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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
J Neurodev Disord ; 13(1): 20, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with developmental language disorders (DLD) have well-documented weaknesses in vocabulary. In recent years, investigators have explored the nature of these weaknesses through the use of novel word learning paradigms. These studies have begun to uncover specific areas of difficulty and have provided hints about possible intervention strategies that might help these children learn words more accurately and efficiently. Among the studies of this type are those that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval activities in the learning procedures. METHODS: In this study, we examined the data from four of these studies that employed the same types of participants (4- and 5-year-old children with DLD and same-age children with typical language development), research design, and outcome measures. The studies differed primarily in the type of learning condition that was being compared to a spaced retrieval condition. A mixed-effects modeling framework was used, enabling the data from the four studies and different outcome measures to be aggregated. RESULTS: Across the studies, more words in the repeated spaced retrieval condition were recalled than those in the comparison conditions. This was true regardless of outcome measure. Children with typical language development recalled more words than the children with DLD. Both groups benefited from spaced retrieval, though effects were larger for the group with DLD. Children recalled words as accurately 1 week after learning as they did at the 5-min mark; the two groups were essentially identical in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings support the continued refinement of these types of repeated spaced retrieval procedures, as they may have potential to serve as effective approaches to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Vocabulário
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8136, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854086

RESUMO

Due to wide variability of typical language development, it has been historically difficult to distinguish typical and delayed trajectories of early language growth. Improving our understanding of factors that signal language disorder and delay has the potential to improve the lives of the millions with developmental language disorder (DLD). We develop predictive models of low language (LL) outcomes by analyzing parental report measures of early language skill using machine learning and network science approaches. We harmonized two longitudinal datasets including demographic and standardized measures of early language skills (the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories; MBCDI) as well as a later measure of LL. MBCDI data was used to calculate several graph-theoretic measures of lexico-semantic structure in toddlers' expressive vocabularies. We use machine-learning techniques to construct predictive models with these datasets to identify toddlers who will have later LL outcomes at preschool and school-age. This approach yielded robust and reliable predictions of later LL outcome with classification accuracies in single datasets exceeding 90%. Generalization performance between different datasets was modest due to differences in outcome ages and diagnostic measures. Grammatical and lexico-semantic measures ranked highly in predictive classification, highlighting promising avenues for early screening and delineating the roots of language disorders.

4.
Cogn Sci ; 45(3): e12945, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682196

RESUMO

Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have significant deficits in language ability that cannot be attributed to neurological damage, hearing impairment, or intellectual disability. The symptoms displayed by children with DLD differ across languages. In English, DLD is often marked by severe difficulties acquiring verb inflection. Such difficulties are less apparent in languages with rich verb morphology like Spanish and Italian. Here we show how these differential profiles can be understood in terms of an interaction between properties of the input language, and the child's ability to learn predictive relations between linguistic elements that are separated within a sentence. We apply a simple associative learning model to sequential English and Spanish stimuli and show how the model's ability to associate cues occurring earlier in time with later outcomes affects the acquisition of verb inflection in English more than in Spanish. We relate this to the high frequency of the English bare form (which acts as a default) and the English process of question formation, which means that (unlike in Spanish) bare forms frequently occur in third-person singular contexts. Finally, we hypothesize that the pro-drop nature of Spanish makes it easier to associate person and number cues with the verb inflection than in English. Since the factors that conspire to make English verb inflection particularly challenging for learners with weak sequential learning abilities are much reduced or absent in Spanish, this provides an explanation for why learning Spanish verb inflection is relatively unaffected in children with DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 542-560, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561369

