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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 38(1): 267-281, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600674

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, far from being resolved. The need of new drugs against new targets is imminent. In this work, we present a family of aminoalkyl resveratrol derivatives with antibacterial activity inspired by the properties of cationic amphipathic antimicrobial peptides. Surprisingly, the newly designed molecules display modest activity against aerobically growing bacteria but show surprisingly good antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) suggesting specificity towards this bacterial group. Preliminary studies into the action mechanism suggest that activity takes place at the membrane level, while no cross-resistance with traditional antibiotics is observed. Actually, some good synergistic relations with existing antibiotics were found against Gram-negative pathogens. However, some cytotoxicity was observed, despite their low haemolytic activity. Our results show the importance of the balance between positively charged moieties and hydrophobicity to improve antimicrobial activity, setting the stage for the design of new drugs based on these molecules.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Bactérias
2.
Neuropharmacology ; 225: 109373, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502868

RESUMO

Pathological accumulation of Aß oligomers has been linked to neuronal networks hyperexcitability, potentially underpinned by glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) dysfunction. We aimed to investigate whether the non-competitive block of AMPARs was able to counteract the alteration of hippocampal epileptic threshold, and of synaptic plasticity linked to Aß oligomers accumulation, being this glutamate receptor a valuable specific therapeutic target. In this work, we showed that the non-competitive AMPARs antagonist perampanel (PER) which, per se, did not affect physiological synaptic transmission, was able to counteract Aß-induced hyperexcitability. Moreover, AMPAR antagonism was able to counteract Aß-induced hippocampal LTP impairment and hippocampal-based cognitive deficits in Aß oligomers-injected mice, while retaining antiseizure efficacy. Beside this, AMPAR antagonism was also able to reduce the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in this mice model, also suggesting the presence of an anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, targeting AMPARs might be a valuable strategy to reduce both hippocampal networks hyperexcitability and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by Aß oligomers accumulation.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Amiloidose , Camundongos , Animais , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/metabolismo , Cognição
3.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1042525, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578928

RESUMO

We are recently faced with a progressive evolution of the therapeutic paradigm for radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-R DTC), since the advent of tissue agnostic inhibitors. Thus, tumor genotype assessment is always more relevant and is playing a crucial role into clinical practice. We report the case of an elderly patient with advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) harboring RET-CCDC6 fusion with four co-occurring mutations involving PI3KCA, TP53, and hTERT mutations, treated with pralsetinib under a compassionate use program. Despite the high histological grade and the coexistence of aggressive RET co-mutations, an impressive metabolic and structural tumor response has been obtained, together with a patient's prolonged clinical benefit. A timely comprehensive molecular testing of those cases wild-type for the common thyroid carcinoma BRAF V600E-like and RAS-like driver mutations may uncover actionable gene rearrangements that can be targeted by highly selective inhibitors with great potential benefit for the patients.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555798

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest a pathogenetic association between metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and cognitive decline and indicate that T2DM may represent a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are a number of experimental studies presenting evidence that ranolazine, an antianginal drug, acts as a neuroprotective drug. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ranolazine on hippocampal neurodegeneration and astrocytes activation in a T2DM rat model. Diabetes was induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Animals were divided into the following groups: HFD/STZ + Ranolazine, HFD/STZ + Metformin, HFD/STZ + Vehicle, NCD + Vehicle, NCD + Ranolazine and NCD + Metformin. The presence of neurodegeneration was evaluated in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) region by cresyl violet staining histological methods, while astrocyte activation was assessed by western blot analysis. Staining with cresyl violet highlighted a decrease in neuronal density and cell volume in the hippocampal CA1 area in diabetic HFD/STZ + Vehicle rats, while ranolazine and metformin both improved T2DM-induced neuronal loss and neuronal damage. Moreover, there was an increased expression of GFAP in the HFD/STZ + Vehicle group compared to the treated diabetic groups. In conclusion, in the present study, we obtained additional evidence supporting the potential use of ranolazine to counteract T2DM-associated cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Encefalite , Metformina , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Ratos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ranolazina/farmacologia , Ranolazina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Estreptozocina
5.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(11)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365146

