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1.
Health Serv Res ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of provider incentive policy on smoking status documentation. DATA SOURCES: Primary data were extracted from structured electronic medical records (EMRs) from 15 community health centers (CHCs). STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study of data from 2006 to 2013, assessing changes in documentation of smoking status over time. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We extracted structured EMR data for patients age 18 and older with at least one primary care visit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rates of documented smoking status rose from 30 percent in 2006 to 90 percent in 2013; the largest increase occurred from 2011 to 2012 following policy changes (21.3% [95% CI, 8.2%, 34.4%] from the overall trend). Rates varied by clinic and across patient subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of smoking status improved markedly after introduction of new federal standards. Further improvement in documentation is still needed, especially for males, nonwhite patients, those using opioids, and HIV + patients. More research is needed to study whether changes in documentation lead to improvements in counseling, cessation, and patient outcomes.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 39.e21-39.e27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in a contemporary population of U.S. non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated in a community-based setting and compare our findings to those from another U.S. health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,491 NMIBC patients with a median follow-up of 2.1 years (recurrence) and 4.1 years (progression). We calculated NCCN risk groupings and EORTC prognostic index for recurrence and progression. We followed Royston and Altman's guidelines for the external validation of prognostic calculators. RESULTS: For predicting recurrence using the EORTC framework, Harrell's C (a measure of discrimination) was smaller in our sample (0.66) than in the European Association of Urology sample (0.61), whereas for progression, Harrell's C was larger in our sample (0.78 vs. 0.75). The EORTC calculator overestimated progression risk in the highest stratum for our sample; calibration and discrimination were adequate for all groups except the highest risk group. For NCCN risk groupings, Harrell's C was 0.54 for recurrence and 0.62 for progression, suggesting poor to fair discrimination in our sample. The NCCN framework had slightly better performance for predicting progression vs. recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Existing NMIBC risk-stratification frameworks have acceptable accuracy to predict outcomes. However, further innovation in NMIBC care will require predictive tools with more granularity to reflect the differential risks of subgroups of NMIBC recurrence, prior treatment histories, and other prognostic variables.

3.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
4.
Qual Life Res ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 89: 105920, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is an accessible and cost-effective strategy to lower CRC incidence and mortality. However, this mode of screening depends on follow-up colonoscopy after a positive FIT result. Unfortunately, nearly one-half of FIT-positive patients fail to complete this essential screening component. Patient navigation may improve follow-up colonoscopy adherence. To deliver patient navigation cost-effectively, health centers could target navigation to patients who are unlikely to complete the procedure on their own. OBJECTIVES: The Predicting and Addressing Colonoscopy Non-adherence in Community Settings (PRECISE) clinical trial will validate a risk model of follow-up colonoscopy adherence and test whether patient navigation raises rates of colonoscopy adherence overall and among patients in each probability stratum (low, moderate, and high probability of adherence without intervention). METHODS: PRECISE is a collaboration with a large community health center whose patient population is 37% Latino. Eligible patients will be aged 50-75, have an abnormal FIT result in the past month, and be due for a follow-up colonoscopy. Patients will be randomized to patient navigation or usual care. Primary outcomes will be colonoscopy completion within one year of a positive FIT result, cost, and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes will include time to colonoscopy receipt, adequacy of bowel prep, and communication of results to primary care providers. Primary and secondary outcomes will be reported overall and by probability stratum. DISCUSSION: This innovative clinical trial will test the effectiveness and financial feasibility of using a precision health intervention to improve CRC screening completion in community health centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Clinical Trial (NCT) Identifier: NCT03925883.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 306, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problem among youth, contribute to reduced quality of daily life, and are associated with high rates of comorbidity. However, treatment rates for anxiety are very low, causing a sizeable treatment gap. There is an immediate need to identify treatment interventions that are effective, affordable, and can be delivered easily to the youth population. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) is one potentially effective intervention that could reach youth on a large scale, especially when self-administered at home. Thus, we aim to assess the benefit of CBM to treat youth anxiety. Further, we aim to test whether adding an adherence promotion (AP) component to the CBM intervention can improve outcomes, and whether CBM delivered both with and without the AP component is cost effective. METHODS: This is a 12-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted within an existing healthcare system. Potentially eligible youth (ages 12 to 17) will be identified by reviewing the electronic health record (EHR) for clinical anxiety diagnoses, which are then confirmed via research interview. We aim to enroll 498 participants and randomize them 1:1:1 to one of three arms: Arm 1 is a Low-Ratio version of the CBM program (nearly identical to the other CBM versions, but minimally effective); Arm 2 is a High-Ratio "active" CBM program; and Arm 3 is the High-Ratio CBM program with an added AP component. Participants will complete assessments at baseline, 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Youth in all three arms will self-administer the CBM program at home and will be asked to complete twelve intervention sessions over a four-week period. Arm 3 participants (High-Ratio CBM + AP) will also receive up to four telephone calls from phone coaches during the intervention period to provide technical assistance, encouragement, and motivational enhancement to increase adherence. The primary clinical outcome will be anxiety remission at 6-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: This study protocol describes the method and design for an RCT to test whether self-administered CBM both with and without adherence promotion can be an effective at-home treatment for anxious youth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02156531, First Posted June 5, 2014.