RESUMO

Purpose Recent findings in preschool children indicated novel adjective recall was enhanced when learned using repeated retrieval with contextual reinstatement (RRCR) compared to repeated study (RS). Recall was similar for learned pictures used during training and new (generalized) pictures with the same adjective features. The current study compared the effects of learning method and learned/generalized pictures on the neural processes mediating the recognition of novel adjectives. Method Twenty typically developing children aged 4;6-5;11 (years;months) learned four novel adjectives, two using RRCR and two using RS. Five-minute and 1-week tests assessed adjective recall using learned and generalized pictures. Also, at the 1-week visit, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess children's processing of learned/generalized pictures, followed by naturally spoken novel adjectives in a match-mismatch paradigm. Results Naming recall and match-mismatch judgment accuracy were similar for the RS and RRCR conditions and across learned/generalized pictures. However, ERPs revealed more reliable condition effects in the phonological mapping negativity, indexing phonological expectations, and the late positive component, indexing semantic reanalysis, for the adjectives learned in the RRCR relative to the RS condition. Unfamiliar pictures (generalized) elicited larger amplitude N300 and N400 components relative to learned pictures. Conclusions Although behavioral accuracy measures suggest similar effects of the RS and RRCR learning conditions, subtle differences in the ERPs underlying novel adjective processing indicate advantages of RRCR for phonological processing and semantic reanalysis. While children readily generalized the novel adjectives, ERPs revealed greater cognitive resources for processing unfamiliar compared to learned pictures of the novel adjective characteristics. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13683214.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(10): 3252-3262, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064601

RESUMO

Purpose In this article, we review the role of retrieval practice on the word learning and retention of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method Following a brief review of earlier findings on word learning in children with SLI and the assumptions behind retrieval practice, four experiments are described that compared novel words learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition and those learned in either a repeated study condition or a repeated immediate retrieval condition. Preschool-age children with SLI and their same-age peers with typical language development were the participants in all experiments. The effects of repeated spaced retrieval were assessed through measures of recall of word form and meaning and, receptively, through both picture-pointing and electrophysiological measures. Results Repeated spaced retrieval resulted in greater recall of word form and meaning across the experiments. This advantage was seen not only for word-picture pairs used during the learning period but also when generalization of the word to new pictures was required. Receptive testing through picture pointing showed similar results, though in some experiments, ceiling effects rendered this measure less sensitive to differences. An alternative receptive measure-the N400 elicited during picture-word mismatches-showed evidence at the neural level favoring repeated spaced retrieval. The advantages of repeated spaced retrieval were seen in both children with SLI and their typically developing age mates. Conclusion Future efforts are warranted to refine and extend the experiments reviewed here. If these efforts prove successful, procedures that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval into more naturalistic clinical and educational activities might be an appropriate next step. Presentation Video https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13063730.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(8): 2763-2776, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692599

RESUMO

Purpose Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) often have difficulty with word learning. Recent studies have shown that incorporating retrieval practice provides a significant benefit to this learning. However, we have not yet discovered the best balance between the amount of retrieval and the amount of study (hearing the word in the presence of the referent) that is provided. In this investigation, we compared a word learning procedure using more retrieval and less study with a procedure that used more study and less retrieval. Method Participants were 13 children with DLD and 13 same-age peers with typical language development (TD). Both groups ranged in age from 4 to 6 years. The children learned two sets of novel words, with each set taught in two sessions. During an initial criterion period, the children had the opportunity to retrieve all of the words. Following this period, the words were either retrieved without further study or studied without additional retrieval. Recall and recognition testing immediately followed the second learning session and was repeated 1 week later. Testing assessed the children's retention of both the word forms and their meanings. Results Better recall both immediately after learning and after 1 week was seen for the more retrieval/less study condition. This was seen for both groups of children for word form recall and for children with DLD for meaning. Group differences were not found. Conclusion This study served as a stringent test of the benefits of retrieval to children's word learning. Continued retrieval after initial retrieval practice appeared to be helpful even when further study was discontinued and when the comparison study condition had also provided retrieval practice in the initial stages. Further refinement of retrieval procedures might lead to the development of useful clinical tools to promote word learning.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(4): 1165-1180, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209013