RESUMO

Background: The introduction of biological agents into the clinical armamentarium has modified the management of moderate-severe inflammatory arthritis (IA). However, these drugs can lead to serious adverse events (SAEs) and unpredictable adverse events (AEs) that are difficult to detect in pre-marketing clinical trials. This pharmacovigilance project aimed to study the AEs associated with biologics use in rheumatology. Methods: The current investigation is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study based on the Calabria Biologics Pharmacovigilance Program. Patients treated with one biologic agent from January 2016 to January 2022 were enrolled. Results: Overall, 729 (86.3%) of a total of 872 patients did not develop AEs or SAEs, whereas 143 (16.4%) patients experienced at least one AE, of which 16 (1.8%) had at least one SAE. The most common AEs were administration site conditions followed by gastrointestinal, nervous system and skin disorders. We reported a total of 173 switches and 156 swaps. Switches mainly occurred for inefficacy (136; 77.7%), whereas only 39 (22.3%) were due to the onset of an AE. Primary/secondary failure was the most frequent reason for swaps (124, 79%), while AEs onset led to 33 (21%) swaps. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of our program in monitoring and detecting AEs in the rheumatological area, confirming the positive beneficial/risk ratio of biologics.

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(11)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of immune-modifying biological agents has markedly changed the clinical course and the management of Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Active post-marketing surveillance programs are fundamental to early recognize expected and unexpected adverse events (AEs), representing a powerful tool to better determine the safety profiles of biologics in a real-world setting. METHODS: This study aimed to identify the occurrence of AEs and therapeutic failures linked to biological drugs used in gastroenterology units during a prospective pharmacovigilance program in Southern Italy. Patients affected by IBDs and treated with a biologic agent, from 1 January 2019, to 31 December 2021 (study period) in three gastroenterology units were enrolled. RESULTS: Overall, 358 patients with a diagnosis of active Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis satisfying inclusion criteria have been enrolled. Infliximab (IFX) was the most administered drug at the index date (214; 59.8%), followed by Adalimumab (ADA; 89; 24.9%), Golimumab (GOL; 37; 10.3%), Vedolizumab (VDZ; 17; 4.7%) and Ustekimumab (UST; 1; 0.3%). Seventy-three patients (20.4%) experienced at least one AE, while 62 patients (17.3%) had therapeutic ineffectiveness. No serious AEs were reported in the follow-up period in the enrolled patients. AEs have been described with IFX (50/214; p = 0.47), GOL (7/37; p = 0.78), ADA (13/89; p = 0.18), and VDZ (3/17; p = 0.52), no AEs have been noticed with UST (0/1). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the low rate of AEs observed and withdrawal from treatment, our data seem to corroborate the favorable beneficial/risk profile of biologics for IBDs.

7.
Noncoding RNA ; 8(5)2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287116

RESUMO

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is most frequently found in the lung (SCLC), but it has been also reported, albeit with a very low incidence, in the ovary. Here, we analyze a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the ovary of pulmonary type (SCCOPT), a rare and aggressive tumor with poor prognosis, whose biology and molecular features have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The patient affected by SCCOPT had a residual tumor following chemotherapy which displayed pronounced similarity with neuroendocrine tumors and lung cancer in terms of its microRNA expression profile and mTOR-downstream activation. By analyzing the metabolic markers of the neoplastic lesion, we established a likely glycolytic signature. In conclusion, this in-depth characterization of SCCOPT could be useful for future diagnoses, possibly aided by microRNA profiling, allowing clinicians to adopt the most appropriate therapeutic strategy.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305474