7.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the approximately 53,000 patients newly diagnosed with early-stage (superficial) bladder cancer each year, there is substantial variability in the progression to muscle-invasive disease. Enhancing risk stratification and risk-stratified surveillance could minimize risks and harms to patients, as well as unnecessary costs to health systems. OBJECTIVES: As a preliminary step in developing and validating a risk assessment tool for superficial bladder cancer in a population-based clinical cohort, we interviewed urologists who might use such a tool to assess need, determine potential use cases, and identify key features to include. METHODS: Using an opportunistic and purposeful sampling design, we invited 13 urologists from a variety of practice settings and with a wide range of clinical experience to take part in qualitative interviews; 9 (5 urologic oncologists and 4 general urologists) participated. RESULTS: All urologists reported using some form of risk stratification to determine surveillance schedules for patients with bladder cancer. The following use cases were endorsed by 4 or more interviewees: 1) provide evidence to guide clinical management in specific situations, 2) generate patient-facing communication aids, 3) improve documentation about recurrence/progression risk, and 4) create scheduling and callback supports to improve the quality of follow-up care. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated several potential clinical-use cases for a risk calculator and clinical decision-support tool for patients with superficial bladder cancer. Clinicians stressed the potential utility of such a tool to improve patient communication, scheduling, and tracking in general urology practice.

8.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 32(3): 318-328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving uptake of colorectal cancer screening has the potential of saving thousands of lives. We compared the effectiveness of automated and live prompts and reminders as part of a mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach program. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1767 adults aged 50 to 75 eyars who were not up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening recommendations at a participating community health center clinic. In addition to a mailed FIT kit, participants were randomized to receive (1) a text message prompt and 2 automated phone call reminders (automated condition); (2) up to 3 live call reminders (live condition); or (3) a text message prompt, 2 automated call reminders, and up to 3 live reminders (combined automated plus live condition). We assessed FIT completion rates in each group 6 months following randomization. KEY RESULTS: Nearly one-third of participants completed an FIT within 6 months. Compared with adults allocated to the automated condition, FIT completion rates were higher in adults allocated to the live condition (32.3% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 6.3 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and in adults allocated to the combined automated plus live condition (35.7% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 9.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.4-14.9). The number of kits needed to mail to achieve a completed FIT ranged from 2.8 in the combined automated plus live condition to 3.8 in the automated condition. CONCLUSIONS: Among unscreened individuals in this population, live phone call reminders either alone or in combination with automated prompts and reminders outperformed automated approaches alone.