RESUMO

Purpose Studies have shown that children with typical development (TD) respond to frequency and predictability when repeating nonidiomatic multiword sequences (e.g., go wash your hands). We extended these findings by explicitly examining the interaction between frequency and predictability in a repetition task for children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and children with TD. Method We created 48 four-word phrases, manipulating two factors: the frequency of occurrence of the entire four-word phrase (e.g., look in the mirror vs. look in the basket) and the predictability of the fourth word in the phrase given the preceding three words (e.g., corn on the ___ vs. look in the ___). These phrases were presented in a repetition task to 17 children with DLD (M age = 58.89 months), 19 same-age children with TD (M age = 59.79 months), and 17 younger children with TD matched to the DLD group on nonword repetition and mean length of utterance (M age = 38.94 months). Children's repetitions were judged for the presence or absence of word and morphological errors. Only the first three words of the sequence were scored (e.g., look in the). Results We found a main effect of sequence frequency, with high-frequency sequences being repeated more accurately than low-frequency sequences, modulated by a significant interaction with predictability, where the effect of sequence frequency was larger for sequences with high-predictability contexts than for sequences with low-predictability contexts. We also found a significant effect of group, with children with DLD demonstrating poorer overall performance, particularly when compared to the same-age group with TD. Conclusions Frequency and predictability are strong predictors of language production in children with TD. These factors also have effects for children with DLD, raising important clinical questions about the design of facilitative contexts for the teaching of difficult linguistic forms.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
9.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 55(3): 387-400, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Turkish has a rich system of noun suffixes, and although its complex suffixation system may seem daunting, it can actually present a learning opportunity for children. Despite its unique features, Turkish has not been studied extensively, especially in the case of children with language deficits, such as developmental language disorder (DLD). Most of the extant studies are focused on bilingual children, and the results are somewhat mixed. AIMS: To focus on the noun morphology system of Turkish-speaking preschoolers with DLD and compare their use with that of two groups of typically developing (TD) children. Moreover, to investigate the nature of their noun suffix errors in detail. METHODS & PROCEDURES: We report data from a total of 80 monolingual children, 40 children with DLD (age range = 4;0-7;10), 20 TD age-matched children (4;0-7;3) and 20 younger mean length of utterance (MLU)-matched children (2;0-4;3). The data for this study came from language samples obtained from children in individual clinical assessment sessions. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The children with DLD made less use of noun suffixes than both the younger and the age-matched TD children. The use of the unmarked (nominative case) form in place of an overt suffix was the most likely error by all groups. Suffix-change alternations required beyond vowel harmony seemed to pose real problems for these children. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that even when a language appears to provide significant advantages for the learning of noun morphology, children with DLD do not succeed in closing the gap. Certain factors such as morphophonological changes beyond vowel harmony, multiple allomorphs for the same suffix type and accusative suffixes that are not uniformly applied in the adult input were found to be significant predictors of the DLD group's difficulty with noun suffixes. Because these same factors can serve as characteristics of other languages, a child's difficulties might seem to be language specific (e.g., a particular allomorph in the language), but may actually be based on a broader difficulty (e.g., dealing with multiple allomorphs for the same suffix). Accordingly, factors that transcend a single language should be considered during clinical assessment and therapy. What this paper adds? What is already known on this subject? The current literature on the use of noun suffixes by Turkish-speaking children with DLD is very limited. Although Turkish is often described as a learner-friendly language, the degree to which children with DLD enjoy these learning benefits is unknown. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? Turkish children with DLD are less accurate in noun suffixes than both age-matched and younger control groups. For this group, the central problem seems to be increased complexity in morphophonology rather than difficulty with suffixation more generally. What are some of the clinical applications of this study? For clinicians who work with Turkish-speaking children with DLD, priority should be given to morphophonology. These children would benefit from treatment that focuses on how to attach different allomorphs to different open-class words. Because factors such as morphophonological complexity operate in other languages, the findings have broader clinical implications. In particular, regardless of the target language, clinicians should consider the possibility that these broader factors, rather than language-specific details, are the basis for a child's difficulty.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Semântica , Fala , Turquia
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4433-4449, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805241