RESUMO

Glucagon exerts multiple hepatic actions, including stimulation of glycogenolysis/gluconeogenesis. The liver plays a crucial role in chronic inflammation by synthesizing proinflammatory molecules, which are thought to contribute to insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Whether glucagon affects hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants is unknown. Herein, we report a positive relationship between fasting glucagon levels and circulating interleukin (IL)-1ß (r = 0.252, p = .042), IL-6 (r = 0.230, p = .026), fibrinogen (r = 0.193, p = .031), complement component 3 (r = 0.227, p = .024) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.230, p = .012) in individuals without diabetes. In CD1 mice, 4-week continuous treatment with glucagon induced a significant increase in circulating IL-1ß (p = .02), and IL-6 (p = .001), which was countered by the contingent administration of the glucagon receptor antagonist, GRA-II. Consistent with these results, we detected a significant increase in the hepatic activation of inflammatory pathways, such as expression of NLRP3 (p < .02), and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB; p < .02) and STAT3 (p < .01). In HepG2 cells, we found that glucagon dose-dependently stimulated the expression of IL-1ß (p < .002), IL-6 (p < .002), fibrinogen (p < .01), complement component 3 (p < .01) and C-reactive protein (p < .01), stimulated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome (p < .01) and caspase-1 (p < .05), induced the phosphorylation of TRAF2 (p < .01), NF-κB (p < .01) and STAT3 (p < .01). Preincubating cells with GRA-II inhibited the ability of glucagon to induce an inflammatory response. Using HepaRG cells, we confirmed the dose-dependent ability of glucagon to stimulate the expression of NLRP3, the phosphorylation of NF-κB and STAT3, in the absence of GRA-II. These results suggest that glucagon has proinflammatory effects that may participate in the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia and unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile.

9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(25): 2854-2866, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978866

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the primary carcinoma of the liver and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The World Health Organization estimates an increase in cases in the coming years. The risk factors of HCC are multiple, and the incidence in different countries is closely related to the different risk factors to which the population is exposed. The molecular mechanisms that drive HCC tumorigenesis are extremely complex, but understanding this multistep process is essential for the identification of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers. The development of multigenic next-generation sequencing panels through the parallel analysis of multiple markers can provide a landscape of the genomic status of the tumor. Considering the literature and our preliminary data based on 36 HCCs, the most frequently altered genes in HCCs are TERT, CTNNB1, and TP53. Over the years, many groups have attempted to classify HCCs on a molecular basis, but a univocal classification has never been achieved. Nevertheless, statistically significant correlations have been found in HCCs between the molecular signature and morphologic features, and this leads us to think that it would be desirable to integrate the approach between anatomic pathology and molecular laboratories.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mutação
10.
Endocr Pathol ; 33(3): 335-345, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819567

RESUMO

Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis (MFT) is an enigmatic entity, characterized by multiple fibrotic scar-like lesions with a paucicellular fibrotic center surrounded by a cellular peripheral area with reactive-appearing follicular cell atypia and variable chronic inflammation. Although poorly recognized and likely underreported in surgical pathology, the entity is considered rare with only 65 cases to date-including the current one reported to expand on the preoperative findings of this under-recognized entity. The average age of the patients is 46.8 years (range 15-71 years), 94% are female, with female to male ratio of 15:1. Individual MFT lesions typically have a superficial location. The average number of fibrotic lesions is 15.4 (range 2-51 per MFT case). Their average size is 3.1 mm (range 0.4-15.1). MFT is a disorder of diseased thyroids, typically found postoperatively in glands removed for other reasons, such as chronic lymphocytic/Hashimoto thyroiditis (32.3%), follicular nodular disease (nodular hyperplasia) (30.1%), hyperthyroidism/diffuse hyperplasia (Graves disease) (9.2%). Intriguing is the association with papillary thyroid carcinoma-present in 38.5% of MFT cases, and particularly with sub-centimetric and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, with which MFT can be confused. Cases where MFT is the only thyroid pathology (7.7%) can be preoperatively mistaken for papillary thyroid carcinoma, due to worrisome ultrasound (US) and cytologic features, both of which are here documented for the first time as a component of this article. Wider recognition of MFT and of its cytologic and ultrasound features at preoperative evaluation may reduce unnecessary thyroidectomies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Doença de Hashimoto , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Tireoidite , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267727, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uterine body cancers (UBC) are represented by endometrial carcinoma (EC) and uterine sarcoma (USa). The clinical management of both is hindered by the complex classification of patients into risk classes. This problem could be simplified through the development of predictive models aimed at treatment tailoring based on tumor and patient characteristics. In this context, radiomics represents a method of extracting quantitative data from images in order to non-invasively acquire tumor biological and genetic information and to predict response to treatments and prognosis. Furthermore, artificial intelligence (AI) methods are an emerging field of translational research, with the aim of managing the amount of data provided by the various -omics, including radiomics, through the process of machine learning, in order to promote precision medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this protocol for systematic review is to provide an overview of radiomics and AI studies on UBCs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review will be conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library to collect papers analyzing the impact of radiomics and AI on UBCs diagnosis, prognostic classification, and clinical outcomes. The PICO strategy will be used to formulate the research questions: What is the impact of radiomics and AI on UBCs on diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical results? How could radiomics or AI improve the differential diagnosis between sarcoma and fibroids? Does Radiomics or AI have a predictive role on UBCs response to treatments? Three authors will independently screen articles at title and abstract level based on the eligibility criteria. The risk of bias and quality of the cohort studies, case series, and case reports will be based on the QUADAS 2 quality assessment tools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253535.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Sarcoma , Neoplasias Uterinas , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 928: 175098, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700834