9.
J Urol ; 202(1): 83-89, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient centered care aims to align treatment with patient goals, especially when treatment options have equivalent clinical outcomes. For surgeries with lasting impacts that alignment is critical. To our knowledge no psychometrically tested preference elicitation measures exist to support patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy, who can often choose between ileal conduit and neobladder diversions. In this study we created a scale to measure how patient goals align with each type of urinary diversion and the associated surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed formative research through focus groups and clinician outreach to adapt a goal dissonance measure. We mailed a survey to adult Kaiser Permanente® members who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 2013 and June 2015. Eligible patients were identified through electronic health records and chart review. Surveys were mailed 5 to 7 months postoperatively. We administered our 10-item decision dissonance scale along with other decision making measures. We explored goal alignment as well as dissonance. Psychometric analysis included factor analysis, evaluation of scale scores between surgery groups and evaluation with other decision making scores. RESULTS: We identified 10 goals associated with ileal conduit or neobladder diversion. Using survey data on 215 patients our scale differentiated patient goals associated with each diversion choice. On average patients with a neobladder strongly valued neobladder aligned goals such as maintaining body integrity and volitional voiding through the urethra. Patients with an ileal conduit had neutral values on average across all goals. CONCLUSIONS: Our measure lays the foundation for a simple value elicitation approach which could facilitate shared decision making about urinary diversion choice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Idoso , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Derivação Urinária/métodos
10.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 6(4): 799-805, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. A clinical diagnosis of hyperglycemia is often necessary to access interventions. We examined the prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a group of low-income overweight or obese Hispanic women, who were receiving care at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). METHODS: Among 196 overweight or obese Hispanic women (mean age 44 ± 10 years, mean weight 86.8 ± 16.5 kg, mean body mass index [BMI] 36.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2) enrolled in a randomized clinical weight-loss trial, we compared A1C and fasting blood glucose (FBG) obtained at baseline with women's existing diabetes and prediabetes diagnoses in the medical record. RESULTS: According to the information in participants' medical records, 36% (70/196) had diagnosed diabetes, 20% (39/196) had a diagnosis of prediabetes, and the remaining 44% (87/196) had neither diagnosis. Among participants without a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes during the baseline screening for our study, 63% (55/87) had at least one test in the prediabetes range (baseline A1C and FBG were in prediabetes range for 39 and 55 participants, respectively), and 13% (11/87) had at least one test in the diabetic range (baseline A1C and FBG values in diabetes range for 3 and 11 participants, respectively). DISCUSSION: We found substantial prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a sample of overweight and obese Hispanic women. It is possible that limited awareness of diabetes risk may be a barrier to patient compliance with screening recommendations.