RESUMO

Purpose There are strong retention benefits when learners frequently test themselves during the learning period. This practice of repeated retrieval has recently been applied successfully to children's word learning. In this study, we apply a repeated retrieval procedure to the learning of novel adjectives by preschool-age children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and their typically developing (TD) peers. We ask whether the benefits of retrieval extend to children's ability to apply the novel adjectives to newly introduced objects sharing the same characteristics as the objects used during the learning period. Method Fourteen children with DLD (M age = 62.64 months) and 13 TD children (M = 62.54 months) learned novel adjectives in 2 sessions. For each child, half of the adjectives were learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition, and half were learned in a repeated study-only condition. Recall was assessed immediately after the second learning session and 1 week later. A recognition test was also administered at the 1-week mark. Results On the recall tests, for both groups of children, recall was better for adjectives learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition. Adjectives learned by the 2nd day were retained 1 week later. Every adjective correctly applied to an object used during the learning period was also extended accurately to new objects with the same characteristics. On these recall tests, the children with DLD did not differ from the TD group in the number of items recalled, though their phonetic accuracy was lower. On the recognition test, the DLD group showed greater accuracy for adjectives that had been learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition than for those learned in the repeated study condition, whereas the TD group performed at high levels in both conditions. Conclusion Repeated spaced retrieval appears to provide an effective boost to word learning. Because its benefits are seen even when a word must be extended to new objects, the application of this procedure seems well suited for learning new language material rather than being limited to item-specific memorization.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fonética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 932-943, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986142

RESUMO

Purpose Scholars have long noted that retention improves significantly when learners frequently test themselves on the new material rather than engage in continuous study with no intermittent testing. In this study, we apply the notion of repeated testing or retrieval to the process of word learning in preschool-age children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD). Method Novel words and their meanings were taught to 10 children with DLD and 10 typically developing (TD) children matched on age (DLD, M = 63.4 months; TD, M = 63.2 months). Recall was assessed immediately after the 2nd learning session and then again 1 week later. Results Both groups showed better retention when they had attempted to retrieve the words during the learning period than when they had simply listened to and studied the words paired with their referents. Relative to their TD peers, the children with DLD seemed to be weaker in their encoding, but these children's retention over a 1-week period was indistinguishable from that of their age mates. Conclusion Word learning activities that include opportunities for repeated retrieval appear to significantly benefit retention relative to more traditional word learning activities. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927046.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
12.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 944-964, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986145

RESUMO

Purpose Retrieval practice has been found to be a powerful strategy to enhance long-term retention of new information; however, the utility of retrieval practice when teaching young children new words is largely unknown, and even less is known for young children with language impairments. The current study examined the effect of 2 different retrieval schedules on word learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Method Participants included 16 typically developing children ( M TD = 61.58 months) and 16 children with developmental language disorder ( M DLD = 59.60 months). Children participated in novel word learning sessions in which the spacing of retrieval practice was manipulated: Some words were retrieved only after other words had been presented (i.e., repeated retrieval that required contextual reinstatement [RRCR]); others were taught using an immediate retrieval schedule. In Experiment 1, children's recall of the novel word labels and their meanings was tested after a 5-min delay and a 1-week delay. In Experiment 2, event-related brain potentials were obtained from a match-mismatch task utilizing the novel word stimuli. Results Experiment 1 findings revealed that children were able to label referents and to retain the novel words more successfully if the words were taught in the RRCR learning condition. Experiment 2 findings revealed that mismatching picture-word pairings elicited a robust N400 event-related brain potential only for words that were taught in the RRCR condition. In addition, children were more accurate in identifying picture-word matches and mismatches for words taught in the RRCR condition, relative to the immediate retrieval condition. Conclusions Retrieval practice that requires contextual reinstatement through spacing results in enhanced word learning and long-term retention of words. Both typically developing children and children with developmental language disorder benefit from this type of retrieval procedure. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927112.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(3): 347-361, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During grammatical treatment of children with developmental language disorder (DLD), it is natural for therapists to focus on the grammatical details of the target language that give the children special difficulty. However, along with the language-specific features of the target (e.g., for English, add -s to verbs in present tense, third-person singular contexts), there are overarching factors that operate to render the children's learning task more, or less, challenging, depending on the particular target. AIMS: To identify five such factors that can play a role in the grammatical learning of children with DLD. We use English as our example language and provide supporting evidence from a variety of other languages. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: We show that the relative degree of English-speaking children's difficulty with particular grammatical details can be affected by the extent to which these details involve: (1) bare stems; (2) opportunities for grammatical case confusion; (3) prosodic challenges; (4) grammatical and lexical aspect; and (5) deviations from canonical word order. CONCLUSIONS: During treatment, therapists will want to consider not only the English-specific features of grammatical targets but also how these more general factors can be taken into account to increase the children's success.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Linguística
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(12): 3064-3074, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453333

