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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(4): 287-303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603520

RESUMO

Effective emergency management and response require appropriate utilization of various resources as an incident evolves. This manuscript describes the information resources used in chemical emergency management and operations and how their utility evolves from the initial response phase to recovery to event close out. The authors address chemical hazard guidance in the context of four different phases of emergency response: preparedness, emergency response (both initial and ongoing), recovery, and mitigation. Immediately following a chemical incident, during the initial response, responders often use readily available, broad-spectrum guidance to make rapid decisions in the face of uncertainties regarding potential exposure to physical and health hazards. Physical hazards are described as the hazards caused by chemicals that can cause harm with or without direct contact. Examples of physical hazards include explosives, flammables, and gases under pressure. This first line of resources may not be chemical-specific in nature, but it can provide guidance related to isolation distances, protective actions, and the most important physical and health threats. During the ongoing response phase, an array of resources can provide detailed information on physical and health hazards related to specific chemicals of concern. Consequently, risk management and mitigation actions evolve as well. When the incident stabilizes to a recovery phase, the types of information resources that facilitate safe and effective incident management evolve. Health and physical concerns transition from acute toxicity and immediate hazards to both immediate and latent health effects. Finally, the information inputs utilized during the preparedness phase include response evaluations of past events, emergency preparedness planning, and chemical-specific guidance about chemicals present. This manuscript details a framework for identifying the effective use of information resources at each phase and provides case study examples from chemical hazard emergencies.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Defesa Civil , Planejamento em Desastres , Emergências , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos
2.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 33-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441027

RESUMO

Effective emergency management and response require appropriate utilization of various resources as an incident evolves. This manuscript describes the information resources used in chemical emergency management and operations and how their utility evolves from the initial response phase to recovery to event close out. The authors address chemical hazard guidance in the context of four different phases of emergency response: preparedness, emergency response (both initial and ongoing), recovery, and mitigation. Immediately following a chemical incident, during the initial response, responders often use readily available, broad-spectrum guidance to make rapid decisions in the face of uncertainties regarding potential exposure to physical and health hazards. Physical hazards are described as the hazards caused by chemicals that can cause harm with or without direct contact. Examples of physical hazards include explosives, flammables, and gases under pressure. This first line of resources may not be chemical-specific in nature, but it can provide guidance related to isolation distances, protective actions, and the most important physical and health threats. During the ongoing response phase, an array of resources can provide detailed information on physical and health hazards related to specific chemicals of concern. Consequently, risk management and mitigation actions evolve as well. When the incident stabilizes to a recovery phase, the types of information resources that facilitate safe and effective incident management evolve. Health and physical concerns transition from acute toxicity and immediate hazards to both immediate and latent health effects. Finally, the information inputs utilized during the preparedness phase include response evaluations of past events, emergency preparedness planning, and chemical-specific guidance about chemicals present. This manuscript details a framework for identifying the effective use of information resources at each phase and provides case study examples from chemical hazard emergencies.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Defesa Civil , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Comunicação , Emergências , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/organização & administração , Humanos , Gestão da Segurança
3.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 16(2): 120-128, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457492

RESUMO

Bisphenol A is a commercially important chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins, and other specialty products. Despite an extensive body of in vitro, animal and human observational studies on the effects of exposure to bisphenol A, no authoritative bodies in the U.S. have adopted or recommended occupational exposure limits for bisphenol A. In 2017, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health published a Draft process for assigning health-protective occupational exposure bands, i.e., an airborne concentration range, to chemicals lacking an occupational exposure limit. Occupational exposure banding is a systematic process that uses both quantitative and qualitative toxicity information on selected health effect endpoints to assign an occupational exposure band for a chemical. The Draft process proposes three methodological tiers of increasing complexity for assigning an occupational exposure band. We applied Tier 1 (based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling) and Tier 2 (based on authoritative sources/reviews) to assign an occupational exposure band to bisphenol A. Under both Tier 1 and 2, the occupational exposure band for bisphenol A was "E" (<0.01 mg/m3), an assignment based on eye damage. "E" is the lowest exposure concentration range, reserved for chemicals with high potential toxicity. If eye damage was excluded in assigning an air concentration exposure range, then bisphenol A would band as "D" (>0.01 to 0.1 mg/m3) under Tier 1 (based on reproductive toxicity and respiratory/skin sensitization) and under Tier 2 (based on specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure). In summary, Tiers 1 and 2 gave the same occupational exposure band for bisphenol A when eye damage was included ("E") or excluded ("D") as an endpoint.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 184(4): 302-14, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519539

RESUMO

The exposome has been defined as the totality of exposures individuals experience over the course of their lives and how those exposures affect health. Three domains of the exposome have been identified: internal, specific external, and general external. Internal factors are those that are unique to the individual, and specific external factors include occupational exposures and lifestyle factors. The general external domain includes sociodemographic factors such as educational level and financial status. Eliciting information on the exposome is daunting and not feasible at present; the undertaking may never be fully realized. A variety of tools have been identified to measure the exposome. Biomarker measurements will be one of the major tools in exposomic studies. However, exposure data can also be obtained from other sources such as sensors, geographic information systems, and conventional tools such as survey instruments. Proof-of-concept studies are being conducted that show the promise of exposomic investigation and the integration of different kinds of data. The inherent value of exposomic data in epidemiologic studies is that they can provide greater understanding of the relationships among a broad range of chemical and other risk factors and health conditions and ultimately lead to more effective and efficient disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Bioquímica , Biomarcadores/análise , Biologia Computacional , Técnicas Genéticas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos
5.
Environ Health ; 12: 31, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23587312

RESUMO

With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.