11.
Urology ; 125: 222-229, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contributions of patient and surgeon factors for predicting selection of ileal conduit (IC), neobladder (NB), or continent pouch (CP) urinary diversions (UD) for patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive/high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. This information is needed to enhance research comparing cancer survivors' outcomes across different surgical treatment options. METHODS: Bladder cancer patients' age ≥21 years with cystectomy/UD performed from January 2010 to June 2015 in 3 Kaiser Permanente regions were included. All patient and surgeon data were obtained from electronic health records. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used treating surgeon as a random effect and region as a fixed effect. RESULTS: Of 991 eligible patients, 794 (80%) received IC. One hundred sixty-nine surgeons performed the surgeries and accounted for a sizeable proportion of the variability in patient receipt of UD (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.26). The multilevel model with only patient factors showed good fit (area under the curve = 0.93, Hosmer-Lemeshow test P = .44), and older age, female sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate <45, 4+ comorbidity index score, and stage III/IV tumors were associated with higher odds of receiving an IC vs neobladder/continent pouch. However, including surgeon factors (annual cystectomy volume, specialty training, clinical tenure) had no association (P = .29). CONCLUSION: In this community setting, patient factors were major predictors of UD received. Surgeons also played a substantial role, yet clinical training and experience were not major predictors. Surgeon factors such as beliefs about UD options and outcomes should be explored.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Derivação Urinária/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Menopause ; 26(3): 265-272, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal atrophy is a common, but under-recognized condition affecting postmenopausal women. To guide development of an intervention to boost its detection and treatment, we surveyed primary care and gynecology clinicians practicing in an integrated healthcare system. METHODS: We constructed a three-part survey that contained (1) eight multiple-choice knowledge questions; (2) three Likert-scale questions regarding clinicians' likelihood of assessing for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms at a routine (well) visit, confidence in advising patients about symptoms and counseling about therapy; and (3) a 12-item check list of potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Analyses were performed using multiple regression. RESULTS: Of the 360 clinicians who were sent an e-mail request, 119 (90 primary care, 29 gynecology) completed the survey (33%). Responders and nonresponders did not differ by age, specialty, or clinician type. The proportion with correct responses to knowledge questions differed between primary care (63%) and gynecology (77%) (adjusted mean difference [AMD] =16, 95% CI [10-22]). Primary care clinicians were less likely than gynecology clinicians to assess for symptoms (AMD = 1.04, 95% CI [0.55-1.52]), and were less confident about their ability to advise on symptoms (AMD = 0.66, 95% CI [0.33-0.99]) and to counsel patients about treatment (AMD = 0.76, 95% CI [0.42-1.10]). Lack of time (71%) and educational materials (44%) were the most common barriers to diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care and gynecology clinicians differ in their knowledge and confidence in managing vulvovaginal atrophy but report similar practice barriers. Addressing identified knowledge deficits and practice barriers may lead to improved management of vulvovaginal atrophy.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200139, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanded carrier screening can provide risk information for numerous conditions. Understanding how individuals undergoing preconception expanded carrier screening value this information is important. The NextGen study evaluated the use of genome sequencing for expanded carrier screening and reporting secondary findings, and we measured participants' willingness to pay for this approach to understand how it is valued by women and couples planning a pregnancy. METHODS: We assessed 277 participants' willingness to pay for genome sequencing reporting carrier results for 728 gene/condition pairs and results for 121 secondary findings. We explored the association between attitudes and demographic factors and willingness to pay for expanded carrier screening using genome sequencing and conducted interviews with 58 of these participants to probe the reasoning behind their preferences. RESULTS: Most participants were willing to pay for expanded carrier screening using genome sequencing. Willingness to pay was associated with income level and religiosity, but not risk status for a condition in the carrier panel. Participants willing to pay nothing or a small amount cited issues around financial resources, whereas those willing to pay higher amounts were motivated by "peace of mind" from carrier results. CONCLUSION: Women and couples planning a pregnancy value genome sequencing. The potentially high out-of-pocket cost of this service could result in healthcare disparities, since maximum amounts that participants were willing to pay were higher than a typical copay and related to income.


Assuntos
Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Renda , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Religião e Medicina
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 37(5): 809-816, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733724