RESUMO

Purpose: This study tested children's sensitivity to tense/agreement information in fronted auxiliaries during online comprehension of questions (e.g., Are the nice little dogs running?). Data from children with developmental language disorder (DLD) were compared to previously published data from typically developing (TD) children matched according to sentence comprehension test scores. Method: Fifteen 5-year-old children with DLD and fifteen 3-year-old TD children participated in a looking-while-listening task. Children viewed pairs of pictures, 1 with a single agent and 1 with multiple agents, accompanied by a sentence with a fronted auxiliary (is + single agent or are + two agents) or a control sentence. Proportion looking to the target was measured. Results: Children with DLD did not show anticipatory looking based on the number information contained in the auxiliary (is or are) as the younger TD children had. Both groups showed significant increases in looking to the target upon hearing the subject noun (e.g., dogs). Conclusions: Despite the groups' similar sentence comprehension abilities and ability to accurately respond to the information provided by the subject noun, children with DLD did not show sensitivity to number information on the fronted auxiliary. This insensitivity is considered in light of these children's weaker command of tense/agreement forms in their speech. Specifically, we consider the possibility that failure to grasp the relation between the subject-verb sequence (e.g., dogs running) and preceding information (e.g., are) in questions in the input contributes to the protracted inconsistency in producing auxiliary forms in obligatory contexts by children with DLD. Supplemental Material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7283459.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(12): 2996-3009, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398613

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was specifically designed to examine how verb variability and verb overlap in a morphosyntactic priming task affect typically developing children's use and generalization of auxiliary IS. Method: Forty typically developing 2- to 3-year-old native English-speaking children with inconsistent auxiliary IS production were primed with 24 present progressive auxiliary IS sentences. Half of the children heard auxiliary IS primes with 24 unique verbs (high variability). The other half heard auxiliary IS primes with only 6 verbs, repeated 4 times each (low variability). In addition, half of the children heard prime-target pairs with overlapping verbs (lexical boost), whereas the other half heard prime-target pairs with nonoverlapping verbs (no lexical boost). To assess use and generalization of the targeted structure to untrained verbs, all children described probe items at baseline and 5 min and 24 hr after the priming task. Results: Children in the high variability group demonstrated strong priming effects during the task and increased auxiliary IS production compared with baseline performance 5 min and 24 hr after the priming task, suggesting learning and generalization of the primed structure. Children in the low variability group showed no significant increases in auxiliary IS production and fell significantly below the high variability group in the 24-hr posttest. Verb overlap did not boost priming effects during the priming task or in posttest probes. Conclusions: Typically developing children do indeed make use of lexical variability in their linguistic input to help them extract and generalize abstract grammatical rules. They can do this quite quickly, with relatively stable, robust learning occurring after a single optimally variable input session. With reduced variability, learning does not occur.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Aprendizagem , Linguística , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(6): 1460-1461, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800056

RESUMO

Purpose: In this reply, we respond to comments on our article "Tracking the Growth of Tense and Agreement in Children With Specific Language Impairment: Differences Between Measures of Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity." Conclusion: The finite verb morphology composite can be disproportionately affected by frequently occurring grammatical forms produced through direct activation. This assumption was one of the reasons we wished to compare this measure to the tense marker total and the tense/agreement productivity score. The latter two measures provide valuable developmental information that is not available from the finite morphology composite. Yet, the finite verb morphology composite shows good diagnostic accuracy and an interpretable pattern of growth and is relatively stable across different sample sizes.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem
17.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 32(3): 232-248, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727489

