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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a web-based, patient-facing decision aid to support patients and research participants to make an informed, values-based decision about whether to receive additional results from genomic sequencing. METHODS: We developed the decision aid following the multi-step process described in the International Patient Decision Aids Standards. This utilized literature review, focus groups, and alpha testing with research participants undergoing clinical genomic sequencing. RESULTS: The decision aid, the Optional Results Choice Aid (ORCA), includes a seven-question "values clarification exercise," illustrative patient quotes, and summative guidance for the user. The decision aid was found to be highly readable, acceptable and relevant in alpha testing. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision aid to support informed, values-based decision making for patients and research participants considering whether to receive additional results from genomic sequencing. ORCA is being implemented in the NHGRI-funded Cancer Health Assessment Reaching Many (CHARM) study, where we are measuring informed values-choice congruence. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: ORCA was designed to support patients and research participants to make an informed, values-based decision about whether to receive additional results from genomic sequencing.

2.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has heterogeneous recurrence and progression outcomes. Available risk calculators estimate recurrence and progression but do not predict the recurrence stage or grade, which may influence downstream treatment. The objective of this study was to predict risk-stratified NMIBC recurrence and progression based on recurrence tumor classification and grade. METHODS: In total, 2956 patients with NMIBC (

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mailing fecal immunochemical test (FITs) to individuals who are due for screening (mailed FIT outreach) increases colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Little is known about how phone-based advance notifications (primers) affect the effectiveness of these programs. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of patients at a large urban health center, 50-75 years old and due for screening, with no record of a prior FIT. Participants were randomly assigned to groups that received a live phone call primer (n = 1203) or a text message primer (n = 1622), from June through December 2018. The participants were then mailed a FIT kit, followed by 2 automated calls, and live reminder calls delivered by the care team. The main outcome was completion of FIT within 3 months of assignment to the live phone call or text message group. RESULTS: Participants had FIT completion rate of 16.8%, a mean age of 58 years, and 80% were Latino. In adjusted intention to treat analyses (n = 2825), FIT completion rates were higher in the patients assigned to receive a live phone call vs text message primer (percentage point difference, 3.3%; 95% CI, 0.4%-6.2%). Between-group differences increased to 7.3% points (95% CI, 3.6%-11.0%) in the per-protocol analysis of 2144 participants reached by the text message (1320/1622, 81%), live call (438/1203, 36%), or voice message (386/1203, 32%). This rate increased to 14.9% points (95% CI; 9.6%-20.1%) in the per-protocol analysis of 1758 participants reached by the text message or reached by the live call. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial, advance notification live phone calls outperformed text messages in reminding health center patients who had not previously completed a FIT to complete a mailed FIT. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT03167125.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genitourinary symptoms are common in postmenopausal women and adversely affect the quality of life. National surveys and data collected from our healthcare system indicate that postmenopausal women with the genitourinary syndrome of menopause often fail to receive appropriate diagnosis or treatment. OBJECTIVE: To promote greater detection and treatment of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, we created and tested a clinician-focused health system intervention that included clinician education sessions and a suite of evidence-based electronic health record tools. STUDY DESIGN: Using a cluster-randomized design, we allocated primary care (16) and gynecology (6) clinics to the intervention or control group. From September to November 2014, we provided training about the diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause in face-to-face presentations at each intervention clinic and in an online video. We developed clinical decision support tools in the electronic health record that contained an evidence-based, point-of-care knowledge resource, a standardized order set, and a checklist of patient education materials for the patient's after visit summary. The tools aimed to facilitate accurate diagnostic coding and prescribing (SmartSet, SmartRx) along with relevant patient information (SmartText). Clinicians who only performed visits at control clinics received no training or notification about the tools. Our primary outcome was vulvovaginal diagnoses made at well visits for women at the age of 55 years and older from November 15, 2014 to November 15, 2015. We also assessed urinary diagnoses, vaginal estrogen prescriptions, and use of the electronic tools. There was departmental support for the intervention but no prioritization within the healthcare system to incentivize change. RESULTS: In the 1-year period, 386 clinicians performed 14,921 well visits for women at the age of 55 years and older. Among the 190 clinicians who performed well visits in the intervention clinics, 109 (57.4%) completed either in-person or online educational training. The proportion of visits that included a vulvovaginal (7.2% vs 5.8%; odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.51) or urinary diagnosis (2.5% vs 3.1%; odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.13) or vaginal estrogen prescription (4.5% vs 3.7%; odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.46) did not differ between study arms. There was a significant interaction for primary care and gynecology, which revealed more vulvovaginal diagnoses by gynecology but not primary care intervention clinics (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.31), but there was no significant interaction for prescriptions. Clinicians in the intervention clinics were more likely to use decision support tools than those in control clinics-SmartSet (22.2% vs 1.5%; odds ratio, 18.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-63.8) and SmartText for patient information (38.0% vs 24.4%; odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.34). A per-protocol analysis revealed similar findings. CONCLUSION: Overall, the intervention did not lead to more diagnoses or prescription therapy for postmenopausal genitourinary symptoms but did result in greater distribution of patient information. Gynecology clinicians were more likely to address genitourinary symptoms generally and were more likely to make a vulvovaginal diagnosis after the intervention. Further efforts for improving care should consider ongoing clinician education beginning with enhanced menopause curricula in residency training. Additional interventions to consider include greater access for postmenopausal women to gynecologic care, addressing treatment barriers, and development of national performance metrics.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495304