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that can regulate several neuronal functions. The modulation of GLP-1 receptors emerged as a potential target to treat several neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. Here, we studied the effects of acute and chronic treatment with liraglutide (LIRA), in genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPR-9s). We have also investigated the possible development of tolerance to antiseizure effects of diazepam, and how LIRA could affect this phenomenon over the same period of treatment. The present data indicate that an acute treatment with LIRA did not diminish the severity score of audiogenic seizures (AGS) in GEPR-9s. By contrast, a chronic treatment with LIRA has shown only a modest antiseizure effect that was maintained until the end of treatment, in GEPR-9s. Not surprisingly, acute administration of diazepam reduced, in a dose dependent manner, the severity of the AGS in GEPR-9s. However, when diazepam was chronically administered, an evident development of tolerance to its antiseizure effects was detected. Interestingly, following an add-on treatment with LIRA, a reduced development of tolerance and an enhanced diazepam antiseizure effect was observed in GEPR-9s. Overall, an add-on therapy with LIRA demonstrate benefits superior to single antiseizure medications and could be utilized to treat epilepsy as well as associated issues. Therefore, the potential use of GLP1 analogs for the treatment of epilepsy in combination with existing antiseizure medications could thus add a new and long-awaited dimension to its management.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Reflexa , Liraglutida , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Diazepam/farmacologia , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Epilepsia Reflexa/tratamento farmacológico , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Ratos
13.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761500

RESUMO

People with epilepsy (PWE) are more likely to develop depression and both these complex chronic diseases highly affect health-related quality of life (QOL). This comorbidity contributes to the deterioration of the QOL further than increasing the severity of epilepsy worsening prognosis. Strong scientific evidence suggests the presence of shared pathogenic mechanisms. The correct identification and management of these factors is crucial in order toto improve patients' QOL. This review article discusses recent original research of the most common pathogenic mechanisms of depression in PWE, highlights the effects of antidepressant drugs (ADs) against seizures in PWE and in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. Newer ADs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRRI) or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), particularly sertraline, citalopram, mirtazapine, reboxetine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, venlafaxine, duloxetine may lead to improvements in epilepsy severity instead the use of older tricyclic antidepressant (TCAs) can increase the occurrence of seizures. Most of data demonstrates the acute effects of ADs in animal models of epilepsy while there is a limited number of studies about the chronic antidepressant effects in epilepsy and epileptogenesis or on clinical efficacy. Much longer treatments are needed in order toto validate the effectiveness of these new alternatives in the treatment and the development of epilepsy while further clinical studies with appropriate protocols are warranted in order to understand the real potential contribution of these drugs in the management of PWE (besides their effects on mood).