Assuntos
Química Verde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Estados Unidos
6.
Int J Occup Environ Health ; 18(4): 344-7, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23433296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silicosis, a lung disease caused by inhaling respirable crystalline silica dust, is an occupational illness affecting millions of workers worldwide. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has partnered with the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and multiple agencies in the Americas to implement the program "The Elimination of Silicosis in the Americas". OBJECTIVES: One component of this program is control banding, a qualitative risk assessment and management strategy that allows non-experts to use task-based hazard data and potential exposure information to determine appropriate controls. RESULTS: From 2005 to the present, NIOSH occupational health researchers have worked with experts in Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil to assess, implement, and provide tools to evaluate the use of control banding methodology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poeira , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Silício/análise , América do Sul , Estados Unidos
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 61(1): 53-62, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21689711

RESUMO

This article presents an overview of a strategy for assignment of hazard-specific skin notations (SK), developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This health hazard characterization strategy relies on multiple SKs capable of delineating systemic (SYS), direct (DIR), and immune-mediated (SEN) adverse effects caused by dermal exposures to chemicals. One advantage of the NIOSH strategy is the ability to combine SKs when it is determined that a chemical may cause multiple adverse effects following dermal contact (e.g., SK: SYS-DIR-SEN). Assignment of the SKs is based on a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, which refers to the critical examination of all available data from diverse lines of evidence and the derivation of a scientific interpretation based on the collective body of data including its relevance, quality, and reported results. Numeric cutoff values, based on indices of toxic potency, serve as guidelines to aid in consistently determining a chemical's relative toxicity and hazard potential. The NIOSH strategy documents the scientific rationale for determination of the hazard potential of a chemical and the subsequent assignment of SKs. A case study of acrylamide is presented as an application of the NIOSH strategy.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Substâncias Perigosas/farmacocinética , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Medição de Risco/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Dermatopatias/patologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Saf Health Work ; 2(2): 105-21, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22953194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." METHODS: Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. RESULTS: This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. CONCLUSION: The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions.

9.
Ind Health ; 44(1): 58-63, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16610535

RESUMO

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigated occupational safety and health concerns in the small business wood pallet manufacturing industry because of an injury rate (2000) 226% greater than that for general industry. NIOSH investigators conducted walk-through evaluations at seven wood pallet manufacturing companies, and returned to four of them to take environmental measurements. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels, noise levels, and total particulate were measured, ergonomic observations made, and occupational safety practices analyzed at each of the four facilities where measurements were taken. The focus of this study is the evaluation of airborne particulate and carbon monoxide exposures for the purpose of determining areas of potentially high exposures. This knowledge can guide the plant owner or health professional to determine whether further measurements are necessary and where they might be needed. Safety factors and physical stressors (noise and ergonomic stressors) were described in a previously published companion paper. Although we did not take 8 h samples, we did find certain exposures that were potentially of concern to the small business owner. The main findings of this investigation were as follows: 1) CO levels in three plants, for the time periods measured, were less than the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 parts per million (ppm) for an 8-h TWA. Three measurements, all from one plant, were due to a older and defective forklift and were above 50 ppm. 2) Total dust measures ranged from 0.86 to 1.67 mg/m3, taken adjacent to an operating machine cutting hardwood and measured up to 6 min. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guideline for hardwood dust is 1.0 mg/m3, again for an 8-h TWA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Indústrias , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Ruído Ocupacional , Ohio
11.
Appl Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(4): 278-88, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12637238

RESUMO

Increasing production of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), a synthetic vitreous material with industrial applications (e.g., kiln insulation), has created interest in potential respiratory effects of exposure to airborne fibers during manufacturing. An ongoing study of RCF manufacturing workers in the United States has indicated an association between cumulative fiber exposure and pleural plaques. Fiber sizing data, obtained from electron microscopy analyses of 118 air samples collected in three independent studies over a 20-year period (1976-1995), were used with a computer deposition model to estimate pulmonary dose of fibers of specified dimensions for 652 former and current RCF production workers. Separate dose correction factors reflecting differences in fiber dimensions in six uniform job title groups were used with data on airborne fiber concentration and employment duration to calculate cumulative dose estimates for each worker. From review of the literature, critical dimensions (diameter <0.4 microm, length <10 microm) were defined for fibers that may translocate to the parietal pleura. Each of three continuous exposure/dose metrics analyzed in separate logistic regression models was significantly related to plaques, even after adjusting for possible past asbestos exposure: cumulative fiber exposure, chi(2) = 15.2 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (all fibers), chi(2) = 14.6 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (critical dimension fibers), chi(2) = 12.4 (p < 0.01). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for levels of each metric. Increasing ORs were statistically significant for the two highest dose levels of critical dimension fibers (level three, OR = 11, 95%CI = [1.4, 98]; level four, OR = 25, 95%CI = [3.2, 190]). Similar associations existed for all metrics after adjustment for possible asbestos exposure. It was concluded that development of pleural plaques follows exposure- and dose-response patterns, and that airborne fibers in RCF manufacturing facilities include those with critical dimensions associated with pleural plaque formation. Analysis of additional air samples may improve estimates of the dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Cerâmica/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/metabolismo , Cerâmica/análise , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Radiografia
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