RESUMO

Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), with obesity and unhealthy eating being important contributing factors. A cross-sectional design was used in this study to identify dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors. Participants completed a culturally adapted Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing intake over the prior 3 months. Overweight/obese Hispanic women (n = 191) with or at risk for T2D were recruited from a community clinic into a weight loss intervention. Only baseline data was used for this analysis. Dietary patterns and their association with diabetes risk factors (age, body mass index, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose [FBG], and hemoglobin A1c). An exploratory factor analysis of dietary data adjusted for energy intake was used to identify eating patterns, and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to assess the association of the eating patterns with the diabetes risk factors. Six meaningful patterns with healthful and unhealthful traits emerged: (1) sugar and fat-laden, (2) plant foods and fish, (3) soups and starchy dishes, (4) meats and snacks, (5) beans and grains, and (6) eggs and dairy. Scores for the "sugar and fat-laden" and "meats and snacks" patterns were negatively associated with age (r = - 0.230, p = 0.001 and r = - 0.298, p < 0.001, respectively). Scores for "plant foods and fish" were positively associated with FBG (r = 0.152, p = 0.037). Being younger may be an important risk factor for a diet rich in sugar and fat; this highlights the need to assess dietary patterns among younger Hispanic women to identify traits potentially detrimental for their health.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(15): 4054-4063, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A major challenge in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treatment is selection of the most appropriate therapeutic approach for individual patients. We conducted an external prospective-retrospective clinical validation of a DCIS biologic risk signature, DCISionRT, in a population-based observational cohort of women diagnosed with DCIS and treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Participants were 455 health plan members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest diagnosed with DCIS and treated with BCS with or without radiotherapy from 1990 to 2007. The biologic signature combined seven protein tumor markers assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue with four clinicopathologic factors to provide a DCISionRT test result, termed decision score (DS). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to measure the association of the DS, continuous (linear) or categorical (DS ≤ 3 vs. DS > 3), and subsequent total ipsilateral breast events and invasive ipsilateral breast events at least 6 months after initial surgery. RESULTS: In Cox regression, the continuous and categorical DS variables were positively associated with total and invasive breast event risk after adjustment for radiotherapy. In a subset analysis by treatment group, categorical Kaplan-Meier analyses showed at least 2-fold differences in 10-year risk of total breast events between the elevated-risk and low-risk DS categories. CONCLUSIONS: In this first external validation study of the DCISionRT test, the DS was prognostic for the risk of later breast events for women diagnosed with DCIS, following BCS.