RESUMO

Genomics-based carrier screening is one of many opportunities to use genomic information to inform medical decision making, but clinicians, health care delivery systems, and payers need to determine whether to offer screening and how to do so in an efficient, ethical way. To shed light on this issue, we conducted a study in the period 2014-17 to inform the design of clinical screening programs and guide further health services research. Many of our results have been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the lessons we learned from that study and offers policy insights. Our experience can inform understanding of the potential impact of expanded carrier screening services on health system workflows and workforces-impacts that depend on the details of the screening approach. We found limited patient or health system harms from expanded screening. We also found that some patients valued the information they learned from the process. Future policy discussions should consider the value of offering such expanded carrier screening in health delivery systems with limited resources.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Genômica , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(Suppl 1): 31-37, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is highly prevalent, and the ability to routinely measure patients' pain and treatment response using validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments is important to clinical care. Despite this recognition, systematic use in everyday clinical care is rare. AIMS: The aims of this study were to (1) describe infrastructure designed to automate PRO data collection, (2) compare study-enhanced PRO completion rates to those in clinical care, and (3) evaluate patient response rates by method of PRO administration and sociodemographic and/or clinical characteristics. SETTING: The Pain Program for Active Coping and Training (PPACT) is a pragmatic clinical trial conducted within three regions of the Kaiser Permanente health care system. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: PPACT evaluates the effect of integrative primary care-based pain management services on outcomes for chronic pain patients on long-term opioid treatment. We implemented a tiered process for quarterly assessment of PROs to supplement clinical collection and ensure adequate trial data using three methods: web-based personal health records (PHR), automated interactive voice response (IVR) calls, and live outreach. PROGRAM EVALUATION: Among a subset of PPACT participants examined (n = 632), the tiered study-enhanced PRO completion rates were higher than in clinical care: 96% completed ≥ 1 study-administered PRO with mean of 3.46 (SD = 0.85) vs. 74% completed in clinical care with a mean of 2.43 (SD = 2.08). Among all PPACT participants at 3 months (n = 831), PRO completion was 86% and analyses of response by key characteristics found only that participant age predicted an increased likelihood of responding to PHR and IVR outreach. DISCUSSION: Adherence to pain-related PRO data collection using our enhanced tiered approach was high. No demographic or clinical identifiers other than age were associated with differential response by modality. Successful ancillary support should employ multimodal electronic health record functionalities for PRO administration. Using automated modalities is feasible and may facilitate better sustainability for regular PRO administration within health care systems. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02113592.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 67: 91-99, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is one of the most common, disabling, and expensive public health problems in the United States. Interdisciplinary pain management treatments that employ behavioral approaches have been successful in helping patients with chronic pain reduce symptoms and regain functioning. However, most patients lack access to such treatments. We are conducting a pragmatic clinical trial to test the hypothesis that patients who receive an interdisciplinary biopsychosocial intervention, the Pain Program for Active Coping and Training (PPACT), at their primary care clinic will have a greater reduction in pain impact in the year following than patients receiving usual care. METHODS/DESIGN: This is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid pragmatic clinical trial in which we randomize clusters of primary care providers and their patients with chronic pain who are on long-term opioid therapy to 1) receive an interdisciplinary behavioral intervention in conjunction with their current health care or 2) continue with current health care services. Our primary outcome is pain impact (a composite of pain intensity and pain-related interference) measured using the PEG, a validated three-item assessment. Secondary outcomes include pain-related disability, patient satisfaction, opioids dispensed and health care utilization. An economic evaluation assesses the resources and costs necessary to deliver the intervention and its cost-effectiveness compared with usual care. A formative evaluation employs mixed methods to understand the context for implementation in the participating health care systems. DISCUSSION: This trial will inform the feasibility of implementing interdisciplinary behavioral approaches to pain management in the primary care setting, potentially providing a more effective, safer, and more satisfactory alternative to opioid-based chronic pain treatment. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02113592.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/métodos , Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Qualidade de Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Genet Couns ; 27(4): 823-833, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423569