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine factors promoting the use of third person singular -s by 23 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 21 children with typical development (TD). Relative proportions of third person singular -s forms in the input (input proportion) were calculated for 25 verbs based on data from an American English corpus of child-directed speech. Neighbourhood density values were also collected for these verbs. With previously collected probes of third person singular -s use for each of these verbs, we found with logistic regression that input proportion was positively associated with the likelihood of third person singular -s use for both groups. For neighbourhood density, we found that children with SLI were more likely to inflect sparse verbs than dense verbs; density was not significantly related to inflection use for TD children. We argue that as a result of their verbs' poorly encoded phonological representations, children with SLI were less able to inflect dense verbs than sparse verbs. We recommend that clinicians be aware of the effects of input proportion and neighbourhood density to ensure that assessments are representative and that treatment success is optimal.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Masculino , Semântica
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(12): 3590-3600, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188270

RESUMO

Purpose: Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. Method: We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study. These measures were the Finite Verb Morphology Composite (a measure of accuracy), the Tense Marker Total (a measure of diversity), and the Productivity Score (a measure of productivity). Results: The 3 measures differed in their growth trajectories. Sample size did not alter the linear or quadratic nature of growth of any composite, although it did affect the absolute values found for the Tense Marker Total and Productivity Score. Conclusion: Even when sample size is controlled, early growth can be seen in tense and agreement accuracy with relatively limited diversity and productivity, whereas later growth in diversity and productivity can occur with very little change in accuracy.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Masculino , Fala
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 26(3): 1030-1041, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586829

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present 3 approaches that emphasize the role that input plays in the treatment of grammatical deficits in children with language impairments. Method: These approaches-input informativeness, competing sources of input, and high variability-were selected because they go beyond issues of token frequency and emphasize instead type frequency, relative frequency, and frequency at an abstract as well as a concrete level of grammar. Each of these approaches can be applied to the grammatical deficits seen in children with specific language impairment and can be readily used with well-established procedures, such as focused stimulation and recasting. Results: Each approach is supported by a body of laboratory research with children with typical language skills, and the feasibility of each has been tested in studies with a treatment design. Furthermore, the assumptions of the 3 approaches are largely compatible, permitting application of combinations of these approaches without violating any of their principles. Conclusion: The positive findings from each of these approaches should serve as a basis for further clinical research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem/reabilitação , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário
20.
J Neurodev Disord ; 9: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of work has examined language abilities in young children with specific language impairment (SLI); however, our understanding of the developmental trajectory of language impairment is limited. Along with studying the behavioral changes that occur across development, it is important to examine the neural indices of language processing for children with different language trajectories. The current study sought to examine behavioral and neural bases of language processing in adolescents showing three different trajectories: those with normal language development (NL), those exhibiting persistent SLI (SLI-Persistent), and those with a history of SLI who appear to have recovered (SLI-Recovered). METHODS: Through a sentence judgment task, we examined semantic and syntactic processing. Adolescents judged whether or not each sentence was semantically and syntactically correct. Stimuli consisted of naturally spoken sentences that were either correct, contained a semantic verb error, or contained a syntactic verb agreement error. Verb agreement errors consisted of omission and commission violations of the third-person singular -s. Behavioral button-press responses and electroencephalographic recordings were collected. Behavioral judgments and mean amplitude of the N400 and P600 components were examined. RESULTS: Adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group had lower sentence judgment accuracy overall, relative to the NL and SLI-Recovered groups. Accuracy in judging omission and commission syntactic errors were marginally different, with marginally lower accuracy for commission errors. All groups demonstrated an N400 component elicited by semantic violations. However, adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group demonstrated a less robust P600 component for syntactic violations. Furthermore, adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group exhibited a similar neural profile to the NL group for the semantic and syntactic omission violations. However, a unique profile with initial negativity was observed in the SLI-Recovered group in the commission violation condition. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with persistent language impairment continue to demonstrate delays in language processing at the behavioral and neural levels. Conversely, the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group appear to have made gains in language processing skills to overcome their initial impairments. However, our findings suggest that the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group may have compensatory processing strategies for some aspects of language, as evidenced by a unique event-related potential profile.

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