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 91: 105967, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114185

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Extant treatments for youth depression are only modestly effective. Alternative approaches are needed to improve health outcomes. A novel approach to improve depression outcomes is suggested by epidemiological studies finding that insomnia often predates and may contribute to depression risk. We test whether treating insomnia among youth starting a new course of SSRI antidepressants improves depression outcomes. This paper describes our study design. DESIGN: 2-arm randomized controlled efficacy-effectiveness trial. SETTING: A large non-profit health maintenance organization. PARTICIPANTS: 165 adolescents aged 12-19 with research-confirmed depression and insomnia diagnoses, starting a new episode of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment prescribed by their usual care provider. INTERVENTIONS: Two sleep interventions, each 6-7 sessions, both overlaying "treatment as usual" (TAU) SSRIs: a sleep hygiene (SH) attention control condition, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: If CBT-I improved sleep is shown to improve depression-related outcomes, this may provide an additional, easily tolerated intervention for an important public health target. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02290496, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02290496.

8.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 17: 100527, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083219

RESUMO

Background: Intervention adherence and trial retention are challenging for clinical trials testing intensive behavioral interventions. Operational constraints or trial designs may preclude using effective retention strategies such as financial incentives. We examined whether implementing pre-enrollment orientation sessions was associated with higher intervention adherence and retention in a pragmatic clinical trial. Methods: The trial tested an intensive behavioral intervention for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioids. Orientation sessions were implemented two years into trial recruitment at one site. Held before informed consent and randomization, these mandatory, group-based orientation sessions provided trial specifics, explained research methods principles, and leveraged motivational interviewing techniques. Using a pre-post design and multivariate models, we assessed adherence (number of intervention meetings attended) and retention (completed quarterly pain assessments over 12 months) before (04/2014-12/2015; n = 209) and after (01/2016-02/2017; n = 258) implementation. Also, we evaluated whether session implementation affected the proportion and characteristics of enrolled patients. Results: After implementing orientation sessions, patients had higher intervention adherence than before (M = 7.6, SD = 3.8 vs. M = 5.6, SD = 4.5, respectively; mean difference = 2.0, 95% CI [0.9, 3.2], p = .001), and 2.8 times greater odds of completing quarterly assessments (95% CI [1.3, 5.8], p = .007). Fewer patients enrolled after implementing sessions than before (38.1% vs. 70.8%, 95% CI [26.4, 39.1], p < .001), with no differences in patient characteristics. Conclusions: Implementing orientation sessions during recruitment may be useful for promoting trial adherence and retention. To ensure enrollment goals are met, target population size and barriers affecting patients' ability to attend orientation sessions should be considered, especially for patients with complex medical conditions. Clinical trials registration number: NCT02113592.