RESUMO

Advances in technology and the promise of personalized health care are driving greater use of genome sequencing (GS) for a variety of clinical scenarios. As health systems consider adopting GS, they need to understand the impact of GS on the organization and cost of care. While research has documented a dramatic decrease in the cost of sequencing and interpreting GS, few studies have examined how GS impacts genetic counseling workloads. This study examined the time needed to provide genetic counseling for GS in the context of preconception carrier screening. Genetic counselors prospectively reported on the time spent in the results disclosure process with 107 study participants who were part of the NextGen study. We found that the median time for results disclosure was 64 min (ranged from 5 to 229 min). Preparation work was the most time-consuming activity. Qualitative data from journal entries, debrief interviews with genetic counselors, and detailed case conference notes provided information on factors influencing time for results disclosure and implications for practice. Results suggest that expanded carrier screening could require significant increases in genetic counseling time, unless we are able to generate new resources to reduce preparation work or develop other strategies such as the creation of new models to deliver this type of service.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/economia , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 67: 11-15, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The Participatory Research to Advance Colon Cancer Prevention (PROMPT) study is a collaboration between two research institutions and a federally qualified health center (FQHC). The study seeks to raise colon cancer screening rates using a direct-mail fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and reminder program in an FQHC serving a predominantly Latino population in California. METHODS: PROMPT is a pragmatic trial enrolling 16 clinics. The study will test automated and live prompts (i.e., alerts, reminders) to a direct-mail FIT program in two phases. In Phase I, we tailored and defined intervention components for the pilot using a community-based participatory research approach called boot camp translation. We then plan to conduct a three-arm patient-randomized comparative effectiveness trial in two pilot clinics to compare 1) automated prompts, 2) live prompts, and 3) a combination of automated plus live prompts to alert and remind patients to complete screening. In Phase II, the adapted best practice intervention will be spread to additional clinics within the FQHC (estimated population 27,000) and assessed for effectiveness. Patient and staff interviews will be conducted to explore receptivity to the program and identify barriers to implementation. DISCUSSION: This pragmatic trial applies innovative approaches to engage diverse stakeholders and will test the effectiveness and spread of a direct-mail plus reminder program. If successful, the program will provide a model for a cost-effective method to raise colon cancer screening rates among Latino patients receiving care in FQHCs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Clinical Trial (NCT) Identifier NCT03167125.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Sangue Oculto , Sistemas de Alerta , California , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade
19.
Matern Child Health J ; 22(8): 1172-1182, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476416

RESUMO

Objective Evaluate the efficacy of a 12 month nursing case-management intervention over a period of 18 months, 6 months after the end of intervention, for families of children attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Mother and child dyads were enrolled to participate in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Children were 4-18 years old. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months or 6 months after the termination of direct intervention. Longitudinal analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were conducted to assess change in study outcomes relating to family function, maternal stress, and child behavior over the 18 month period. Results Compared to control families, some family function outcomes were moderately improved in the intervention group. In particular, intervention families demonstrated substantial improvement in implementing family behavior controls (p value = 0.038) and improvement in family satisfaction (not statistically significant p = 0.062). Although there was improvement in the overall family function measure there was not a statistically significant difference between groups. Maternal stress and child behavior outcomes were not significantly different between control and intervention groups by the end of the intervention. Conclusions for Practice Addressing ADHD is complex and requires the assessment of comorbidities that might exacerbate negative behavior. Our findings support the latest American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines to use behavioral therapy as the first line of treatment in young children. Nursing case-management interventions that provide direct family education and improve family function, especially with respect to providing structure and behavior control, may complement and facilitate behavioral therapy for treatment of ADHD and improving child behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Comportamento Infantil , Família , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon
20.
Pediatrics ; 141(2)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescents with depression identified in primary care settings often have limited treatment options beyond antidepressant (AD) therapy. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program among depressed adolescents who declined or quickly stopped using ADs. METHODS: A total of 212 youth with depression were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus brief individual CBT. Clinical outcomes included depression-free days (DFDs) and estimated quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs were adjusted to 2008 US dollars. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) comparing CBT to TAU were calculated over 12- and 24-month follow-up periods. RESULTS: Youth randomly assigned to CBT had 26.8 more DFDs (P = .044) and 0.067 more QALYs (P = .044) on average compared with TAU over 12 months. Total costs were $4976 less (P = .025) by the end of the 24-month follow-up among youth randomly assigned to CBT. Total costs per DFD were -$51 (ICER = -$51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -$394 to $9) at 12 months and -$115 (ICER = -$115; 95% CI: -$1090 to -$6) at 24 months. Total costs per QALY were -$20 282 (ICER = -$20 282; 95% CI: -$156 741 to $3617) at 12 months and -$45 792 (ICER = -$45 792; 95% CI: -$440 991 to -$2731) at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Brief primary care CBT among youth declining AD therapy is cost-effective by widely accepted standards in depression treatment. CBT becomes dominant over TAU over time, as revealed by a statistically significant cost offset at the end of the 2-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
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