14.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that different metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes are potential drug targets for the treatment of absence epilepsy. However, no information is available on mGlu3 receptors. Objective To examine whether (i) abnormalities changes of mGlu3 receptor expression/signaling are found in the somatosensory cortex and thalamus of WAG/Rij rats developing spontaneous absence seizures; (ii) selective activation of mGlu3 receptors with LY2794193 affects the number and duration of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats; and (iii) a genetic variant of GRM3 (encoding the mGlu3 receptor) is associated with absence epilepsy. METHODS: Animals: immunoblot analysis of mGlu3 receptors, GAT-1, GLAST, and GLT-1; real-time PCR analysis of mGlu3 mRNA levels; assessment of mGlu3 receptor signaling; EEG analysis of SWDs; assessment of depressive-like behavior. Humans: search for GRM3 and GRM5 missense variants in 196 patients with absence epilepsy or other IGE/GGE Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE)/ Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) and 125,748 controls. RESULTS: mGlu3 protein levels and mGlu3-mediated inhibition of cAMP formation were reduced in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex of pre-symptomatic (25-27 days old) and symptomatic (6-7 months old) WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched controls. Treatment with LY2794193 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced absence seizures and depressive-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats. LY2794193 also enhanced GAT1, GLAST, and GLT-1 protein levels in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex. GRM3 and GRM5 gene variants did not differ between epileptic patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that mGlu3 receptors modulate the activity of the cortico-thalamo-cortical circuit underlying SWDs and that selective mGlu3 receptor agonists are promising candidate drugs for absence epilepsy treatment.

15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35626213

RESUMO

Despite the efforts made in the management of PDAC, the 5-year relative survival rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still remains very low (10%). To date, precision oncology is far from being ready to be applied in cases of PDAC, although studies exploring the molecular and genetic alterations have been conducted, and the genomic landscape of PDAC has been characterized. This study aimed to apply a next-generation sequencing (NGS) laboratory-developed multigene panel to PDAC samples to find molecular alterations that could be associated with histopathological features and clinical outcomes. A total of 68 PDACs were characterized by using a laboratory-developed multigene NGS panel. KRAS and TP53 mutations were the more frequent alterations in 75.0% and 44.6% of cases, respectively. In the majority (58.7%) of specimens, more than one mutation was detected, mainly in KRAS and TP53 genes. KRAS mutation was significantly associated with a shorter time in tumor recurrence compared with KRAS wild-type tumors. Intriguingly, KRAS wild-type cases had a better short-term prognosis despite the lymph node status. In conclusion, our work highlights that the combination of KRAS mutation with the age of the patient and the lymph node status may help in predicting the outcome in PDAC patients.

16.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 20(11): 2029-2033, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524669

RESUMO

The literature on epileptic seizures in Alzheimer's disease has significantly increased over the past decades. Remarkably, several studies suggest a bi-directional link between these two common neurological diseases, with either condition carrying a nearly 2-fold risk of contracting the other in comparison to healthy subjects. In this respect, evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies indicates that epileptogenesis and neurodegeneration possibly share common underlying mechanisms. However, the precise association between epileptogenesis and neurodegeneration still needs to be fully elucidated. Targeted intervention to reduce abnormal network hyperexcitability might constitute a therapeutic strategy to postpone the onset of later neurodegenerative changes and consequent cognitive decline by many years in patients. By virtue of this, an early diagnosis and treatment of seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease should be pursued. To date, no guidelines are available for treating epileptic activity in this context, largely due to the paucity of studies sufficient to answer the related questions. Accordingly, clinical trials are mandatory, not only to inform clinicians about symptomatic management of seizures in Alzheimer's disease patients but also to detect if treatment with antiseizure medications could have disease-modifying effects. Moreover, it will be fundamental to expand the application of animal models of Alzheimer's disease to comorbid conditions, such as epilepsy both to reveal the mechanisms underlying seizure onset and to better define their role in cognitive decline. Such models could also be useful to identify pharmacological compounds having therapeutically effectiveness as well as reliable early biomarkers for seizures in Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Epilepsia , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328145