9.
Health Serv Res ; 55(2): 170-177, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of provider incentive policy on smoking status documentation. DATA SOURCES: Primary data were extracted from structured electronic medical records (EMRs) from 15 community health centers (CHCs). STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study of data from 2006 to 2013, assessing changes in documentation of smoking status over time. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We extracted structured EMR data for patients age 18 and older with at least one primary care visit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rates of documented smoking status rose from 30 percent in 2006 to 90 percent in 2013; the largest increase occurred from 2011 to 2012 following policy changes (21.3% [95% CI, 8.2%, 34.4%] from the overall trend). Rates varied by clinic and across patient subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of smoking status improved markedly after introduction of new federal standards. Further improvement in documentation is still needed, especially for males, nonwhite patients, those using opioids, and HIV + patients. More research is needed to study whether changes in documentation lead to improvements in counseling, cessation, and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Documentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 39.e21-39.e27, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in a contemporary population of U.S. non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated in a community-based setting and compare our findings to those from another U.S. health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,491 NMIBC patients with a median follow-up of 2.1 years (recurrence) and 4.1 years (progression). We calculated NCCN risk groupings and EORTC prognostic index for recurrence and progression. We followed Royston and Altman's guidelines for the external validation of prognostic calculators. RESULTS: For predicting recurrence using the EORTC framework, Harrell's C (a measure of discrimination) was smaller in our sample (0.66) than in the European Association of Urology sample (0.61), whereas for progression, Harrell's C was larger in our sample (0.78 vs. 0.75). The EORTC calculator overestimated progression risk in the highest stratum for our sample; calibration and discrimination were adequate for all groups except the highest risk group. For NCCN risk groupings, Harrell's C was 0.54 for recurrence and 0.62 for progression, suggesting poor to fair discrimination in our sample. The NCCN framework had slightly better performance for predicting progression vs. recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Existing NMIBC risk-stratification frameworks have acceptable accuracy to predict outcomes. However, further innovation in NMIBC care will require predictive tools with more granularity to reflect the differential risks of subgroups of NMIBC recurrence, prior treatment histories, and other prognostic variables.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 89: 105920, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is an accessible and cost-effective strategy to lower CRC incidence and mortality. However, this mode of screening depends on follow-up colonoscopy after a positive FIT result. Unfortunately, nearly one-half of FIT-positive patients fail to complete this essential screening component. Patient navigation may improve follow-up colonoscopy adherence. To deliver patient navigation cost-effectively, health centers could target navigation to patients who are unlikely to complete the procedure on their own. OBJECTIVES: The Predicting and Addressing Colonoscopy Non-adherence in Community Settings (PRECISE) clinical trial will validate a risk model of follow-up colonoscopy adherence and test whether patient navigation raises rates of colonoscopy adherence overall and among patients in each probability stratum (low, moderate, and high probability of adherence without intervention). METHODS: PRECISE is a collaboration with a large community health center whose patient population is 37% Latino. Eligible patients will be aged 50-75, have an abnormal FIT result in the past month, and be due for a follow-up colonoscopy. Patients will be randomized to patient navigation or usual care. Primary outcomes will be colonoscopy completion within one year of a positive FIT result, cost, and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes will include time to colonoscopy receipt, adequacy of bowel prep, and communication of results to primary care providers. Primary and secondary outcomes will be reported overall and by probability stratum. DISCUSSION: This innovative clinical trial will test the effectiveness and financial feasibility of using a precision health intervention to improve CRC screening completion in community health centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Clinical Trial (NCT) Identifier: NCT03925883.

12.
Qual Life Res ; 29(4): 879-889, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistectomia/economia , Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the training and early implementation of the ARIA model of genetic counseling (Accessible, Relational, Inclusive, Actionable). METHODS: As part of the Cancer Health Assessments Reaching Many (CHARM) study, an interdisciplinary workgroup developed the ARIA curriculum and trained genetic counselors to return exome sequencing results using the ARIA model. CURRICULUM: The ARIA curriculum includes didactic elements, discussion, readings, role plays, and observations of usual care genetic counseling sessions. The ARIA model provides the skills and strategies needed for genetic counseling to be accessible to all patients, regardless of prior knowledge or literacy level; involves appropriate psychological and social counseling without overwhelming the patient with information; and leaves the patient with clear and actionable next steps. CONCLUSION: With sufficient training and practice, the ARIA model appears to be feasible, with promise for ensuring that genetic counselors' communication is accessible, relational, inclusive and actionable for the diverse patients participating in genomic medicine. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: ARIA offers a coherent set of principles and strategies for effective communication with patients of all literacy levels and outlines specific techniques to practice and incorporate these skills into routine practice. The ARIA model could be integrated into genetic counseling training programs and practice, making genetic counseling more accessible and meaningful for all patients.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 489882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488511

