between motivation for sport and doping variables. We therefore examined the mediating role of eating behaviour in the relationship between SDT constructs for sport motivation and athletes' susceptibility to doping. Bootstrapped mediation analyses were performed for 171 male and female athletes with competitive experience in various sports. The analyses revealed that healthy eating behaviours significantly mediated the relationship between SDT motivational constructs and susceptibility to doping. The findings enrich our theoretical understanding of how the SDT approach to motivation for sport might provide insight into the susceptibility to doping; that is, through the potential mediating role of healthy eating behaviours. Finally, the potential central position of eating behaviours in the motivation-doping relationship opens up a potential swathe of novel research, with investigations into eating behaviours at the forefront of future research on the psychology of doping.

4.
Psychol Belg ; 59(1): 1-15, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328007

RESUMO

Situational interest (SI) has been conceptualized in physical education (PE) as a multidimensional construct including five dimensions: instant enjoyment, exploration intention, attention demand, novelty and challenge. Consistent with Ding, Sun and Chen (2013), who argued for the need 'to develop cross-culture models to examine the universality of the motivation constructs', the purpose of this study was to investigate the universality and uniqueness of students' SI by comparing three French-speaking PE contexts. Participants were 1812 secondary school students from Belgium, France, and Switzerland. They responded to the French 15-item SI scale and the Total Interest scale (Roure, Pasco & Kermarrec, 2016) after practicing learning tasks in regular PE lessons. The relationships between the SI dimensions and total interest were compared between the three samples using correlation and regression analyses. A multivariate analysis of variance was also used to compare SI scores between the contexts. The results revealed that instant enjoyment and exploration intention were the two major motivating dimensions, highlighting the universality of students' SI, whereas challenge and novelty revealed the uniqueness of this construct explored.

5.
J Eat Disord ; 7: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893121

RESUMO

Background: The drive for muscularity behaviors are very common in male athletes, especially in male bodybuilders. Studies have related drive for muscularity behaviors to body dissatisfaction, eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. Methods: This study applied the trans-contextual model of motivation to the drive for muscularity behaviors of male bodybuilders at risk of developing muscle dysmorphia. The relationships between self-determination theory constructs and drive for muscularity behaviors, via the theory of planned behavior variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention) were examined. A total of 175 Swiss male bodybuilders (M age = 27.34; SD age = 7.53) completed measures on motivation for sport, theory of planned behavior variables, and drive for muscularity behaviors. They practiced bodybuilding from three to 24 h per week (Mhours per week = 6.59; SDhours per week = 3.45) and had done so for 7.19 years on average (SDnumber of years = 6.91). Using bootstrapped maximum likelihood estimation with the AMOS 7.0 program, a series of confirmatory factor analyses was performed on each subscale and a series of path analyses was performed to determine the final model. Results: The fit indices of the final model were satisfactory: χ2 (11) = 13.81; p = .244; TLI = .98; CFI = .99; RMSEA = .04. The model explained 29% of the variance of drive for muscularity behaviors. The final path analysis supported the motivational sequence, with autonomous motivation for sport showing a positive, significant and indirect association with the drive for muscularity behaviors via perceived behavioral control and intention to gain muscle mass, and controlled motivation for sport showing a positive association with the drive for muscularity behaviors both directly and via attitude and intention to gain muscle mass. Conclusions: It was concluded that the trans-contextual model of motivation applies only partially to the drive for muscularity behaviors in male bodybuilders. Perspective: The motivational mechanisms explaining the development of drive for muscularity behaviors might be better understood through complementary analyses of motivational profiles. Such investigations would guide the design of programs to lower the risks associated with these behaviors.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196608, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723242

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to adapt and examine the psychometric properties of a French-language Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS). First, a preliminary version of the scale, based on both the English-language version of the DMS and the literature on the drive for muscularity, was developed following a committee validation process. Second, the factor structure of the DMS-FR was investigated with principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of 114 male athletes (Mage = 23.35; SDage = 4.93), leading to a nine-item scale (Study 1). Third, in Study 2, the internal factor structure, temporal stability, and concurrent validity were examined through a series of structural hypothetical modelisation in a sample of 129 male athletes (Mage = 27.03; SDage = 7.81). The results indicated that the scale has good psychometric properties. Specifically, the PCA, and the series of structural hypothetical modelisation, suggested two theoretical factors (i.e., Muscularity Body Dissatisfaction and Muscularity Behaviors), and more, with a bi-factor model in a SEM. The results also indicated sufficient concurrent validity with the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS) and adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas were .87 for the Muscularity Body Dissatisfaction subscale, and .88 for the Muscularity Behaviors subscale). The findings overall suggest good reliability and construct validity for this French version of the DMS (DMS-FR), which will be useful for future research and clinical practice in French-speaking countries.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Impulso (Psicologia) , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Estética , França , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valores Sociais , Suíça , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 257: 359-368, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26517824

RESUMO

This retrospective study evaluates the content, the destination and the source of 960 postal items seized by the Swiss customs authorities at the Swiss border between 2013 and 2014. The packages were seized because they contained at least one prohibited doping product as identified by the Swiss law on encouraging sports and physical activity. A total number of 1825 different doping products were confiscated from these parcels, accounting for an average of 1.9 doping products per seized item. In 74% of the cases, where seizures were made, anabolic androgenic steroids, mostly testosterone esters, were discovered. An obvious trading channel for doping products was identified in this study. The seized compounds were predominately manufactured in Asian countries, but sent to Switzerland mostly via South Eastern Europe countries. Due to the unique collaboration between the Swiss customs authorities and the national anti-doping agency, this study uncovered an alarming trend of illegal doping product trafficked to Switzerland.

8.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(2): 199-206, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25996110

RESUMO

We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes' behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or "doping." Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a "lollipop" decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the "lollipop" protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Atitude , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Intenção , Autocontrole/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pers Assess ; 96(4): 471-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24134410

RESUMO

The validity of the 34-item and shortened versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has been evaluated in various languages. To date, only the validity of the 34-item French BSQ scale has been tested in a nonclinical sample. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the 34-item French BSQ and 7 shortened versions in clinical and nonclinical samples. The 34-item French BSQ was administered to 159 obese women with and without binge eating disorders and to 1,169 female undergraduate students. The results suggested that the BSQ-8B was the best French BSQ to use in nonclinical and clinical samples.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , França , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
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