RESUMO

Since the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project identified four distinct groups based on molecular alterations, mutation analyses have been integrated into the characterization of endometrial carcinomas (ECs). ARID1A seems to be the subunit more involved in the loss of function of the SWI/SNF complex in ECs. The aim of this study is to define the relevance of ARID1A alterations in a cohort of EC, studying the possible associations between DNA mutation (genomic level), RNA expression (transcriptomic level), and protein expression (proteomic level). A total of 50 endometrial carcinomas were characterized for ARID1A mutations (using targeted DNA next-generation sequencing-NGS), ARID1A gene expression (using RNAseq and qRT-PCR), and ARID1A protein expression (using immunohistochemistry-IHC). Moreover, we have investigated if ARID1A mutations may alter the protein structure, using the Protein Data Bank sequence. We found a good correlation between ARID1A mutations and protein immunostaining, even if we did not find statistically significant differences in the ARID1A expression levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the molecular characterization of ARID1A should be associated with IHC analysis, mainly in those cases harboring "novel" ARID1A mutations or in those alterations with "uncertain" pathogenic significance.

18.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(2)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214027

RESUMO

(1) Background: Colchicine is a natural alkaloid with anti-inflammatory properties used to treat various disorders, including some skin diseases. This paper aims to incorporate all the available studies proposing colchicine as a treatment alternative in the management of cutaneous conditions. (2) Methods: In this systematic review, the available articles present in various databases (PubMed, Scopus-Embase, and Web of Science), proposing colchicine as a treatment for cutaneous pathological conditions, have been selected. Exclusion criteria included a non-English language and non-human studies. (3) Results: Ninety-six studies were included. Most of them were case reports and case series studies describing colchicine as single therapy, or in combination with other drugs. Hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, erythema induratum, storage diseases, perforating dermatosis, bullous diseases, psoriasis, vasculitis, acne, urticaria, stomatitis, actinic keratosis, and pustular dermatosis were the main diseases discussed in literature. Although the therapeutic outcomes were variable, most of the studies reported, on average, good clinical results (4) Conclusions: Colchicine could be, as a single therapy or in combination with other drugs, a possible treatment to manage several skin diseases.

19.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(5): 2702-2714, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167014

RESUMO

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant with some demonstrated efficacy in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. NAC has shown anticonvulsant effects in animal models. NAC effects on absence seizures are still not uncovered, and considering its clinical use as a mucolytic in patients with lung diseases, people with epilepsy are also likely to be exposed to the drug. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of NAC on absence seizures in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy with neuropsychiatric comorbidities. The effects of NAC chronic treatment in WAG/Rij rats were evaluated on: absence seizures at 15 and 30 days by EEG recordings and animal behaviour at 30 days on neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of NAC was evaluated by analysing brain expression levels of some possible key targets: the excitatory amino acid transporter 2, cystine-glutamate antiporter, metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, the mechanistic target of rapamycin and p70S6K as well as levels of total glutathione. Our results demonstrate that in WAG/Rij rats, NAC treatment significantly increased the number and duration of SWDs, aggravating absence epilepsy while ameliorating neuropsychiatric comorbidities. NAC treatment was linked to an increase in brain mGlu2 receptor expression with this being likely responsible for the observed absence seizure-promoting effects. In conclusion, while confirming the positive effects on animal behaviour induced by NAC also in epileptic animals, we report the aggravating effects of NAC on absence seizures which could have some serious consequences for epilepsy patients with the possible wider use of NAC in clinical therapeutics.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/complicações , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ratos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(3)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35160969

RESUMO

We report theoretical and experimental results on the transition metal pnictide WP. The theoretical outcomes based on tight-binding calculations and density functional theory indicate that WP is a three-dimensional superconductor with an anisotropic electronic structure and nonsymmorphic symmetries. On the other hand, magnetoresistance experimental data and the analysis of superconducting fluctuations of the conductivity in external magnetic field indicate a weakly anisotropic three-dimensional superconducting phase.

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