RESUMO

Background: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD studies demonstrated that modest weight loss and increased physical activity can significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes among overweight individuals with prediabetes. However, these studies involved costly interventions, all of which are beyond the reach of most real-world settings serving high-risk, low-income populations. Our project, De Por Vida, implemented a diabetes risk-reduction intervention for Hispanic women in a Federally Qualified Health Center and assessed the program's efficacy. This report describes the methodology used to develop and implement De Por Vida, the cultural adaptations made, the community-academic partnership formed to carry out this program, and the barriers and challenges encountered through the implementation process. Methods: Our goal was to translate the DPP and Look AHEAD programs into an intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce diabetes complications among high-risk Hispanic women at a federally qualified health center in Hillsboro, Oregon, where more than half of clinic patients are Spanish-speaking, and nearly all live in poverty. This randomized clinical trial targeted overweight Spanish-speaking women at risk for, or diagnosed with, type 2 diabetes. We developed a 12-month behavioral diabetes risk-reduction intervention that was responsive to the cultural practices of the Hispanic population and that could be implemented in low-income clinical settings. Study planning and implementation involved close collaboration among the clinic leadership, a research team from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, and Arizona State University. Discussion: Creating a fully informed partnership between research and clinical institutions is the first step in successful cooperative research projects. The adoption of a bidirectional, rather than a top-down, approach to communication between researchers and health-care providers, and between clinic management and the clinic frontline staff, gave the research study team crucial information about barriers, constraints, and needs that clinic staff experienced in implementing the program. This allowed clinic management and front-line clinic staff to play an active role in study implementation, identifying problem areas, and collaborating in finding practical solutions. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03113916.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 306, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problem among youth, contribute to reduced quality of daily life, and are associated with high rates of comorbidity. However, treatment rates for anxiety are very low, causing a sizeable treatment gap. There is an immediate need to identify treatment interventions that are effective, affordable, and can be delivered easily to the youth population. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) is one potentially effective intervention that could reach youth on a large scale, especially when self-administered at home. Thus, we aim to assess the benefit of CBM to treat youth anxiety. Further, we aim to test whether adding an adherence promotion (AP) component to the CBM intervention can improve outcomes, and whether CBM delivered both with and without the AP component is cost effective. METHODS: This is a 12-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted within an existing healthcare system. Potentially eligible youth (ages 12 to 17) will be identified by reviewing the electronic health record (EHR) for clinical anxiety diagnoses, which are then confirmed via research interview. We aim to enroll 498 participants and randomize them 1:1:1 to one of three arms: Arm 1 is a Low-Ratio version of the CBM program (nearly identical to the other CBM versions, but minimally effective); Arm 2 is a High-Ratio "active" CBM program; and Arm 3 is the High-Ratio CBM program with an added AP component. Participants will complete assessments at baseline, 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Youth in all three arms will self-administer the CBM program at home and will be asked to complete twelve intervention sessions over a four-week period. Arm 3 participants (High-Ratio CBM + AP) will also receive up to four telephone calls from phone coaches during the intervention period to provide technical assistance, encouragement, and motivational enhancement to increase adherence. The primary clinical outcome will be anxiety remission at 6-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: This study protocol describes the method and design for an RCT to test whether self-administered CBM both with and without adherence promotion can be an effective at-home treatment for anxious youth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02156531, First Posted June 5, 2014.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Motivação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the approximately 53,000 patients newly diagnosed with early-stage (superficial) bladder cancer each year, there is substantial variability in the progression to muscle-invasive disease. Enhancing risk stratification and risk-stratified surveillance could minimize risks and harms to patients, as well as unnecessary costs to health systems. OBJECTIVES: As a preliminary step in developing and validating a risk assessment tool for superficial bladder cancer in a population-based clinical cohort, we interviewed urologists who might use such a tool to assess need, determine potential use cases, and identify key features to include. METHODS: Using an opportunistic and purposeful sampling design, we invited 13 urologists from a variety of practice settings and with a wide range of clinical experience to take part in qualitative interviews; 9 (5 urologic oncologists and 4 general urologists) participated. RESULTS: All urologists reported using some form of risk stratification to determine surveillance schedules for patients with bladder cancer. The following use cases were endorsed by 4 or more interviewees: 1) provide evidence to guide clinical management in specific situations, 2) generate patient-facing communication aids, 3) improve documentation about recurrence/progression risk, and 4) create scheduling and callback supports to improve the quality of follow-up care. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated several potential clinical-use cases for a risk calculator and clinical decision-support tool for patients with superficial bladder cancer. Clinicians stressed the potential utility of such a tool to improve patient communication, scheduling, and tracking in general urology practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medição de Risco/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urologistas
18.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 32(3): 318-328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving uptake of colorectal cancer screening has the potential of saving thousands of lives. We compared the effectiveness of automated and live prompts and reminders as part of a mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach program. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1767 adults aged 50 to 75 eyars who were not up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening recommendations at a participating community health center clinic. In addition to a mailed FIT kit, participants were randomized to receive (1) a text message prompt and 2 automated phone call reminders (automated condition); (2) up to 3 live call reminders (live condition); or (3) a text message prompt, 2 automated call reminders, and up to 3 live reminders (combined automated plus live condition). We assessed FIT completion rates in each group 6 months following randomization. KEY RESULTS: Nearly one-third of participants completed an FIT within 6 months. Compared with adults allocated to the automated condition, FIT completion rates were higher in adults allocated to the live condition (32.3% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 6.3 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and in adults allocated to the combined automated plus live condition (35.7% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 9.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.4-14.9). The number of kits needed to mail to achieve a completed FIT ranged from 2.8 in the combined automated plus live condition to 3.8 in the automated condition. CONCLUSIONS: Among unscreened individuals in this population, live phone call reminders either alone or in combination with automated prompts and reminders outperformed automated approaches alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Sistemas de Alerta , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Serviços Postais , Telefone , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
19.
J Urol ; 202(1): 83-89, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient centered care aims to align treatment with patient goals, especially when treatment options have equivalent clinical outcomes. For surgeries with lasting impacts that alignment is critical. To our knowledge no psychometrically tested preference elicitation measures exist to support patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy, who can often choose between ileal conduit and neobladder diversions. In this study we created a scale to measure how patient goals align with each type of urinary diversion and the associated surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed formative research through focus groups and clinician outreach to adapt a goal dissonance measure. We mailed a survey to adult Kaiser Permanente® members who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 2013 and June 2015. Eligible patients were identified through electronic health records and chart review. Surveys were mailed 5 to 7 months postoperatively. We administered our 10-item decision dissonance scale along with other decision making measures. We explored goal alignment as well as dissonance. Psychometric analysis included factor analysis, evaluation of scale scores between surgery groups and evaluation with other decision making scores. RESULTS: We identified 10 goals associated with ileal conduit or neobladder diversion. Using survey data on 215 patients our scale differentiated patient goals associated with each diversion choice. On average patients with a neobladder strongly valued neobladder aligned goals such as maintaining body integrity and volitional voiding through the urethra. Patients with an ileal conduit had neutral values on average across all goals. CONCLUSIONS: Our measure lays the foundation for a simple value elicitation approach which could facilitate shared decision making about urinary diversion choice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Idoso , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Derivação Urinária/métodos
20.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 6(4): 799-805, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. A clinical diagnosis of hyperglycemia is often necessary to access interventions. We examined the prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a group of low-income overweight or obese Hispanic women, who were receiving care at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). METHODS: Among 196 overweight or obese Hispanic women (mean age 44 ± 10 years, mean weight 86.8 ± 16.5 kg, mean body mass index [BMI] 36.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2) enrolled in a randomized clinical weight-loss trial, we compared A1C and fasting blood glucose (FBG) obtained at baseline with women's existing diabetes and prediabetes diagnoses in the medical record. RESULTS: According to the information in participants' medical records, 36% (70/196) had diagnosed diabetes, 20% (39/196) had a diagnosis of prediabetes, and the remaining 44% (87/196) had neither diagnosis. Among participants without a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes during the baseline screening for our study, 63% (55/87) had at least one test in the prediabetes range (baseline A1C and FBG were in prediabetes range for 39 and 55 participants, respectively), and 13% (11/87) had at least one test in the diabetic range (baseline A1C and FBG values in diabetes range for 3 and 11 participants, respectively). DISCUSSION: We found substantial prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a sample of overweight and obese Hispanic women. It is possible that limited awareness of diabetes risk may be a barrier to patient compliance with screening recommendations.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Hiperglicemia/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Adulto , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/terapia , Oregon , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Programas de Redução de Peso
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